MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm (M.K. Gandhi)

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Textbook Exercises

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Vocabulary

Question 1.
Say the following words:
form – from
foam – firm
Answer:
Form _ form
From – from
Foam _ faum
Firm –  f3:m

Question 2.
Which word in the group is different from others? Give your reason.
(a) Urdu, Tamil, Persian, Gujarati, English, Rajasthani
(b) Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Listening, Speaking
(c) Teacher, pupil, textbook,, training, cuckoo
(d) Indian, African, American, German, Tolstoy
(e) money, Economics, capital, business, gardening
Answer:
(a) Rajasthani
(b) Arithmetic
(c) Cuckoo
(d) Tolstoy
(e) Gardening.

comprehension

A. Answer the following questions in about 25 words.

Question 1.
Why was it not possible for Gandhiji to engage Indian teachers?
Answer:
Qualified Indian teachers were less at that time. If they were available, none of them was ready to work on a small salary. Besides, they were not having enough money. Moreover the Tolstoy Farm was at a distance of 21 miles from Johannesburg.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
What was the objective of Gandhiji in setting up Tolstoy Farm? (M.P. Board 2009)
Answer:
Gandhiji did not believe in the existing system of education. The objective of Gandhiji in setting up Tolstoy Farm was to find out the true system of education through his personal experience and experiment. He desired to show that true education could be imparted without textbooks through the parents without the least help from outside.

Question 3.
What were the flaws that Gandhiji had to face in the beginning?
Answer:
Gandhiji had to face the following flaws in the beginning:

  1. The youngsters had not been with him since their childhood.
  2. They had been brought up in different conditions and environments.
  3. They did not belong to the same religion.
  4. There were problems of teachers and lack of funds.

Question 4.
What did Gandhiji give priority to at the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
At the Tolstoy Farm, Gandhiji gave priority to the culture of the heart. Gandhiji termed it as ‘building of character’. He also felt confident that moral training could be given to all alike irrespective of age and upbringing.

Question 5.
Why did Gandhiji regard character building as the proper foundation of education?
Answer:
Gandhiji regarded character building as the proper foundation of education. He firmly believed that the children could learn all other things themselves if a firm foundation was laid. Friends will also assist them.

Question 6.
How did the inmates of Tolstoy Farm get their physical training exercise?
Answer:
The Tolstoy Farm was a Community Farm. Some people worked in the kitchen. Those who were not engaged in the kitchen had to devote their time to gardening. In this way, they got their physical training exercise.

MP Board Solutions

Question 7.
What were the problems Gandhiji faced in imparting literary training at Tolstoy Farm? How did he manage to overcome these?
Answer:
Gandhiji faced many problems in imparting literary training at the Tolstoy Farm. He had neither the resources nor the literary equipment. He was short of time. Only three periods could be allotted to literary training. The pupils were aware of Gandhiji’s ignorance in languages. Gandhiji managed to overcome the problems by never disguising his ignorance from his pupils. Therefore, he earned their love and respect.

Question 8.
Name the languages and subjects taught at Tolstoy Farm.
Answer:
Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati, Urdu, English and Sanskrit were the languages taught at Tolstoy Farm. Elementary history, geography and arithmetic were the subjects that were also taught at Tolstoy Farm.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
What is the true textbook for a pupil?
Answer:
Gandhiji never felt the want of textbooks. He did not make much use of the available books. He did not find it necessary to load the pupils with books. He himself had read more by listening to teachers than by reading books. The teacher is the true textbook for a pupil.

Question 10.
‘Schools play a vital role in forming the character of a pupil.’ Examine this statement in the light of the method adopted by Gandhiji. (M.P. Board 2016)
Answer:
Being the Father (Head Teacher) of the Farm, Gandhiji lived with the pupils in the Farm. He checked their activities and supervised them at every moment. He acquainted them with the elements of their religions through their own scriptures. Like all schools, the Tolstoy Farm also developed their spirit to build their character.

B. Answer the following questions in about 50 words.

Question 1.
Describe some of the activities that the inmates at Tolstoy Farm took up for physical exercise.
Answer:
The youngsters had to do a lot of work at the Tolstoy Farm. They dug pits, felled timber and lifted loads. There were many fruit trees in the farm. They had to look after them. The inmates did enough gardening also. It was obligatory for all, young and old to give some time to gardening. Only those youngsters were spared who were engaged in the kitchen work. These activities gave them ample physical exercise. Normally through daily routine, they didn’t need other games or exercises.

Question 2.
Explain the vocational training introduced at Tolstoy Farm,
Answer:
It was Gandhiji’s intention to teach some useful manual vocation to all the youngsters. Therefore, Mr. Kallenbech was sent to Trappist monastery. He learnt shoe-making there. When he returned, Gandhiji learnt shoe-making from him. Then Gandhiji taught shoe-making to such youngsters as were ready to learn .it. Kallenbech and another inmate had some experience of carpentry. They had a small class in carpentry at Tolstoy Farm with their help. Almost all the youngsters knew cooking.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Describe briefly the innovative methods that Gandhiji introduced at Tolstoy Farm.
Answer:
Gandhiji introduced many innovative methods at Tolstoy Farm. He engaged the youngsters gainfully. The teachers had to stay all time with the pupils. They did everything that was required to be done by the pupils. They acted as role models for the pup<ls. He did not load the students with books. He intended to teach every one some useful manual vocation. He started teaching languages so that the pupils might develop communication skills. Moral and spiritual training were given a due place besides physical and vocational training.

Question 4.
Describe the problems faced by Gandhiji in Tolstoy Farm. How did he overcome them?
Answer:
Gandhiji was scarce of both the resources and the money. No one would be prepared to work on a small salary at a long distance. He did not have adequate literary equipment. He had shortage of time. As such he could allot only three periods to literary training. Gandhiji had scanty knowledge of languages. The pupils judged his ignorance. Besides, he could not do full justice to the students belonging to different religions. He had to learn shoe-making to teach it to his pupils. He had to stay with the pupils all the time and keep himself disciplined. He overcame all the problems by making self-sacrifice and personal involvement.

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Grammar

Nominalisation

A. (i) Study the following words in the sentences:
1. As the Farm grew, it was found necessary to make some provision for the education of it’s boys and girls.
2. I did not think it necessary to engage special teachers for them.
3. It was not possible, for qualified Indian teachers were scarce.
4. I did not believe in the existing system of education.
5. I fully appreciated the necessity of a literary training in addition.

(ii) We can nominalise the aforesaid verbs and adjectives as nouns and change the sentences in the following way:
1. After the growth of farm it was found necessary to make some provision for the education of its. boys and girls.
2. I did not think it necessary for engaging teachers who had got specialization for them.
3. It was not possible for Indian teachers having qualification.
4. I had no belief in the system of education which was in existence.
5. I have full appreciation for the necessity of a training in literalness in addition.

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(iii) Convert the following sentences as above changing verbs and adjectives with their respective noun forms without changing the meaning:
1. I decided to live amongst them all the twenty-four hours of the day as their father.
2. They did not generally need any other exercise or games.
3. Sometimes I connived at their pranks, but often I was strict with them.
4. I dare say they did not like the strictness, but I do not recollect their having resisted it.
5. It was my invention to teach every one of the youngsters some useful manual vocation.
6. I learnt it from him and taught the art to such as were ready to take it up.
7. I do not remember having read any book from cover to cover with my boys.
Answer:

  1. I made a decision to live amongst them all the twenty- four hours of the day as their father.
  2. Generally they had no need for any other exercise or games.
  3. Sometimes I showed connivance at their pranks but often I had strictness with them.
  4. I dare say they had dislike for the strictness but I have no recollection of their resistance to it.
  5. I intended teaching every one of the youngsters some useful manual vocation.
  6. I had its learning from him and started teaching the art to such as showed readiness in taking it up.
  7. I have no membrance of reading any book cover to cover with my boys.

B. (i) Study the following sentences:

  1. As the farm grew, it was found necessary to make some provision for the education of its boys and girls.
  2. None would be ready to go to a place 21 miles distant from Johannesburg on a small salary.
  3. I decided to live amongst them all the twenty-four hours of the day as their father. The underlined words are Determiners. They are words (or word-groups) that can occur in the positions occupied by words.

Example: We can place any one of them in utterances like:

The
A/An
My
Two
No
(old) ‘man (men)’ survived.
(young) ‘girl (girls)’ lived.

(ii) The most important determiners are:

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm 3

(iii) Find out Determiners in the following sentences:
1. All the young people had not been with me since their childhood.
2. I started some classes with the help of Mr. Kallenbech and Smt. Pragji Desai.
3. This they got in the course of their daily routine.
4. Of course some of them, and sometimes all of them, malingered and shirked.
5. Good air and water and regular hours of food were not a little responsible for this.
6. It was my intention to teach every one of the youngsters some useful manual vocation.
7. There was no other time suitable for the school.
Answer:
The words in italics are determiners in the following sentences:

  1. All the young people had not been with me since their childhood.
  2. I started some classes with the help of Mr. Kallenbech and Smt. Pragji Desai.
  3. This they got in the course of their daily routine.
  4. Of course some of them, and sometimes all of them, malingered and shirked.
  5. Good air and water and regular hours of food were not a little responsible for this.
  6. It was my intention to teach every one of the youngsters some useful manual vocation.
  7. There was no other time suitable for the school.

Speaking Skill

Enact the conversation given below with your friend:
Kishan—Oh, Hari, you have given me another present. It is very sweet of you, but I wish you wouldn’t give me so many presents.
Hari—Kishan, I have been thinking. I should not have asked you to help me. I wish now I hadn’t asked you.
Kishan—Now, you are talking nonsense, I wish you wouldn’t talk nonsense.
Hari—I am not an ignornat man. I wish I was an ignorant man.
Kishan—Why don’t you listen? If only you would listen.
Hari—Why couldn’t we have met before? I wish I had met you.
Practise the conversation at least five times.
Answer:
Kishan—Oh, Hari, I wish you wouldn’t give me so many presents.
Hari—Kishan, I shouldn’t have asked you for help.
Kishan—No, nonsense, please.
Hari—Oh! If I were an ignorant man.
Kishan—Please listen to me.
Hari—Oh, if we had met before.
For Practice

Writing Skill

Question 1.
Write in your own words Mahatma Gandhi’s view on education. (50 words)
Answer:
Gandhiji was staying in the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa. There were some boys and girls in that Farm. They were young and belonged to different religions. Gandhiji and his two colleagues decided to educate the children. Gandhiji regarded the formal education as defective. He had different views on education. By education he meant all round development.

He paid equal attention to character formation and body building. He did not attach importance to textbooks. It was his firm conviction that the teacher is the true textbook for the pupils. For him, education sought through listening was more effective than the education acquired through seeing (reading). Culture of the heart was the basic aim of Gandhiji’s education. He was in favour of vocational training.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
‘Mahatma Gandhi was a great social reformer’ Write your views. (150 words)
Answer:
Gandhiji held different religions in equal regard. He dominated the Indian scene from 1919 to 1948. His ideas influenced almost every aspect of national life. He gave courage, confidence and social unity to the people. He worked zealously, and sometimes he risked his life for the cause of the Harijans and communal harmony. He did intensive work for Harijan upliftment in 1930. He also launched an all India tour for Hqrijan work and set up Harijan Sevak Sangh to promote their welfare and upliftment. He wanted to apprise the upper caste Hindus to atone for their sins against the HarijAnswer:

He also advised Harijans to reform their social and personal life first. He made the people realise that even the poorest of the poor was the product of the Indian soil. He embraced every class in Indian society. He loosened the strong caste ties. He brought equality for women. He believed in Hindu Muslim unity. He made the village the core of Indian life. He made India conscious of social reforms. His idea of religious unity made new India to be a secular state.

Think It Over

Question 1.
If you think education is expensive, try ignorance. And the truth, you will come to know.
Think and express your opinion.
Answer:
Ignorance is a curse. An ignorant man remains unhappy even though he has opulent wealth. Even an ignorant man would like his son or daughter to be well educated. He would promptly get ready to spend a lot on his/her education. If you try ignorance you will feel that education is not expensive. Every penny spent on education yields its own fruit. Money spent on education is well utilised. It never goes waste. To hell with ignorance!

He worked by day
and toiled by night.
He gave up play
And some delight
Dry books he read,
New things to learn.
And forged ahead,
Success to earn.
He plodded on with
faith and pluck;
and when he won
Men called it luck.
Do you think so? Ponder.

[Hints: Hard work brings magical effects. It brings sure success. Luck is another name/word for hardwork. Hard work alone ensures luck]
Answer:
For self-attempt.

Things To Do

Question 1.
We learn so many things from our parents. Make a list of ten things that you learnt from your mother and your father.
Answer:
I learnt the following things from my mother and father.

  1. Getting up early in the morning.
  2. Going out for a walk daily.
  3. Taking a bath in cold water.
  4. Doing the home task regularly.
  5. Never to copy in the examination.
  6. Obedience to teachers and elderly people.
  7. Reading the scriptures everyday.
  8. Never to shirk the assigned work.
  9. Serving the grandparents and touching their feet every morning and evening.
  10. Never to tell a lie or bluff anybody.

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Additional Important Questions

A. Read the passages and answer the questions that follow:

1. But I had always given the first place to the culture of the heart
or the building of character, and as I felt confident that moral training could be given to all alike, no matter how different their ages and their upbringing, I decided to live amongst them all the twenty four hours of the day as their father. I regarded character building as the proper foundation for their education and, if the foundation firmly laid, I was sure that the children could learn all the other things themselves or with the assistance of friends. (Page 166)

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) What was Gandhiji’s view on the culture of the heart?
(b) What did Gandhiji think about moral training?
(c) What did Gandhiji decide to do?
(d) Find a word from the passage which means ‘trustful’.
Answers:
(a) Gandhiji gave the first place to the culture of the heart.
(b) Gandhiji thought that moral training could be given to all alike.
(c) Gandhiji decided to live amongst the boys and girls every time as their father.
(d) ‘Confident’.

2. I had undertaken to teach Tamil and Urdu. The little Tamil I knew as acquired during the voyages and in jail. I had not got beyond Pope’s excellent Tamil handbook. My knowledge of the Urdu script was all that I had acquired on a single voyage, and my knowledge of the language was confined to the familiar Persian and Arabic words that I had learnt from contact with Musalman friends. Of Sanskrit I knew no more than I had learnt at the high school, even my Gujarati was no better than that which one acquires at the school. (Page 167)

(a) What had he undertaken to teach?
(b) Did Gandhiji know perfect Tamil?
(c) How had Gandhiji learnt Persian and Arabic words?
(d) Find a word from the above passage used in the sense that means ‘a sea journey’.
Answers:
(a) He had undertaken to.teach Tamil and Urdu.
(b) No, Gandhiji knew only a little Tamil.
(c) Gandhiji had learnt Persian and Arabic words from his contact with Musalman friends.
(d) ‘Voyage’

I. Match the following:
1. Mahatma Gandhi was staying – (a) textbook for the pupil.
2. The young boys and girls – (b) body and character building.
3. Gandhiji’s two colleagues were – (c) belonged to different religions.
4. Attention was paid both to – (d) in the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa
5. Teacher was true – (e) Mr. Kallenbech and Smt Pragji Desai.
Answer:
1. (d), 2. (c), 3. (e), 4. (b), 5. (a).

MP Board Solutions

II. Pick up the correct choice.
(i) ‘Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm’ was written by:
(a) Mr. Kallenbech
(b) Smt. Pragji Desai
(c) Mr. Desai
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Answer:
(d) Mahatma Gandhi

(ii) (a). There were some ………………. (Musalman/Hindu) girls in the farm.
(b) The …………… (notion/conception) no doubt was not without its flaws
(c) Nor did I …………. (undermine/underrate) the building up of the body.
(d) I had a ……………. (measure/judgement) of their power of understanding.
Answer:
(a) Hindu
(b) conception
(c) underrate
(d) measure.

III. Write ’True’ or ‘False’:
1. The Tolstoy Farm was overflowing with money.
2. Gandhiji did not believe in the present system of education.
3. Gandhiji gave the first place to the culture of the heart.
4. There was scarcely any illness on the farm.
5. Whatever the youngsters learnt, they learnt unwillingly.
Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False.

IV. Fill up the following blanks:
1. It was found necessary to make ……………… for the education of boys and girls.
2. Gandhiji did not think it necessary to ……………. teachers from outside the Farm.
3. It was Gandhiji’s intention to teach everyone of the youngsters some useful ……………. vocation.
4. We gave three periods at- the most to ………………. training.
5. Gandhiji did not find it at all necessary to load the boys with …………….. of books.
Answer:

  1. provision
  2. import
  3. manual
  4. literary
  5. quantities.

B. Short Answer Type Questions (In about 25 words)

Question 1.
What do you know about the Tolstoy Farm? Who decided to educate the children of the Farm?
Answer:
Gandhiji established the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa. It was located at a distance of twenty one miles from Johannesburg. Gandhiji and his two coleagues Mr. Kallenbech and Smt. Pragji Desai decided to educate the children of the Farm.

Question 2.
What were Gandhiji’s views about oral learning?
Answer:
Gandhiji never felt the need of textbooks. He did not long to load the boys with a number of books. His firm belief was that the true text book for the pupil was his teacher. He taught the boys not through books but through the word of mouth. Listening gave them more pleasure than reading.

Question 3.
What was the speciality of the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
Gandhiji established a Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg in South Africa. It was about 21 miles from Johannesburg. It was like a family. Gandhiji occupied the place of the father at the Farm.

Question 4.
What was Gandhiji’s plan for the Tolstoy Farm? What were the hindrances to it?
Answer:
Gandhiji’s plan was to educate the children (boys and girls) of the Tolstoy Farm. The plan was fraught with many hindrances. The children had been brought up differently. Their social, cultural and religious backgrounds were also different.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
What did the children do at the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
The entire work of the Tolstoy Farm was done by the inmates. Gardening was made compulsory for all except those who worked in the kitchen. The children took utmost delight in doing most of the gardening work. They dug pits, felled trees and lifted loads.

Question 6.
How did the children build up fine physique at the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
The children did most of the gardening work. It made them tired because it was like physical exercise. There were good air, fresh water and regular food. There was hardly any disease in the Farm. Therefore, the children built up fine physique.

Question 7.
Why did the children learn everything cheerfully?
Answer:
The students at the Farm did the same thing that the teachers did there. The teachers not only co-operatedwith the pupils but also actually shared the work with them. Therefore, whatever the children learnt, theylearnt cheerfully.

Question 8.
Why were the school hours kept in the afternoon? What was its effect?
Answer:
Work on the farm and domestic duties consumed most of the morning hours. Therefore, the school hours had to be kept in the afternoon, after the mid day meal. As the effect of hard labour, everybody was exhausted and feeling sleepy at night.

Question 9.
How did Gandhiji pull on with the teaching of languages?
Answer:
Gandhiji undertook to teach Tamil and Urdu. He knew little of Tamil. He had picked up some Tamil during his voyage and in jail. His knowledge of Urdu was confined to some Urdu and Persian words. He had heard some words from his Muslim friends. Gandhiji’s love for languages, his confidence and devotion to the work compensated everything.

Question 10.
What was the role of Mr. Kallenbech in running the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
Mr. Kallenbech was Gandhiji’s colleague at the Tolstoy Farm. He was very helpful it\ imparting vocational training to boys at the Tolstoy Farm. He had some experience of gardening and carpentry. He had learnt shoe-making from a monastery. He taught shoe-making to Gandhiji and gardening to the boys.

C. Long Answer Type Questions (In about 50 words)

Question 1.
How was Gandhiji successful as the father of the family at the Tolstoy Farm?
Answer:
Gandhiji was the founder of the Tolstoy Farm. It was like a big family Naturally, he had to assume the role of the father of the family. He gave top-priority to the education of boys and girls. He laid stress on character building of the inmates of the Farm. He gave some useful vocational training to every youngster. Gardening, shoe-making and carpentry were taught at the farm. He made the pupils learn languages and their scripts. Though he was not skilled at languages yet he guided the pupils to learn the basics of these languages. He was fully successful as he involved the youngsters in useful engagements. He won their love and claimed fatherly respect.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
How did Gandhiji create interest in his teaching? (M.P. Board 2009)
Answer:
Gandhiji didn’t make much use of the books available at the Farm. He was not in favour of loading the children with bocks. His firm conviction was that the true textbook for the pupil was his teacher. They learnt more through their ears (listening) than through their eyes (reading). Gandhiji mostly taught through vernaculars. The students considered reading as a task and hated it. Listening to Gandhiji was a pleasure to them. .He never delivered dull lectures. He prompted the pupils to ask questions and created curiosity and interest in them

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Introduction

Mr. M.K. Gandhi was a true nationalist as well as a humanist. He dedicated his life for the mass. He had a natural instinct to sense people. Here he shares his experience of Tolstoy Farm in South Africa and says how he changed the life of students there.

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Summary in English

Mahatma Gandhi was staying in the Tolstoy Farm in South Africa. There were some young boys and girls in that farm. They belonged to different religions. It became necessary for Gandhiji to make provision for their education. It was neither possible nor necessary to engage special teachers for them. Indian teachers were not ready to go there on a meager salary. They were short of money. Gandhiji desired to find the true system of education. He occupied the place of a father in the farm. He himself took the responsibility of the training of the young boys and girls.

The young people were brought up in different conditions. Gandhiji gave the top place to the building of character. He felt that moral training should be given to all alike. He was also in favour of giving literary training without underrating the building up of the body. The inmates did all the work from cooking down to scavenging. Everybody had to give time to gardening. Mr. Kallen¬bech was also trained in gardening. It provided them enough exercise. Sometimes they shirked. Then Gandhiji got strict with them. Good air and water were in plenty there. Everybody built up fine physique. There was no illness in the farm.

Gandhiji intended to teach manual vocation to every youngster. Kallenbech and Gandhiji taught shoe making to those who were ready to learn it. Kallenbech also took a small class in carpentry. All the youngsters had learnt cooking. Indian children received training in three R’s. Teachers also did whatever the youngsters were required to do. Morning hours were devoted to work on the Farm and domestic duties. The school hours had to be kept in the afternoon. Three periods were given to literary training. Hindi, Tamil, Gujarati and Urdu were all taught through vernaculars. English and Sanskrit were also taught. Besides, elementary history, geography and arithmetic were also taught to all the children.

MP Board Solutions

Gandhiji had scanty knowledge of Tamil and Urdu. He had learnt Sanskrit and Gujarati at school levels. Still he had undertaken to teach languages to the youngsters and got success. He taught Tamil script and basic grammar to the Tamil boys. They served as interpreters to non-English Tamilians. The pupils were aware of Gandhiji’s ignorance of the language. Still they loved and respected him. He tried to create interest in Muslim boys for Urdu and improved their reading and handwriting.

The youngsters were mostly unlettered and unschooled. Gandhiji supervised their studies. He never felt the want for Textbooks. He himself was taught independent of books. The pupils also loved to be taught orally. They took pleasure in listening. They raised questions which confirmed their understanding.

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Summary in Hindi

महात्मा गांधी दक्षिणी अफ्रीका में टालस्टॉय फार्म में रहते थे। उस फॉर्म में कछ यवा लड़के और लडकियां थीं। वे विभिन्न धर्मों से सम्बधित थे। उनकी शिक्षा का प्रबन्ध करना गांधीजी के लिए अनिवार्य बन गया। उनके लिए विशिष्ट अध्यापक नियक्त करना न सम्भव था और न ही अनिवार्य। भारतीय अध्यापक, कम वेतन पर वहाँ जाने के लिए तैयार नहीं थे। उनके पास धनराशि का अभाव था। गांधीजी. शिक्षा की सच्ची प्रणाली को ढूंढ़ना चाहते थे। फॉर्म के भीतर उनका पिता का स्थान था। युवकों के प्रशिक्षण की उन्होंने स्वयं जिम्मेदारी ली।

युवा लोगों का लालन-पालन भिन्न-भिन्न दशाओं में हआ था। गांधी चरित्र-निर्माण को सर्वोपरि स्थान देते थे। वे महसूस करते थे कि सभी को समान रूप से नैतिक शिक्षा दी जानी चाहिए। शरीर की रचना का अवमूल्यन किए बिना शैक्षिक प्रशिक्षण देने के भी वे पक्ष में थे। फार्म में रहने वाले भोजन पकाने से लेकर गंदगी साफ करने तक का समूचा काम करते थे। बागवानी के लिए सभी को समय देना पड़ता था। मि. कालेनबेच भी बागवानी में प्रशिक्षित थे। इससे उनकी काफी कसरत हो जाती थी। कई बार वे काम से जी चुराते थे। तब गांधीजी उनके साथ सख्ती बरतते थे।

अच्छी हवा और पानी वहां काफी मात्रा में थे। सभी का स्वास्थ्य बढ़िया हो गया। फार्म के भीतर किसी प्रकार की कोई बीमारी नहीं थी। गांधीजी प्रत्येक युवा को कोई-न-कोई दस्तकारी सिखाना चाहते थे। कालेनबेच ने और गांधीजी ने उन्हें जते बनाना सिखाया जो सीखने के लिए तैयार थे। कालेनबेच ने छोटी कक्षा को बढ़ई का काम भी सिखाया। भोजन पकाना सभी नवयुवकों ने सीख लिया था। भारतीय बच्चों ने पढ़ने, लिखने तथा गणित का प्रशिक्षण लिया। अध्यापक भी वह सभी कुछ करते थे जो युवाओं से कराया जाता था। प्रातःकाल का समय फार्म पर काम करने और घरेल कायों में बिताया जाता था। स्कूल का समय दोपहर के बाद रखा जाता था। शैक्षिक प्रशिक्षण को तीन पीरियड दिए जाते थे।

हिन्दी, तमिल, गुजराती और उर्दू, सभी मातृभाषा के माध्यम से पढ़ाए जाते थे। अंग्रेजी और संस्कृत भी पढ़ाई जाती थीं। साथ-साथ, सभी बच्चों को प्रारम्भिक इतिहास, भूगोल और गणित भी पढ़ाए जाते थे। गांधीजी को तमिल और उर्दू का अल्प ज्ञान था। उन्होंने स्कूली स्तर पर संस्कत और गजराती पढ़ी थी।
फिर भी गांधी जी ने यवाओं को भाषाएं पढ़ाने की जिम्मेदारी ली और सफलता प्राप्त की। उन्होंने तमिल लड़कों को तमिल लिपि तथा मौलिक व्याकरण सिखाई। वे उन तमिलभाषियों का अनुवाद करते थे जिन्हें अंग्रेजी का ज्ञान नहीं था। छात्रों को भाषाओं से सम्बन्धित गांधी जी की अज्ञानता का बोध (ज्ञान) था।

फिर भी वे उनसे प्यार करते थे और उनका सम्मान करते थे। उन्होंने मुस्लिम लड़कों में रुचि पैदा करने का प्रयत्न किया और उन के पढ़ने और लेख को सुधारा। युवा, अधिकांश अशिक्षित थे और कभी स्कल नहीं गए थे। गांधी जी उन के अध्ययन का निरीक्षण करते थे। उन्होंने पाठ्य-पुस्तक की कभी भी आवश्यकता महसूस नहीं की। उन्होंने स्वयं भी पुस्तकों के आधार के बिना शिक्षा प्राप्त की थी। विद्यार्थी भी मौखिक रूप से पढ़ाया जाना पसन्द करते थे। वे सुनने में आनन्द लेते थे। वे प्रश्न करते थे जिससे यह पुष्टि हो जाती थी कि उनकी समझ में आ रहा है।

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Word-Meanings
MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm 1

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm 2

Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm Some Important Pronunciations

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Chapter 20 Teaching in the Tolstoy Farm 4

MP Board Class 10th English Solutions

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