MP Board Class 10th Special English Unseen Passages Discursive

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th English Solutions Unseen Passages Discursive Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Special English Unseen Passages Discursive

Passage-1

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Parents and teachers must learn to respect the children. No Japanese ever strikes a child. Yet Japanese children are models of reasonableness. The Japanese maintain a commendable attitude towards their children. They treat children as their equals and always address them as such. They never criticize them harshly. The use of rod is absolutely unknown in Japanese homes. Japanese code of life is very strict in certain respects. It exerts strict obedience and enforces strict respect. Japanese soldiers have earned a name for their high sense of duty and readiness from self-sacrifice. There come out of a traditional love for their country and its sovereign, rather than from fear of any penalties in childhood. (M.P. Board 2012)

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(i) How should parents and teachers treat children?
(ii) How do Japanese parents treat their children?
(iii) What type of attitude they keep with their children?
(iv) For what have Japanese soldiers earned a name?
(v) From what does their high sense of duty come?
(vi) What type of life Japanese lead?
(vii) What quality they gain from their childhood?
Answers:
(i) Parents and teachers should respect the children.
(ii) The Japanese never strike their children.
(iii) They maintain a commendable attitude towards their children.
(iv) Japanese soldiers have earned a name for their high sense of duty and readiness for self-sacrifice.
(v) It comes out of a traditional love for their country and its sovereign.
(vi) Japanese exert strict obedience and enforce strict respect to lead their life.
(vii) They gain the quality of commendable attitude from their childhood.

Passage-2

He was a Hindu and an Indian, the greatest in many generations, and he was proud of being a Hindu and an Indian. To him India was dear because she had represented throughout the ages certain immutable truths. But though he was intensely religious and came to be called the Father of the Nation, which he had liberated, yet no narrow religious or national bonds confined his spirit. And so he became the great internationalist believing in essential unity of man the underlying unity of all religions, and the needs of humanity, and more specially devoting himself to the service of poor, the distressed and the oppressed millions everywhere.

Questions:
(a) This passage is written about:
(i) Mahatma Gandhi
(ii) Pt. Nehru
(iii) Rajiv Gandhi

(b) The word in this passage similar in meaning to ‘that cannot be changed’:
(i) liberated
(ii) underlying
(iii) undevoting
(iv) immutable

(c) The meaning of ‘distressed’ is:
(i) happy
(ii) upset and anxious
(iii) relaxed

(d) What was he proud of?
(e) Why was India dear to him?
(f) What did the hero of the passage devote himself to?
Answers:
(a) (i) Mahatma Gandhi.
(b) (iv)immutable
(c) (ii) upset and anxious.
(d) He was proud of being a Hindu and an Indian.
(e) India was dear to him because she had represented certain immutable truths througout the ages.
(f) The hero of the passage devoted himself to the service of the poor, the distressed and the oppressed millions everywhere:

Passage-3

Our opportunities are great but let me warn you that when power outstrips ability, we will fall on evil days. We should develop competence and ability which would help us utilise the opportunities which are now open to us. From tomorrow morning — from midnight today — we cannot throw the blame on the Britisher. We have to assume the responsibility ourselves for what we do. A free India will be judged by the way in which it will serve the interests of the commonman in the matter of food, clothing, shelter and social activities. Unless we destroy corruption in high places and root out every trace of nepotism, love of power, profiteering and black marketing which have spoiled the good name of this country in recent times, we will not be able to raise the standards of efficiency in administration as well as in the production and distribution of the necessary goods of life. (153 ivords) Extract from a speech by Dr. S.Radhakrishnan (1947)

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) The speaker of these lines is
(i) Mahatma Gandhi
(ii) Pt. Nehru
(iii) Dr. S. Radhakrishanan

(b) The word in this passage similar in meaning to ‘takes away’ is:
(i) ability
(ii) outstrip
(iii) throw

(c) The meaning of ‘suppose’ is:
(i) trace
(ii) assume
(iii) raise

(d) What does the speaker warn of?
(e) What have we to assume?
(f) What can we do to raise the standards of efficiency in administration?
Answers:
(a) (iii) Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
(b) (ii) outstrip
(c) (ii) assume
(d) The speaker warns when power outstrips ability we will fall on evil days.
(e) We have to assume the responsibility ourselves.
(f) We can destroy corruption and root out nepotism love of power, profiteering and black marketing.

Passage-4

I was overwhelmed with gratuitous advice. Well-meaning yet ignorant friends thrust their opinions into unwilling ears. The majority of them said I could not do without meat in the cold climate. I would catch consumption. Mr. Z went to England and caught it on account of his foolhardiness. Others said I might do without flesh but without wine I could not move. I would be numbed with cold. One went so far as to advise me to take eight bottles of whisky, for I should want them after leaving Aden. Another wanted me to smoke, for his friend was obliged to smoke in England. Even medical men, those who had been to England, told the same tale. But as I wanted to come at any price, I replied that I would try my best to avoid all these things but if they were found to be absolutely necessary I did not know what I should do. I may here mention that my aversion to meat was not so strong then as it is now. I was even betrayed into taking meat about six or seven times at the period when I allowed my friends to think for me. But in the steamer my ideas began to change. I thought I should not take meat on any account. My mother before consenting to my departure extracted a promise from me not to take meat. So I was bound nof to take it, if only for the sake of the promise.

The fellow-passengers in the steamer began to advise us (the friend who was with me and myself) to try it.

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) The word in the passage similar in meaning to ‘overjoyed’ is
(i) ignorant
(ii) overwhelmed
(iii) foolhardiness

(b) The meaning of ‘gratuitous’ is
(i) faithful
(ii) trustworthy
(iii) full of obligation

(c) Give a word which means opposite to ‘arrival’.
(d) Where did the narrator had this experience?
(e) What did the friends of the narrator advise him?
(f) Why did the narrator not accept their idea?
Answers:
(a) (ii) overwhelmed.
(b) (iii) full of obligation.
(c) departure.
(d) The narrator had this experience in England.
(e) The friends advised the narrator to eat meat.
(f) The narrator’s mother had taken a promise from him that he would not eat meat. So he did not accept their (friends’) idea.

Passage-5

He was a very regular correspondent. There was hardly a letter calling for a considered reply which he did not answer himself. Letters from individuals, dealing with their personal and private problems, constituted a considerable portion of his correspondence and his replies are valuable as guidance to others with similar problems. For a great period of his life, he did not take the assistance of any stenographer or typist, and used to write whatever he required in his own hand, and even when such assistance became unavoidable, he continued writing a great deal in his own hand. There were occasions when he became physically unable to write with the fingers of his right hand and, at a later stage in his life, he learnt the art of writing with his left hand. He did the same thing with spinning. Private correspondence, which absorbed much of his writing in this way, constituted an important and significant part of his teachings, as applied to particular problems of the ordinary man in his everyday life. (From Dr. Rajendra Prasad’s Homage to Gandhiji)

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) has been talked about in this passage.
(i) Mahatma Gandhi
(ii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(iii) Gautam Buddha

(b) The word in the passage similar in meaning to ‘very remarkable’ is
(i) correspondence
(ii) significant
(iii) required

(c) The meaning of ‘teachings’ is
(I) reading
(ii) writing
(iii) learning/preaching

(d) What is valuable for others?
(e) What did Gandhiji did for a great period of his life?
(f) What constituted a significant part of his teachings?
Answers:
(a) (i) Mahatma Gandhi.
(b) (ii) significant
(c) (iii) learning/preaching
(d) The correspondence of Gandhiji is valuable for others.
(e) Gandhiji did not take the assistance of any stenographer for a great period. He used to write a great deal in his own hand.
(f) Gandhiji’s private correspondence constituted a significant part of his teachings.

Passage-6

1. There are several reasons for a headache. Physical, emotional and mental factors, anxiety and tension are a few. Sometimes, head-ache can be a signal of an underlying disease. More than medicines, yoga therapy eminently suits any need. Yoga is a comprehensive mode of culturing the body and the mind. Using an ‘Integrated Approach of Yoga’, the Yoga Research Centres have been able to cure some tough headaches. The integrated approach includes breathing, asanas, pranayama, meditation and devotional sessions.

2. Yoga asanas, especially the ones imitating the natural postures of animals, have a tremendous tranquilising effect, without having to depend on common drugs. Pranayama inhibits random agitations in Pranic (energy) flows in Pranamayakosa, stabilising the autonomic nervous system. Dhyana and Samadhi culture the mind to relax it. This approach alters the reaction of an individual to headache. By interrupting the vicious cycle of pain-agony-pain, it prevents headache from becoming a crippling problem.

3. Through asanas that calm you, the pranayama exercises that inhibit
random energy flows and the meditation that cultivates and relaxes your mind, yoga offers a holistic-form of pain relief. It stops you from becoming locked in the vicious circle of pain-anxiety-pain.

4. Chronic pain: Chronic pain essentially is imbalance in prana (energy). This imbalance initially manifests only as functional abnormality like insomnia, lack of enthusiasm, fatigue, increased irritability and lack of concentration. Over the years, the imbal-ance settles in an organ. Chronic pain may sometimes be just a long standing muscle spasm, which later on may give rise to organic changes in the form of chronic inflammation.

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) The word similar in meaning to ‘interfering in an affair’ is
(i) cycle
(ii) interrupting
(iii) becoming

(b) Give adjective form of ‘essentially’.
(c) Sometimes headache can be a signal of an underlying desease. (Say True or False)
(d) How does yoga help us?
(e) What does integrated yoga include?
(f) What is chronic pain?
Answers:
(a) (ii) interrupting
(b) essential
(c) True
(d) Integrated yoga cures some tough headaches.
(e) Integrated yoga includes breathing, asanas, pranayama, meditation and devotional sessions.
(f) Chronic pain essentially is imbalance in prana(energy).

Passage-7

1. India was once considered the land of knowledge and enlightenment. In ancient times scholars from all over Asia and Europe used to flock to Taxila, Nalanda and other Indian centres of learning. Apart from the arts, culture, philosophy and religion, these scholars came to study medicine, law and martial sciences. But despite having a vastly expanded university system and historical advantages, modern India has yet to provide international or even regional leadership in higher education. From the surrounding countries of Asia and Africa only a few students come to India for higher education.

2. The United States is by far the most successful country in attracting foreign students. But other countries such as Australia, Canada and Britain also aggressively market their universities abroad through their education counselling services and recruit- merit fairs with the active cooperation of their diplomatic missions abroad.

3. Likewise, India should also capitalise on the advantages offered by its higher education institutions, market Indian universities abroad and facilitate the entry of foreign students into them.

4. The revenue from foreign students can be used to ease the financial crunch faced by Indian universities, improve academic facilities and subsidise the cost of educating Indian students.

5. But apart from economic advantages many other benefits would accrue to the nation. India would gain global and regional in-fluence, goodwill and become a major provider of higher education. Many Asian and African countries, especially the smaller ones have poorly developed university systems and would look to Indian universities for the higher education of their youth. At the same time Indian students will not be deprived if 10 per cent supernumerary seats for foreign students are created in universities and professional colleges.

6. Already professional education in India has proved accessible and affordable for foreign students, especially from Malaysia, the Middle East and South Africa. In these countries higher education training facilities are limited. Many NRI (non-resident Indian) families abroad, especially those from English-speaking industrialised countries are also keen to send their children to study in their motherland and are hopeful to become attuned to their Indian roots in the process.

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) The word similar in meaning to ‘inner awareness’ is
(i) knowledge
(ii) enlightenment
(iii) virtue

(b) Give a word opposite in meaning to ‘advantage’.
(c) India has never been a land of knowledge and enlightenment. (Say True or False)
(d) Name some ancient centres of learning in India.
(e) Which country attracts most foreign students.
(f) How can the revenue from foreign students be used?
Answers:
(a) (ii) enlightenment
(b) disadvantage
(c) False
(d) Taxila, Nalanda
(e) The United States attracts most foreign students.
(f) The revenue from foreign students can be used to ease financial crunch faced by Indian universities and improve academic facilities.

Passage-8

1. Our house is filled with photos. They cover the walls of my kitchen, dining room and den. I see our family’s entire history, starting with my wedding, continuing through the births of both sons, buying a home, family gatherings and vacations. When my sons were little, they loved to pose. They waved, danced, climbed trees, batted balls, hung upside down from the jungle gym and did anything for a picture. But when they reached adolescence, picture-taking changed into something they barely tolerated. Their bodies were growing at haphazard speeds. Reluctantly they stood with us or with their grandparents at birthday celebrations and smiled weakly at the camera for as short a time as possible.

2. I am the chronicler of our photographs. I select those to be framed and arrange the others in albums. The process is addictive, and as the shelves that hold our albums become fuller and fuller, I wonder what will become of them. Will anyone look at these photographs in future years? If my sons look at them, what will they think of us and of themselves? One bright afternoon, I took some photographs of my father with my husband as they fished on a lake near our vacation house. As my sons and I sat on the shore and watched them row away, I picked the camera up and photographed the beautiful lake surrounded by green trees. The two men I loved gradually grew smaller until all I could see were my father’s red shirt, and the tan and blue caps on their heads.

3. My father died a week later, and suddenly those photos became priceless to me. I wept when I pasted them in our album. I wept again afterwards when I saw my younger son looking at them. It was a few days before he went away to college. He had taken all our albums down from the bookshelves in the den and spread them out on the carpet. It had been a very long time since I had seen him doing this. Once he stopped posing for pictures, he seemed to lose interest in looking at them. But now he was on the verge of leaving home. This was his special time to look ahead and look back. I stood for a moment in the hall by the den, and then tiptoed away. I didn’t take a photo of my son that afternoon, but I will remember how he looked for as long as I live. Some pictures, I learned, don’t have to be taken with a camera.

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) Give a word similar in meaning to ‘marriage’.
(b) Give a word oppositie in meaning to ‘adolescence’.
(c) I picked the camera up and photographed the beautiful horse. (Say True or False)
(d) Give noun form of ‘entire’.
(e) What does the narrator talk about here?
(f) What did the narrator learn at last?
Answers:
(a) wedding
(b) maturity
(c) False
(d) entirety
(e) The narrator talks about his habit of photography.
(f) At last the narrator learned that some pictures don’t have to be taken with a camera.

Passage-9

1. Why is it that there are very few women players in our orchestras? If one could reply flatly—sex discrimination: they don’t want women in orchestras—that would be a definite answer. But one can’t say that. As a matter of fact there are, if not many, a few women playing today in symphony orchestras. Nevertheless, it is true that male orchestral players are in an overwhelming majority. Why is that? I’m afraid, there is no one to answer. There are physical reasons why women don’t perform well on certain instruments. The average woman is not likely to possess sufficient lung power and sheer muscular strength to play the tuba just as an average woman’s hands are not likely to be large enough to finger a double bass satisfactorily. But what about the other instruments?

2. I think social and family pressures have been very strong in keeping women out of orchestras. Think of the prejudice that existed half a century ago against the so-called ‘nice’ girls going on stage. The stage was won out for the simple reason that it had to have women to play feminine roles in plays and operas, and was willing to offer a young woman more money than she could make in any other profession. Moreover, on stage, she was appearing as an individual, as a centre of attraction. This was gratifying to both her and her family. To this day, while the average parents are reconciled to seeing their daughter become an opera singer or concert artist, they don’t like the idea of seeing her submerging her personality to become the member of a chorus of the orchestra.

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(a) The word similar in meaning to ‘a group of musicians’ is
(i) orchestra
(ii) chorus
(iii) stage

(b) As a matter of fact there are absolutely no women playing today in symphony. (Say True or False)

(c) The meaning of ‘majority’ is
(i) very few in number,
(ii) dozen,
(iii) maximum in number

(d) What is the prime reason for a few number of women in orchestras? ‘
(e) What is the genetic deficiency in women for singing?
(f) What are the reasons according to the narrator that keep women away from orchestras?
Answers:
(a) (i) orchestra
(b) False.
(c) (iii) maximum in number.
(d) Sex discrimination.
(e) The average woman is not likely to possess sufficient lung power and sheer musculer strength to play certain instrument like tuba at double bass.
(f) The narrator thinks social and family pressures have been responsible for keeping women awav from orchestras.

MP Board Class 10th Hindi Vasanti Solutions Chapter 18 विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Hindi Book Solutions Chapter 18 विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता (संकलित) Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Hindi Vasanti Solutions Chapter 18 विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता (संकलित)

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता पाठ्य-पुस्तक के प्रश्नोत्तर

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता लघु-उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
महाकवि माघ को किस बात का अभिमान था?
उत्तर
महाकवि माघ को अपनी विद्वता का अभिमान था।

प्रश्न 2.
धन और जीवन को क्षणभंगुर क्यों कहा गया है?
उत्तर
धन और जीवन क्षण भंगुर हैं क्योंकि ये दोनों कब नष्ट हो जाएंगे, कहा नहीं जा सकता।

प्रश्न 3.
उद्योगपति ने अनेक कारखाने कैसे स्थापित किए थे?
उत्तर
उद्योगपति ने अनेक कारखाने कुछ तकनीकी और प्रगतिशील विचारों के कारण स्थापित किए।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
कर्ज लेने वाला व्यक्ति जीवन से हार क्यों जाता है?
उत्तर
कर्ज लेने वाला व्यक्ति जीवन से हार जाता है क्योंकि उसका अपना कुछ नहीं होता है।

प्रश्न 5.
भूमि-पूजन का आयोजन क्यों किया गया था?
उत्तर
भूमि-पूजन का आयोजन एक नए कारखाने के आरंभ के लिए किया गया था।

प्रश्न 6.
हम प्रकृति का मान किन-किन रूपों में कर सकते हैं?
उत्तर
हम प्रकृति का मान वृक्षारोपण और पर्यावरण संरक्षण के रूप में कर सकते हैं।

प्रश्न 7.
शास्त्रों ने किन दो को राजा माना है?
उत्तर
शास्त्रों ने यम और इन्द्र को राजा माना है।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता दीर्घ-उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
विद्वता की शोभा अहंकार नहीं विनम्रता है’ इस पंक्ति का आशय स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
विद्वता की शोभा अहंकार नहीं, विनम्रता है; क्योंकि अहंकार से विनम्रता कभी नहीं प्रकट होती है।

प्रश्न 2.
पृथ्वी और नारी को क्षमाशील क्यों कहा गया है?
उत्तर
पृथ्वी और नारी को क्षमाशील कहा गया है; क्योंकि इन दोनों को बोझ नहीं मालूम पड़ती है।

प्रश्न 3.
कवि माघ को वृद्धा के सामने लज्जित क्यों होना पड़ा?
उत्तर
कवि माघ को वृद्धा के सामने लज्जित होना पड़ा क्योंकि उसके तर्क के उत्तर उनके पास नहीं थे।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
प्रकृति को पूजनीय रूप में देखना क्यों जरूरी है?
उत्तर
प्रकृति को पूजनीय रूप में देखने से सम्मान मिलता है।

प्रश्न 4.
प्रकृति को किसका भार अधिक लगता है और क्यों?
उत्तर
प्रकृति को उसके नियमों के विपरीत चलने वालों का भार अधिक लगता है। क्योंकि उसे यह असह्य होता है।

प्रश्न 5.
‘प्रकृति परमात्मा का ही एक रूप है’, इस कवन को स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
‘प्रकृति परमात्मा का ही एक रूप है। इस कथन का आशय यह है कि परमात्मा की तरह प्रकृति भी परोपकारी है। वह स्वयं के लिए नहीं, अपितु दूसरों के सुख और आनंद के लिए ही अपना स्वरूप धारण किए हुए है।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता भाषा-अनुशीलन

प्रश्न 1.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के विलोम शब्द लिखिए
सज्जन, आरंभ, प्रसन्न, प्रश्न।
उत्तर
शब्द – विलोम शब्द
सज्जन – दुर्जन
आरंभ – अंत
प्रसन्न – अप्रसन्न
प्रश्न – उत्तर।

प्रश्न 2.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के पर्यायवाची शब्द लिखिए
सूर्य, मनुष्य, पुष्प, पहाड़, पृथ्वी, भू, इन्द्र।
उत्तर
सूर्य – रवि, दिनकर
मनुष्य – मानव, मनुज
पहाड़ – पर्वत, शैल
पृथ्वी – भू, धरती
भू – भूमि, जमीन
इन्द्र – सुरेश, देवराज।

प्रश्न 3.
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को शुद्ध कीजिए
(क) प्रकृति को मान दें तो वह आपको सम्मान देगा।
(ख) गाय और बैल घास चर रही हैं।
(ग) कृपया राह बताने की कृपा करें।
(घ) पृथ्वी जड़ नहीं चैतन्य होता है।
उत्तर
(क) प्रकृति को मान दें, तो वह आपको सम्मान देगी।
(ख) गाय और बैल घास चर रहे हैं।
(ग) राह बताने की कृपा करें।
(घ) पृथ्वी जड़ नहीं चैतन्य होती है।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता योग्यता-विस्तार

प्रश्न 1. उज्जयिनी के कुछ प्रसिद्ध धार्मिक स्थलों के नाम लिखिए।
प्रश्न 2. ‘पर्यावरण प्रदूषण और हमारा दायित्व’ विषय पर कक्षा में एक परिचर्चा का अयोजन कीजिए।
प्रश्न 3. पर्यावरण दिवस पर अपनी शाला में पौधे लगाइए और बारी-बारी से उसकी सुरक्षा की जिम्मेदारी लीजिए।
उत्तर
उपर्युक्त प्रश्नों को छात्रा/छात्र अपने अध्यापक/अध्यापिका की सहायता से हल करें।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता परीक्षोपयोगी अतिरिक्त प्रश्नोत्तर

अर्थग्रहण संबंधी प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
‘विद्वता की शोभा-विनम्रता’ प्रसंग का प्रतिपाय स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
‘विद्वता की शोभा-विनम्रता’ प्रसंग एक प्रेरक और भाववर्द्धक प्रसंग है। लेखक ने इस प्रसंग के द्वारा उज्जयिनी के महाकवि माघ के चरित्र और आचरण को चित्रित किया है। राजा भोज के साथ महाकवि माघ का राह चलते एक वृद्धा से वार्तालाप कवि की विद्वता को चुनौती देता है। वृद्धा कवि माघ के अभिमानयुक्त पांडित्य को अस्वीकृत करते हुए उन्हें विनम्र और शालीन बनने की सीख देती है। व्यक्ति की विनयशीलता, विनम्र और शालीन आचरण उसकी विशिष्ट पहचान होती है। अपने धन और ज्ञान-वैभव में भी अभिमान रहित रहने वाले लोग संसार में महान बनते हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
‘प्रकृति परमात्मा का स्वरूप’ प्रसंग का प्रतिपाय स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
‘प्रकृति परमात्मा का स्वरूप’ प्रसंग में प्रकृति के महत्त्व को सामने लाने का प्रयास किया गया है। इस प्रसंग के द्वारा प्रकृति को ईश्वर का ही दूसरा स्वरूप कहा गया है। मनुष्य सृष्टि का ही एक अंश है और जब मनुष्य सृष्टि के जड़-चेतन से अपनी तादात्म्य स्थापित कर लेता है तब उसका जीवन सार्थक होता है। यदि मानव अहंकार या घमंड में चूर होकर अपने ज्ञान को ही सर्वश्रेष्ठ मानकर व्यवहार करने लगता है तो वह अपना ही अहित करता है। विद्या तो विनयशीलता से ही सुशोभित होती है। मानव-जीवन प्रकृति प्रदत्त निःशुल्क वरदानों से ही सुखी और संपन्न है। अतः इनके प्रति आदर भाव मानव मात्र का सहज और स्वाभाविक कर्तव्य है।

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प्रश्न 3.
निम्नलिखित कथनों के लिए दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही विकल्पों के चयन कीजिए
1. महाकवि माप थे
1. नालंदा के
2. उज्जयिनी के
3. पाटिलपुत्र के
4. कपिलवस्तु के।
उत्तर
(2) उज्जयिनी के

2. महाकवि माय समयकालीन थे
1. राजा भोज के
2. राजा विक्रमादित्य के
3. सम्राट अशोक के
4. राजा नल के।
उत्तर
(1) राजा भोज के

3. माय को अभिमान था
1. विनम्रता का
2. घन का
3. सौदर्य का
4. पाण्डित्य का।
उत्तर
(4) पाण्डित्य को

4. अतिथि होते हैं
1. चार
2. दो
3. तीन
4. पाँच।
उत्तर
(2) दो
5. हारने वाले लोग होते हैं
1. तीन तरह के
2. दो तरह के
3. चार तरह के
4. सात तरह के।
उत्तर
(2) दो तरह के

प्रश्न 2.
रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति दिए गए विकल्पों में से उचित शब्दों के चयन से कीजिए। .
1. माघ को अपने पाण्डित्य का बड़ा ……………….. था। (अभिमान, ध्यान)
2. माघ ……………….. के साथ वन-विहार से लौट रहे थे। (मंत्री, राजा भोज)
3. शास्त्रों ने तो यम और इन्द्र को ही……………….. माना है। (शासक, राजा)
4. माष ने कहा, “माँ! हम ……………….. गए। (जान, हार)
5. विद्वता की शोभा अहंकार नहीं ……………….. है। (विनम्रता, पाण्डित्य)
उत्तर
1. अभिमान
2. राजा भोज
3. राजा
4. हार
5. विनम्रता।

प्रश्न 4.
सही जोड़ी का मिलान कीजिए
क्रोध – राम नरेश त्रिपार्टी
उर्वशी – रमानाथ अवस्थी
प्रवासी के गीत – रामधारी सिंह ‘दिनकर’
आग और पराग – रामचन्द्र शुक्ल
मिलन और स्वप्न – नरेन्द्र शर्मा।
उत्तर
क्रोध- रामचन्द्र शुक्ल
उर्वशी – रामधारी सिंह ‘दिनकर’
प्रवासी के गीत – नरेंद्र शर्मा
आग और पराग – रामनाथ अवस्थी
मिलन और स्वप्न – राम नरेश त्रिपाठी।

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प्रश्न 5.
निम्नलिखित वाक्य सत्य हैं या असत्य? वाक्य के आगे लिखिए।
1. माघ को अपने पाण्डित्य का बड़ा अभिमान था।
2. यात्री तो सूर्य और चन्द्रमा दो ही हैं।
3. पृथ्वी जड़ है, चैतन्य नहीं।
4. भूमि-पूजन एक कर्मकांड है।
5. प्रकृति परमात्मा का ही एक रूप है।
उत्तर

  1. सत्य
  2. सत्य
  3. असत्य
  4. असत्य
  5. सत्य।

प्रश्न 6.
निम्नलिखित कथनों का उत्तर एक शब्द में दीजिए।
1. किसको छेड़ने का किसी को साहस न होता?
2. किस पर आदमी आया-जाया करते हैं?
3. सूर्य और चन्द्रमा क्या हैं?
4. धन और यौवन क्या हैं?
5. विद्वता की शोभा क्या है?
उत्तर

  1. माघ को
  2. रास्ता पर
  3. यात्री
  4. अतिथि
  5. विनम्रता।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता लघु-उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
वृद्धा ने माघ को समझाते हुए क्या कहा?
उत्तर
वृद्धा ने माघ को समझाते हुए कहा-“महापंडित, मैं जानती हूँ कि आप माघ हैं, आप महाविद्वान हैं, पर विद्वता की शोभा अहंकार नहीं, विनम्रता है।

प्रश्न 2.
पृथ्वी ने स्वयं क्या कहा है?
उत्तर
पृथ्वी ने स्वयं कहा है कि मुझे पहाड़, तालाब नदियाँ, समुद्र आदि का बोझ नहीं मालूम पड़ता, किंतु जब मेरे ऊपर परद्रोही यानी मेरे नियमों के विपरीत चलने वाला पैर होता है तो मुझे उसका भार अत्यधिक मालूम पड़ता है। भूमिपूजन मात्र एक कर्मकांड नहीं यह सतत चलते रहना चाहिए।

प्रश्न 3.
पर्यावरण और प्रदूषण को सही रूप में समझने के लिए क्या आवश्यक है?
उत्तर
पर्यावरण और प्रदूषण को सही रूप में समझने के लिए आवश्यक है कि हम पहले प्रकृति को पूजनीय रूप में देखें।

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विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता प्रसंग का सारांश

उज्जयिनी के महाकवि माघ को अपनी विद्वता का बड़ा अभिमान था। एक बार राजा भोज के साथ कहीं जा रहे थे तो एक वृद्धा ने उनकी विद्वता को चुनीती देते हुए कई प्रकार से उन्हें संशय में डाल दिया। अंत में उन्होंने विनयपूर्वक कहा, “माँ हम हार गए! वृद्धा ने कहा, “महानुभाव! संसार में कर्ज लेने वाला या अपना चरित्रबल खो देने वाला ही पराजित होता है। मैं जानती हूँ कि आप माघ हैं और महाविद्वान हैं, लेकिन विद्वता की शोभा अहंकार नहीं विनम्रता है। इसे सुनकर माय लज्जित होकर आगे चल दिए।

संदर्भ-प्रसंग सहित व्याख्या

महानुभाव! संसार में जो किसी से कर्ज़ लेता है या अपना चरित्र खो देता है, बस हारने वाले दो कोटि के लोग होते हैं।

शब्दार्व-कोटि-श्रेणी।

संदर्भ-प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य-पुस्तक ‘हिंदी सामान्य’ 10वीं में संकलित ‘विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता’ से है।

प्रसंग-प्रस्तुत गद्यांश में लेखक ने एक वृद्धा के माध्यम से संसार के दो निम्नकोटि के लोगों के बारे में बतलाने का प्रयास किया है। इसके लिए लेखक ने एक
प्रसंग का उल्लेख करते हुए कहा कि

व्याख्या-एक बार महापंडित माघ राजा भोज के साथ कहीं जा रहे थे। उन्होंने एक बुढ़िया को देखकर पूछा कि यह रास्ता कहाँ जाता है? उस बुढ़िया ने उनसे उनका परिचय पूछा। उन्होंने अपना जो कुछ परिचय दिया, उस बुढ़िया ने अपनी तर्क बुद्धि से गलत सिद्ध कर दिया। फिर उसने उन्हें समझाया-महाशय! जो व्यक्ति इस संसार में दूसरे से जो कुछ लेता है या अपने चरित्र-बल को बचा नहीं पाता है, ये दोनों ही जीवन में हार का मुँह देखते हैं।

विशेष-1.
उपर्युक्त गद्यांश प्रेरक और ज्ञानवर्द्धक है।

अर्थ-ग्रहण संबंधी प्रश्नोत्तर
प्रश्न
संसार में हारने वाले कौन होते हैं?
उत्तर
संसार में हारने वाले दो ही होते हैं

  1. कर्ज लेने वाले या
  2. अपना चरित्र-बल खोने वाले!

विषय-वस्त पर आधारित प्रश्नोत्तर
प्रश्न 1.
उपर्युक्त गयांश का भाव लिखिए।
उत्तर
उपर्युक्त गद्यांश में लेखक ने दूसरों पर निर्भर न होकर चरित्र बल बनाए रखने की सीख दी है।

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता  प्रकृतिक परमात्मा का स्वरूप

विद्या की शोभा विनम्रता प्रसंग का सारांश

उज्जयिनी के महाकवि माघ को अपनी विद्वता का बड़ा अभिमान था। एक बार राजा भोज के साथ कहीं जा रहे थे तो एक वृद्धा ने उनकी विद्वता को चुनीती देते हुए नास्तिकता प्रकट की। उसके दादा ने उसे समझाया कि धरती का निरादर करके वह प्रसन्न नहीं रह सकता। भूमि-पूजन केवल एक कर्मकांड नहीं। इसे हमेशा चलते रहना चाहिए। पर्यावरण और प्रदूषण को सही रूप में समझने के लिए पहले प्रकृति को पूजनीय रूप में देखना पड़ेगा।

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th English Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead

One Step Ahead Textual Exercises

Word Power

A. Match the following words with their meanings.
(सुमेलित कीजिए)
MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead 1
Answer:
1. → (c)
2. → (a)
3. → (d)
4. → (e)
5. → (b)

B. Make a list of at least three abbreviations known to you.
Answer:
1. All India Radio (AIR)
2. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
3. Indian Naval Academy (INA)

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How Much Have I Understood?

A. Answer the following questions. (One or two sentences)
(निम्न प्रश्नों के उत्तर एक या दो वाक्यों में दीजिए।)

Question 1.
Why did Dr. Kalam go to Delhi?
(व्हाई डीड डॉ. कलम गो टू डेल्ही?)
डॉ. कलाम दिल्ली क्यों गये?
Answer:
Dr. Kalam went to Delhi for the interview at DTD & P (Air). [Directorate of Technical Development and Production (Air)].
(डॉ. कलाम डॉ. कलम वेन्ट टू डेल्ही फॉर द इंटरव्यू एट डी.टी.डी. एण्ड पी (ऍअर) [डाइरेक्टोरेट ऑफ टेक्निकल डेवलपमेन्ट एण्ड प्रोडक्शन (एअर)]
डॉ. कलाम दिल्ली तकनीकी विकास व उत्पादन निदेशालय। (वायु) के साक्षात्कार के लिए गए।

Question 2.
Why did Dr. Kalam go to Dehradun?
(व्हाय डिड डॉ. कलाम गो टू देहरादून?)
डॉ. कलाम देहरादून क्यों गये?
Answer:
Dr. Kalam went to Dehradun for an interview at the Air Force Selection Board.
(डॉ. कलाम वेन्ट् टू देहरादून फॉर एन इन्टरव्यू एट द ऍअर फोर्स सिलेक्शन बोर्ड।)
‘डॉ. कलाम देहरादून वायु सेना चयन समिति के साक्षात्कार हेतु गए।

Question 3.
What did Dr. Kalam want to become in Air Force?
(व्हॉट डिड डॉ. कलाम वॉन्ट टू बिकम इन एअर फोर्स?)
डॉ. कलाम वायु सेना में क्या बनना चाहते थे?
Answer:
Dr. Kalam wanted to become Commissioning Officer in the Air Force.
(डॉ. कलाम वॉन्टेड टू बिकम कमिश्निंग ऑफिसर इन द एअर फोर्स।)
डॉ. कलाम वायु सेना में कमिश्निग ऑफिसर के पद पर कार्य करना चाहते थे।

Question 4.
What did Dr. Kalam feel when he was going to face the interview?
(व्हॉट डिड डॉ. कलाम फील व्हेन ही वॉज गोइंग टू फेस द इन्टरव्यू?)
साक्षात्कार के लिए जाते समय डॉ. कलाम को क्या महसूस हुआ?
Answer:
While going for the interview Dr. Kalam was excited but nervous, determined but anxious, confident but tense.
(व्हाइल गोइंग फॉर द इन्टरव्यू डॉ. कलाम वॉज एक्साइटेड बट नर्वस, डिटर्मिन्ड बट एक्शियस, कॉन्फिडेन्ट बट टेन्स।)
साक्षात्कार के लिए जाते समय डॉ. कलाम उत्तेजित मगर आशंकित थे, दृढ़ निश्चित मगर चिन्तित थे, आत्मविश्वासी मगर बेचैन थे।

Question 5.
Why did Dr. Kalam go to the Shivananda Ashram?
(व्हाय डिड डॉ. कलाम गो टू द शिवाननन्द आश्रम?)
डॉ. कलाम शिवानन्द आश्रम क्यों गये?
Answer:
Dr. Kalam had failed to get selected in the Air Force so he was in a dejected mood and was seeking answers to the doubts that troubled him. Therefore, he went to the Shiyananda Ashram.
(डॉ. कलाम हैड फेल्ड् टू गेट सिलेक्टिड इन द एअर फोर्स सो ही वॉज इन अ डिजेक्टिड मूड एण्ड वॉज सीकिंग आन्सर्स टू द डाउट्स दैट ट्रबल्ड् हिम। देयरफोर, ही वेन्ट् टू द शिवानन्द आश्रम।)
डॉ. कलाम वायु सेना में चयनित न हो सके अतः वे मायूस थे व कई प्रश्न जो उन्हें परेशान कर रहे थे, के उत्तर खोज रहे थे। अतः वे शिवानन्द आश्रम गये।

Question 6.
What was the designation and salary of Dr. Kalam when he joined the job?
(व्हॉट वॉज़ द डेज़िग्नेशन एण्ड सैलरी ऑफ डॉ. कलाम व्हेन ही जॉइन्ड द जॉब?)
जब डॉ. कलाम ने नौकरी आरम्भ की तब वे कौन से पद पर थे व उनकी क्या तनख्वाह थी?
Answer:
Dr. Kalam joined the job as Senior Scientific Assistant on a basic salary of Rs. 250 per month.
(डॉ. कलाम जॉइन्ड द जॉब एज़ सीनियर साइन्टिफिक एसिस्टेंट ऑन अ बेसिक सैलेरी ऑफ रुपीज 250 पर मन्थ।)
डॉ. कलाम ने वरिष्ठ वैज्ञानिक सहायक के पद पर रुपये 250 की मासिक तनख्वाह पर पदभार ग्रहण किया।

MP Board Solutions

B. Answer the following questions. (Three or four sentences)
(निम्न प्रश्नों के उत्तर तीन या चार वाक्यों में दीजिए।)

Question 1.
Why did the religious conquest not affect the southern part of India?
(व्हाय डिड द रिलीजियस कॉक्वेस्ट नॉट अफेक्ट द सदर्न पार्ट ऑफ इण्डिया?)
धर्मपरायण युद्धों ने भारत के दक्षिण भाग को क्यों प्रभावित नहीं किया?
Answer:
The religious conquest did not affect southern part of India because it was protected by the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges. Also the Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari and Krishna rivers provided protection to it.’
(द रिलीजियस काँक्वेस्ट्स डिड नॉट अफेक्ट सदर्न पार्ट ऑफ इण्डिया बिकॉज इट वॉज़ प्रोटेक्टिड बाइ द विन्ध्या एण्ड सतपुरा माउण्टेन रेजिज। ऑल्सो द नर्मदा, ताप्ती, महानदी, गोदावरी एण्ड कृष्णा रिवर्स प्रोवाइडिड प्रोटेक्शन टू इट।)
धर्मपरायण युद्धों ने भारत के दक्षिण भाग को अप्रभावित रखा क्योंकि वह हिस्सा विन्ध्या व सतपुड़ा पहाड़ों से रक्षित था। नर्मदा ताप्ती, महानदी, गोदावरी व कृष्णा नदियों ने भी उसका बचाव कर रखा था।

Question 2.
Describe the appearance of Swami Shivananda,
(डिस्क्राइब द अपीयरेन्स ऑफ स्वामी शिवानन्द।)
स्वामी शिवानन्द की वेशभूषा का वर्णन करो।
Answer:
Swami Shivananda looked like Buddha. He wore a white dhoti and wooden slippers. He had an olive complexion and black piercing eyes. His smile was child-like and he had gracious manner.
(स्वामी शिवानन्द लुक्ड् लाइक बुद्धा। ही वोर अ व्हाइट धोती एण्ड वुडन स्लिपर्स। ही हैड एन ओलिव कॉम्पलेक्शन एण्ड ब्लैक पीयर्सिंग आईज। हिज स्माइल वॉज चाइल्ड-लाइक एण्ड ही हैड ग्रेशियस मैनर।)
स्वामी शिवानन्द भगवान बुद्ध की भाँति थे। वे सफेद धोती व खड़ाऊ पहनते थे। उनका रंग पीला था व काले भेदी नेत्र थे। उनकी मुस्कुराहट एक बच्चे के समान थी व उनका व्यक्तित्व उदार था।

Question 3.
How.did Swami Shivananda console Dr. Kalam?
(हाउ डिड स्वामी शिवानन्द कन्सोल डॉ. कलाम?)
स्वामी शिवानन्द ने डॉ. कलाम को किस प्रकार धीरज बँधाया?
Answer:
Swami Shivananda consoled Dr. Kalam by saying that he should accept his destiny as it comes. He was not destined to become an Air Force Pilot. That failure was essential to lead him to destined path and he should surrender himself to the wish of God.
(स्वामी शिवानन्द कन्सोल्ड् डॉ. कलाम बाइ सेइंग दैट ही शुड असेप्ट हिज डेस्टिनी एज इट कम्स। ही वॉज नॉट डेस्टिन्ड टू बिकम एन एअर फोर्स पायलट। दैट फेलियर वॉज एसेंशियल टू लीड हिम टू डेस्टिन्ड पाथ एण्ड ही शुड सरेन्डर हिमसेल्फ टू द विश ऑफ गॉड।)
स्वामी शिवानन्द ने डॉ. कलाम को यह कहकर धीरज़ बँधाया कि उन्हें अपनी नियति को स्वीकार करना चाहिए। वायु सेना में विमान चालक बनना उनके भाग्य में नहीं था। यह असफलता उन्हें उनके नियत पथ पर ले जाने के लिए आवश्यक थी और उन्हें स्वयं को ईश्वरीय इच्छा को समर्पित कर देना चाहिए।

Question 4.
How should we take our failure?
(हाउ शुड वी टेक अवर फेलियर?)
हमें अपनी असफलता को किस प्रकार लेना चाहिए?
Answer:
We should take our failure as our destiny. One should forget it and understand that it was essential to lead one to his destined path.
(वी शुड टेक अवर फेलियर एज़ अवर डेस्टिनी। वन शुद्ध फॉरगेट इट एण्ड अण्डरस्टैण्ड दैट इट वॉज़ एसेन्शियल टू लीड वन टू हिज़ डेस्टिन्ड् पाथ।)
हमें अपनी असफलता को अपनी नियति समझना चाहिए। व्यक्ति को यह भूल जाना चाहिए व यह समझ लेना चाहिए कि यह उसे उसके नियत पथ पर ले जाने के लिए जरूरी थी।

Question 5.
How does Abdul Kalam describe the men and women folk, as he saw them from the window of the compartment?
(हाउ डज अब्दुल कलाम डिस्क्राइव द मेन एण्ड वुमेन फोक, ऐज ही सॉ दैम फ्रॉम द विण्डो ऑफ द कम्पार्टमेन्ट?)
अब्दुल कलाम कम्पार्टमेन्ट की खिड़की से देखकर पुरुषों व महिलाओं का वर्णन किस प्रकार करते हैं?
Answer:
Abdul Kalam says that men in their white dhotis and turbans and women in bright splashes of colour against the green background of paddy fields looked like beautiful paintings. Everyone was busy in some activity.
(अब्दुल कलाम सेज़ दैट मेन इन देअर व्हाइट धोतीज़ एण्ड टर्बन्स एण्ड विमेन इन ब्राइट स्प्लैशिज ऑफ कलर अगेन्स्ट द ग्रीन बैकग्राउन्ड ऑफ पेडी फील्ड्स लुक्ड लाइक ब्यूटीफुल पेंटिंग्स। ऐवरीवन वॉज़ बिज़ी इन सम एक्टिविटी।)
अब्दुल कलाम कहते हैं कि सफेद धोतियों एवं पगड़ियों में पुरुष तथा पैडी की हरी पृष्ठभूमि में चमकीले रंग-बिरंगे वस्त्रों में महिलाएँ सुन्दर चित्रों की तरह दिखते थे। हर कोई किसी न किसी गतिविधि में संलग्न था।

MP Board Solutions

Language Practice

Fill in the blanks with suitable connectors from brackets.
(रिक्त स्थान भरिए।)
(while, since, during, until, because)

  1. I could not watch the whole movie. I fell asleep ……… the film.
  2. India was not independent …………. 15 Aug, 1947.
  3. Mohan met his friend …….. he was on a holiday.
  4. Two hours have passed ……… you took medicine.
  5. He was absent ………… he was sick.

Answer:

  1. during
  2. until
  3. while
  4. since,
  5. because

Listening Time

A. The teacher will read out the following words and the students will repeat them
(निम्न शब्दों को दोहराओ।)
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead 2

B. Here are some guidelines for using your mobile phone safely. Your teacher will read them out for you. Listen to them carefully and find out the picture they correlate. Write the picture no. against correlated guideline.
(निम्न शब्दों को दोहराओ)
Answer:

  1. Do not switch the phone on when wireless phone use is prohibited or when it may cause interference or danger. (vii)
  2. Always keep your hands free to operate the vehicle while driving. (iv)
  3. Switch the phone off near medical equipment. (vi)
  4. Do not use the phone at refuelling point. Do not use near fuel or chemical. (v)
  5. Only qualified personnel may install or repair this phone. (i)
  6. Your phone is not water resistant. Keep it dry.(iii)
  7. Do not connect incompatible product. (ii)

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead 3

Speaking Time

Do it yourself.
(छात्र स्वयं करें।)

Writing Time

You are Mohan studying at Govt. Higher Secondary School, Dalka, Khargone. Reply to your father as per the letter given in the text.
(तुम मोहन ही व गठनेमेण्ट हायर सेकेण्डरी स्कूल, डाल्का, खरगोन में पढ़ते हो। अपने पिता को पुस्तक में दिये गये पत्र का जवाब लिखो)
Answer:
Room No. 10,
Hostel Govt. Higher Secondary School
Dalka, Khargone
21-12-20….
Respected Father,

I received your letter yesterday. I hope you are fine and in good health. I understand your concern about me. I am giving attention to my career and my aim is on my goal. I have made a balance between my studies and other curricular activities. You should not worry about me and have faith on me. I am also giving attention to my health. If I would face any problem here I would definitely inform you.

Love to mother, brother and sister.

Your loving son
Mohan

MP Board Solutions

Things to do

Read more about the Presidents of India and make a list of their works. Consult your library and parents. Write the names of their works in your notebooks.
(भारत के राष्ट्रपतियों के नाम व उनके द्वारा लिखी गई पुस्तकों के नाम लिखिए।)
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead 4

One Step Ahead Difficult Word Meanings

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 8 One Step Ahead 5

One Step Ahead Summary, Pronunciation & Translation

Through the window of the compartment. I watched the countryside slip past. From a distance, the. men in the fields in their white dhotis and turbans, and the womenfolk in bright splashes of colour against the green background of paddy fields, seemed to inhabit some beautiful paintings. I sat glued to the window. Almost everywhere, people were engaged in some activity which had a rhythm and tranquility about it- men driving cattle, women fetching water from streams. Occasionally, a child – would appear and wave at the train.

(श्रू द विंडो ऑफ द कम्पार्टमेण्ट. आई वाच्ड द कन्ट्रीसाईड स्लिप पास्ट. फ्रॉम अ डिस्टेन्स, द मेन इन द फील्ड्स इन देयर वाईट धोतीज ऐण्ड टर्बन्स, ऐण्ड द विमेनफोक इन ब्राईट स्प्लैशिज़ ऑफ कलर अगेन्स्ट द ग्रीन बैकग्राउण्ड ऑफ पैडी फील्ड्स, सीम्ड टू इनहैबिट सम ब्यूटिफुल पेण्टिंग्स आई सैट ग्लूड टू द विंडो. ऑलमोस्ट एवरीव्हेअर, पीपल वर एन्गेज्ड इन सम एक्टिविटी व्हिच हैड अ रिदम ऐण्ड ट्रैक्विलिटी अबाऊट इट-मेन ड्राईविंग कैटल, विमेन फेचिंग वॉटर फ्रॉम स्ट्रीम्स ओकेजनली, अ चाइल्ड वुड अपीयर ऐण्ड वेव ऐट द ट्रेन.)

अनुवाद :
रेल के डिब्बे की खिड़की में से मैं ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों को पीछे छूटते हुए देख रहा था। दूर से चावल के खेतों की हरियाली वाली पृष्ठभूमि पर सफेद धोती और पगड़ी में मर्द और चमकीले रंगीन कपड़ों में महिलाएँ किसी खूबसूरत चित्र का हिस्सा लग रहे थे। मैं खिड़की से चिपका बैठा रहा। लगभग सभी जगह लोग किसी-न-किसी क्रियाकलाप में लगे हुए थे जिनमें एक लय और शांतचित्तता थी-पशुओं को हाँकते मर्द, नदी से पानी भरती महिलाएँ। बीच-बीच में कोई बच्चा दिखाई देता था रेलगाड़ी की तरफ हाथ हिलाते हुए।

It is astonishing how the landscape changes as one moves northwards. The rich and fertile plains of the river Ganga and its numerous tributaries have invited invasions, turmoil, and change. Around 1500 B.C., fair-skinned Aryans swept in through the mountain passes from the far north-west. The tenth century brought Muslims, who later mingled with the local people and became an integral part of this country. One empire gave way to another. Religious conquests continued. All this time, the part of India south of the Tropic of Cancer remained largely untouched, safe behind the shield of the Vindhya and Satpura mountain ranges. The Narmada, Tapti, Mahanadi, Godavari, and Krishna rivers had woven a net of almost unassailable protection for the tapering Indian peninsula. To bring me to Delhi, my train had crossed all these geographical impediments through the power of scientific advancement.

(इट इज़ एस्टॉनिशिंग हाऊ द लैण्डस्केप चेन्जिस ऐज वन मूब्ज नार्थवर्ड्स द रिच ऐण्ट फर्टाइल प्लेन्स ऑफ द रिवर गंगा ऐण्ड इट्स न्यूमरस ट्रिब्यूटरीज़ हैव इन्वाईटिड इन्वेजन्स, टर्मोइल, ऐण्ड चेन्ज अराउण्ड फिफ्टीन हण्ड्रेड बीसी (बिफोर क्राईस्ट), फेयर स्किन्ड आर्यन्स स्वेप्ट इन श्रू द माउण्टेन पासिस फ्रॉम द फार नॉर्थ-वेस्ट द टेण्थ सेन्चुरी ब्रॉट मुस्लिम्स, हू लेटर मिंगल्ड विद द लोकल पिपल ऐण्ड बिकेम ऐन इन्टिग्रल पार्ट ऑफ दिस कन्ट्री वन एम्पायर गेव वे टू अनदर रिलिजियस कॉन्क्वेस्ट्स कन्टिन्यूड. ऑल दिस टाईम, द पार्ट ऑफ इण्डिया साउथ ऑफ द ट्रॉपिक ऑफ कैन्सर रिमेन्ड लार्जली अनटच्ड, सेफ विहाईन्ड द शील्ड ऑफ द विन्ध्या ऐण्ड सतपुरा माउण्टेन रेन्जिज. द नर्मदा, ताप्ती, महानदी, गोदावरी ऐण्ड कृष्णा रिवर्स हैड वोवन अ नेट ऑफ ओल्मोस्ट अनअसेलेबल प्रोटेक्शन फॉर द टेपरिंग इण्डियन पेनिनसुला टू ब्रिग मी टू डेल्ही, माई ट्रेन हैड क्रॉस्ड ऑल दीज ज्योग्राफिकल इम्पेडिमेण्ट्स श्रू द पॉवर ऑफ साइन्टिफिक एडवान्समेण्ट.)

अनुवाद :
यह हैरान कर देने वाला है कि भूदृश्य किस – प्रकार बदलता है जैसे-जैसे हम उत्तर की ओर बढ़ते जाते हैं। गंगा और उसकी सहायक नदियों द्वारा पोषित शानदार उपजाऊ मैदानों ने आक्रमणों, उथल-पुथल और बदलाव को आमन्त्रित किया है। लगभग पन्द्रह सौ ईसा पूर्व गोरी चमड़ी वाले आर्य। लोग सुदूर उत्तर-पश्चिम के पहाड़ी दरों से होकर यहाँ आए। दसवीं शताब्दी में मुस्लिम लोग आए जो बाद में स्थानीय लोगों में मिलकर देश का अभिन्न अंग बन गये। एक साम्राज्य गया तो दूसरा आया। धार्मिक विजयों का सिलसिला चलता रहा। परन्तु इन सभी बदलावों के समय कर्क रेखा से दक्षिण की ओर का भारत का भू-भाग लगभग अछूता रहा, विंध्य व सतपुड़ा पर्वत श्रृंखला की ढाल के पीछे सुरक्षित। नर्मदा, ताप्ती, महानदी, गोदावरी और कृष्णा नदियों ने शंक्वाकार भारतीय प्रायद्वीप के लिए लगभग अभेद्य एक सुरक्षा का जाल बुन दिया था। मुझे दिल्ली तक लाने के लिए रेलगाड़ी ने इन सभी भू-अवरोधों को पार किया वैज्ञानिक प्रगति के बल पर।

MP Board Solutions

I halted for a week in Delhi, the city of the great Sufi Saint Hazrat Nizamuddin, and appeared for the interview at DTD & P(Air) [Directorate of Technical Development and Production (Air)]. I did well at the interview. The questions were of a routine nature, and did not challenge my knowledge of the subject. Then I proceeded to Dehradun for my interview at the Air Force Selection Board. At the Selection Board, the emphasis was more on ‘personality’ than on intelligence. Perhaps they were looking for physical fitness and an articulate manner. I was excited but nervous, determined but anxious, confident but tense. I could only finish ninth in the batch of 25 examined to select eight officers for commissioning in the Air Force. I was deeply disappointed. It took me some time to comprehend that the opportunity to join the Air force had just slipped through my fingers. I dragged myself out of the Selection Board and stood at the edge of a cliff. There was a lake far below. I knew that the days ahead would be difficult. There were questions to be answered and a plan of action to be prepared. I trekked down to Rishikesh.

(आई हॉल्टेड फॉर अ वीक इन डेल्ही, द सिटी ऑफ द ग्रेट सूफी सेण्ट हज़रत निजामुद्दीन, ऐण्ड अपीयर्ड फॉर द इण्टरव्यू ऐट डीटीडी एण्ड पी (एयर) [डाइरेक्टोरेट ऑफ टेक्निकल डेवलपमेंट ऐण्ड प्रोडक्शन (एयर), आई डिड वैल ऐट द इण्टरव्यू द क्वेश्चन्स वर ऑफ अ रुटीन नेचर, ऐण्ड डिड नॉट चैलेन्ज़ माई नॉलिज़ ऑफ द सब्जेक्ट देन आई प्रोसीडिड टू देहरादून फॉर माई इण्टरव्यू ऐट द एयर फोर्स सिलेक्शन बोर्ड. ऐट द सिलेक्शन बोर्ड, द एम्फैसिस वॉज़ मोर ऑन ‘पर्सनैलिटी’ दैन ऑन इण्टेलिजेन्स परहैप्स दे वर लुकिंग फॉर फिज़िकल फिटनेस ऐण्ड ऐन आर्टिकुलेट मैनर आई वॉज़ एक्साईटिड बट नर्वस, डिटरमाइण्ड बट एशियस, कान्फिडेण्ट बट टेन्स आई कुड ओनली फिनिश नाईन्थ इन द बैच ऑफ ट्वेण्टी फाइव एक्जामिन्ड टू सिलेक्ट ऐट ऑफिसर्स फॉर कमिशनिंग इन द एयर फोर्स. आई वॉज़ डीपली डिसअपॉइन्टिड इट टुक मी सम टाईम टू कमप्रिहेण्ड दैट द ऑपरचुनिटी टू जॉइन द एयरफोर्स हैड ज़स्ट स्लिप्पड श्रू माई फिंगर्स. आई ड्रैग्ड माईसेल्फ आउट ऑफ द सिलेक्शन बोर्ड ऐण्ड स्टुड ऐट द एज ऑफ अ क्लिफ. देयर वॉज़ अ लेक फार बिलो. आई न्यू दैट द डेज़ अहेड वुड बी डिफिकल्ट, देयर वर क्वेशचन्स टू बी,आन्सर्ड ऐण्ड अ प्लैन ऑफ ऐक्शन टू बी प्रिपेयर्ड। आई ट्रेक्ड डाऊन टू ऋषिकेश.)

अनुवाद :
मैं महान सूफी सन्त हज़रत निजामुद्दीन के शहर दिल्ली में एक सप्ताह के लिए रुका, और तकनीकी विकास एवं उत्पादन निदेशालय (वायु) में साक्षात्कार के लिए उपस्थित हुआ। मेरा साक्षात्कार अच्छा हुआ। पूछे गये प्रश्न सामान्य किस्म के थे और विषय के मेरे ज्ञान के लिए किसी प्रकार की चुनौती न पेश कर सके। इसके बाद मैं साक्षात्कार के लिए वायुसेना चयन परिषद देहरादून पहुँचा। चयन परिषद में ज़ोर बुद्धिमता से अधिक ‘व्यक्तित्व’ पर था। शायद वह लोग अभ्यर्थी में शारीरिक स्वस्थता और एक प्रभावी वक्ता ढूँढ़ रहे थे। मैं उत्साहित था पर घबराया हुआ भी था, संकल्पित था पर व्यग्र भी, आश्वस्त था पर तनाव में भी। मैं पच्चीस अभ्यर्थियों के समूह जिसमें से आठ को चुना जाना था वायु सेना में नियुक्ति हेतु मैं नौवां स्थान प्राप्त कर पाया। मैं बेहद निराश था। मुझे थोड़ा समय लगा यह समझने में कि वायुसेना में जाने का मौका अभी-अभी मेरी उंगलियों से फिसल गया है। मैं अपने आपको घसीटता हुआ सा चयन परिषद के दफ्तर से बाहर लेके आया और एक चोटी के किनारे पर खड़ा हो गया। दूर नीचे एक झील थी। मुझे पता था कि आने वाले दिन मुश्किलों भरे थे। कई प्रश्नों के उत्तर ढूँढ़ने थे और एक कार्य-योजना बनानी थी। मैं पैदल ऋषिकेश पहुँचा।

I bathed in the Ganga and revelled in the purity of its water. Then, I walked to the Shivananda Ashram situated a little way up the hill. I could feel intense vibrations when I entered. I saw a large number of sadhus seated all around in a state of trance. I had read that sadhus were psychic people-people who know things intuitively and, in my dejected mood, I sought answer to the doubts that troubled me.

I met Swami Shivananda a man who looked like a Buddha, wearing a snow-white dhoti and wooden slippers. He had an olive complexion and black piercing eyes. I was struck by his irresistible, almost child-like smile and gracious manner. I introduced myself to the Swamiji. My Muslim name aroused no reaction in him. Before I could speak any further, he inquired about the source of my sorrow. He offered no explanation of how he knew that I was sad and I did not ask.

(आई बेड इन द गंगा ऐण्ड रिवेल्ड इन द प्यूरिटी ऑफ इट्स वॉटर. देन, आई वॉक्ड टू द शिवानंद आश्रम सिचुएटिड अ लिटल वे अप द हिल. आई कुड फील इन्टेन्स वाईब्रेशन्स व्हेन आई एन्टर्ड. आई सॉ अ लार्ज नम्बर ऑफ साधूज़ सीटिड ऑल अराउण्ड इन अ स्टेट ऑफ ट्रान्स. आई हैड रेड दैट साधूज वर साइकिक पीपल-पीपल हू नो थिंग्स इन्टुईटिवली ऐण्ड, इन माई डिजेक्टिड मूड, आई सॉट आन्सर टू द डाऊट्स दैट ट्रबल्ड मी.

आई मेट स्वामी शिवानंद-अ मैन हू लुक्ड लाइक अ बुद्धा, वीयरिंग अ स्नो-व्हाईट धोती एण्ड वुडन स्लिपर्स. ही हैड ऐन ऑलिव कॉम्प्लेक्शन ऐण्ड ब्लैक पीयरसिंग आईज. आई वॉज़ स्ट्रक बाई हिज़ इररेजिस्टिबल ऑल्मोस्ट चाइल्ड-लाइक स्माइल एण्ड ग्रेशियस मैनर आई इन्ट्रोड्यूस्ड माइसेल्फ टू द स्वामीजी. माई मुस्लिम नेम अराउज्ड नो रीऐक्शन इन हिम. बिफोर आई कुड स्पीक एनी फर्दर, ही इन्क्वायर्ड अबाउट द सोर्स ऑफ माई सौसे ही ऑफर्ड नो एक्सप्लेनेशन ऑफ हाउ ही न्यू दैट आई वॉज़ सैड ऐण्ड आई डिड नॉट आस्क.)

अनुवाद :
मैं गंगा में नहाया और उसके जल की शुद्धता से अति आनन्दित हुआ। उसके पश्चात मैं शिवानंद आश्रम चलकर पहुँचा जो थोड़ी दूर ऊँचाई पर था। वहाँ प्रवेश करते ही मुझे तीव्र स्पन्दन का एहसास हुआ। मुझे वहाँ बहुत सारे साधु दिखाई दिए जो सभी ओर बैठे हुए थे समाधि की स्थिति में। मैंने पढ़ रखा था कि साधु अतीन्द्रिय शक्ति वाले लोग होते हैं-ऐसे लोग जो अन्तर्ज्ञान द्वारा सभी कुछ जानते हैं और अपनी उस हताशा भरी मन:स्थिति मैं अपने मन की दुविधाओं, संशयों का उत्तर ढूँढ़ रहा था। मैं स्वामी शिवानंद से मिला-एक ऐसे व्यक्ति जो कि एक बुद्ध जैसे लग रहे थे। दूधिया सफेद धोती और लकड़ी की खड़ाऊ में। उनका रंग पीलापन लिए जैतून जैसा था और आँखें काली भेदती हुई। मैं उनकी प्रबल शिशुवत मुस्कान एवं दयामय अन्दाज़ से बेहद प्रभावित हुआ। मैंने स्वामीजी को अपना परिचय दिया। मेरा मुस्लिम नाम सुनकर किसी प्रकार की प्रतिक्रिया नहीं आई। इससे पहले कि मैं कुछ और बोल पाता, उन्होंने मेरे दुःख का कारण पूछा। उन्होंने कोई स्पष्टीकरण नहीं दिया कि वे कैसे जानते थे कि मैं दुःखी हूँ और मैंने पूछा नहीं।

I told him about my unsuccessful attempt to join the Indian Air Force and my long-cherished desire to fly. He smiled, washing away all my anxiety almost instantly. Then he said in a feeble, but very deep voice : Desire, when it stems from the heart and spirit, when it is pure and intense, possesses awesome electromagnetic energy. This energy is released into the ether each night, as the mind falls into the sleep state. Each morning it returns to the conscious state reinforced with the cosmic currents. That which has been imaged will surely and certainly be manifested.

You can rely, young man, upon this ageless promises as surely as you can rely upon the eternally unbroken promise of sunrise……and of spring.

(आई टोल्ड हिम अबाउट माई अनसक्सेसफुल अटेम्प्ट टू जॉइन द इण्डियन एयर फोर्स ऐण्ड माई लॉन्ग चेरिशड डिजायर टू फ्लाई. ही स्माइल्ड, वाशिंग अवे ऑफ माई ऐंगजाइटी ऑल्मोस्ट इन्स्टैण्टलि दैन ही सेड इन अ फीबल, बट वेरी डीप वॉइस :

डिजायर, व्हेन इट स्टेम्स फ्रॉम द हार्ट ऐण्ड स्पिरिट, व्हेन इट इज प्योर ऐण्ड इन्टेन्स, पजैज़िज़ ऑसम इलैक्ट्रोमैग्नेटिक एनर्जी. दिस एनर्जी इज़ रिलीज्ड इण्टू द ईथर ईच नाइट, ऐज़ द माइण्ड फाल्स इण्टू द स्लीप स्टेट. ईच मॉर्निंग इट रिटनर्स टू द कॉन्शियस स्टेट रीइन्फोर्ल्ड विद द कॉस्मिक करंट्स. दैट विच हैज बीन इमेज्ड विल श्योरली ऐण्ट सर्टेन्ली बी मैनिफेस्टिड. यू कैन रिलाई यंग मैन, अपॉन दिस एजलैस प्रॉमिस ऐज श्योरली ऐज यू कैन रिलाई अपॉन द एटरनली अनब्रोकन प्रॉमिस ऑफ सनराइज…….ऐण्ड ऑफ स्प्रिंग.)

अनुवाद :
मैंने उनकों वायु सेना में नौकरी पाने के अपने असफल प्रयास के बारे में बताया और साथ ही आसमान में उड़ने की अपनी वर्षों पुरानी अभिलाषा के बारे में भी। वे मुस्कराए मेरी सभी चिन्ताओं, व्यग्रताओं को लगभग तत्क्षण मिटाते हुए। फिर वे बोले धीमी परन्तु गहरी गम्भीर आवाज में: इच्छा जब हृदय व आत्मा की गहराइयों से उपजती है, जब वह पवित्र व प्रचण्ड होती है, उस समय उसमें एक अदभुत विद्युताकर्षणीय शक्ति होती है। यह शक्ति नित्य रात्रि में आकाश में मुक्त होती है जिस समय मन निद्रा की अवस्था में होता है। प्रतिदिन सुबह यह शक्ति चेतन अवस्था में वापिस आती है ब्रह्माण्डीय शक्ति से परिपूरित होकर। जिस भी चीज की धारणा की गई हो वह अवश्य ही मूर्त रूप लेगी। तुम इस शाश्वत नियम पर उसी प्रकार भरोसा कर सकते हो जिस प्रकार तुम सदा से अखण्डित सूर्योदय व बसन्त के नियम पर करते हो। हे वत्स (युवक)।

MP Board Solutions

When the student is ready, the teacher will appear. How true! Here was the teacher to show the way to a student who had nearly gone astray! “Accept your destiny and go ahead with your life. You are not destined to become an Air Force pilot. What you are destined to become is not revealed now but it is predetermined. Forget this failure as it was essential to lead you to your destined path. Search, instead, for the true purpose of your existence. Become one with yourself, my son! Surrender yourself to the wish of God,” Swamiji said.

(व्हेन द स्टूडेण्ट इज़ रेडी, द टीचर विल अपीयर. हाऊ ट्र! हियर वॉज द टीचर टू शो द वे टू अ स्टुडेण्ट हू हैड नीयरली गॉन एस्ट्रे! “ऐक्सेप्ट यॉर डेस्टिनी ऐण्ड गो अहेड विद यॉर लाइफ यू आर नॉट डेस्टिन्ड टू बिकम ऐन एयर फोर्स पाइलट। व्हॉट यू आर डेस्टिन्ड टू बिकम इज नॉट रिवील्ड नाउ बट इट इज प्रीडिटरमाइण्ड. फॉर्गेट दिस फेल्युर ऐज़ इट वॉज़ एसेन्शियल टू लीड यू टू यॉर डेस्टिन्ड पाथ. सर्च इन्स्टेड, फॉर द ट्र पर्पज ऑफ यॉर ऐक्ज़िसटेन्स बिकम वन विद यॉरसेल्फ, माई सन! सरेण्डर यॉरसेल्फ टू द विश ऑफ गॉड”, स्वामीजी सेड.)

अनुवाद :
जब शिष्य तैयार होगा गुरु स्वयं उपस्थित होंगे। कितना सत्य है! गुरु साक्षात सामने थे जो एक ऐसे शिष्य को राह दिखा रहे थे जो लगभग भटक चुका था। “अपने भाग्य को स्वीकारो और जीवन में आगे बढ़ो। वायुसेना में पाइलट (विमान चालक) बनना तुम्हारे लिए नियत नहीं है जो तुम्हारे लिए नियत है वो अभी प्रकटं या प्रकाशित नहीं है परन्तु यह पूर्व निर्धारित है। इस नाकामी को भुला दो क्योंकि यह आवश्यक था तुम्हें तुम्हारे लिए नियत मार्ग पर लाने के लिए। इन सब के बजाए अपने होने अर्थात् अपने अस्तित्व का वास्तविक कारण ढूँढ़ो। स्वयं के साथ एक हो जाओ पुत्र! ईश्वर की इच्छा के आगे आत्मसमर्पण कर दो।” स्वामीजी ने कहा।

I returned to Delhi and enquired at the DTP & P (Air) about the outcome of my interview. In response, I was handed my appointment letter. I joined the next day as Senior Scientific Assistant on a basic salary of Rs. 250/- per month. If this was to be my destiny, I thought, let it be so. Finally, I was filled with mental peace. No more did I feel any bitterness or resentment at my failure to enter the Air Force. All this was in 1958.

(आई रिटन्ड टु डेल्ही ऐण्ड एन्क्वायर्ड ऐट द डीटीपी – एण्ड पी (एयर) अबाउट द आउटकम ऑफ माई इण्टरव्यू इन रिस्पॉन्स, आई वॉज़ हैण्डिड माई अपॉइण्टमेण्ट लैटर. आई जॉइन्ड द नेक्स्ट डे ऐज सीनियर साइन्टिफिक असिस्टैण्ट ऑन अ बेसिक सैलरी ऑफ रुपीज टू हन्ड्रेड फिफ्टी पर मंथ. इफ दिस वॉज़ टू बी माई डेस्टिनी, आई थॉट, लेट इट बी सो.फाइनली, आई वॉज़ फिल्ड विद मेण्टल पीस. नो मोर डिड आई फील एनी बिटनेस ऑर रिजेण्टमेण्ट ऐट माई फेल्युर टू एण्टर द एयर फोर्स. ऑल दिस वॉज इन 1958.)

अनुवाद :
मैं दिल्ली लौट आया और तकनीकी विकास एवं उत्पादन निदेशालय (वायु) में अपने साक्षात्कार के परिणाम के बारे में पूछा। उत्तर में मुझे नियुक्ति पत्र थमा दिया गया। मैंने अगले दिन वरिष्ठ वैज्ञानिक सहायक के रूप में 250 रुपये (ढाई सौ रुपये) प्रतिमाह के मूल वेतन पर नौकरी शुरू की। मैंने सोचा यदि यही मेरा भाग्य है तो फिर होने दो। आखिरकार मुझे मानसिक शान्ति मिली। उसके बाद मुझे वायुसेना की नौकरी पाने में नाकाम रहने की किसी प्रकार की कड़वाहट या अप्रसन्नता नहीं महसूस हुई। यह सब हुआ 1958 में।

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Workbook Solutions Chapter 3 Of Expense

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th English Solutions The Rainbow Workbook Chapter 3 Of Expense Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Workbook Solutions Chapter 3 Of Expense

Of Expense Vocabulary

I. The word ‘disadvantage’ has a prefix as well as suffix. Write other such five words having prefix as well as suffix.
e.g. dis honour able
Answer:
I dis respect able
I dis taste ful
I un work able
I up right ness
I un objection able

II. Note the difference between ‘certainly’ and ‘Surely’. Now use these words properly in a dialogue.
e.g. Mohan : “He’s a brilliant student, isn’t he?”
Rani : “Well, he certainly works very hard.”
Mohan : “He’s also a good painter.”
Rani : “Surely this can’t be true.”

MP Board Solutions

III. The world ‘but’ is being used in the beginning of a sentence as well as in the middle of a sentence. Use the world ‘but’ in the same manner in some sentences and notice the difference in the pronounciation of this word also.
Answer:
Do it yourself.

Listening Skill

Listen to the following poem twice.

See workbook page 15

A. Now, answer the following questions:
Fill in the blanks using the missing lines of the poem.

Question 1.
Money is our madness; our vast collective madness.
Answer:
And of course, if the multitude is mad.

Question 2.
Money has got us down, we grovel before it in strange terror.
Answer:
And no wonder, for money has a fearful cruel power among men.

Question 3.
Has he no money? They let him eat direct and go cold.
Answer:
And if I have no money, they will give me a little bread.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
We must have some money to save us from eating dirt.
Answer:
And this is all wrong.

Question 5.
Bread should be free
Answer:
Shelter should be free.

Question 6.
to all and anybody, all and anybody
Answer:
All over the world.

Question 7.
We must regain sanity about money
Answer:
before we start killing one another about it.

8. It’s one thing or the other.

Speaking Skill

Look at this situation where you want to give some suggestion for saving money.

See Workbook pages 17-18

Ans.
Do yourself.

Reading Skill
Read the passage carefully.

See Workbook pages 18-19

I. Now answer the following questions:

(a) What is the author talking about?
Ans.
The author is talking about whether it is dishonest to rob one’s own money box.

(b) Who are the two selves in each one of us?
Ans.
The self that wishes to save and the self that wishes to spend.

(c) How different are they?
Ans.
One of them differs as much from the other as a man does from his first cousin.

(d) Do they trust each other?
Ans.
No, they do not trust each other.

MP Board Solutions

(e) Which self acts as a watch guard?
Ans.
The self that saves acts as the watch guard.

(f) Whose position becomes tragic?
Answer:
The position of both of them (the self that saves and the self that spends) becomes tragic.

II. The author has given two comparisons in the given extract. Write them.
Answer:

  1. One of them differs as much from the other as a man does from his first cousin.
  2. As unable to escape from his neighbours as one of the Siamese twins.

III. There ¡s one metaphor used in the end of the extract. Write down the whole sentence.
Answer:
I do not remember at what date the self that spends won a complete victory in my bosom over the self that saves, but I know
that it was a Waterloo.

IV. Match words of similar meanings:
1. ethics – (a) clearly
2. hostile – (b) frustrate
3. obviously – (c) principles
4. grudging – (d) a tool
S. stealthily – (e) opposed
6. chisel – (f) secretly
7. thwarted – (g) reluctantly
Answer:
1. (c), 2. (e), 3. (a) 4. (i), 5. (f), 6. (d), 7. (b).

Grammar
Modals:

See Workbook pages 20-24

Fill in the blanks with the suitable modals given in brackets.
1. We …………….. to serve our nation. (should/may/ought)
2. She ………….. to go for a walk miles together. (should/used/could)
3. You ………….. have taken all that trouble. (needn’t/ought/used)
4. ………………… I come into the classroom, sir? (can/may/need)
5. The candidates …………….. to appear for an interview after the written test. (will/must/have)
6. If you pass the exam, you ………….. get a certificate.(might/ could/will)
7. You . pay your fees before Saturday. (ought /dare/need)
8. How he ask such a question? (must/dare/need)
9. There are clouds in the sky. It ……… rain today. (can/may/should)
10. I solve this problem very easily. (ought/dare/can)
Answer:

  1. ought
  2. used
  3. needn’t
  4. May
  5. have
  6. will
  7. ought to
  8. dare
  9. may
  10. can.

Writing Skill

Question 1.
What is more valuable, the money we spend on the luxuries or the necessities we use? Write your views. (50 words)
Answer:
I think money spent on the luxuries is not as much valuable as that spent on our necessities. It is:’ because luxuries give us comfort for a moment. it can’t feed us or satisfy us for long. Luxuries are momentary attractions. But necessities are for the survival of our life. We can’t do without them. So money spent upon them is more valuable.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
‘Expenses should be limited to income.’ Keeping this in view, prepare a monthly budget of your family. (150 words)
Answer:
It is a very old proverb cut your coat according to your cloth. It is true. If one cuts ones coat over the size of the cloth it is sure to disfigure the coat. So one should always plan one’s monthly budget as per ones fixed monthly income. One should not depend upon any extra income for it is not fixed or certain. I, therefore, prepare my monthly budget keeping these facts in mind. My monthly income is Rs. 10,000/-. My budget for a mouth is as follows:

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Workbook Solutions Chapter 3 Of Expense 1

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Maths Book Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks in the following table, given that a is the first term, d the common difference and an the nth term of the A.P.
Solution:
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 1
Solution:
(i) an = a + (n- 1)d
a8 = 7 + (8 – 1)3 = 7 + 7 × 3 = 7 + 21
⇒ a8 = 28

(ii) an = a + (n – 1)d
⇒ a10 = -18 + (10 – 1)7 ⇒ 0 = -18 + 9d
⇒ 9d = 18 ⇒ d = \(\frac{18}{9}=2\)
∴ d = 2

(iii) an = a + (n – 1)d
⇒ -5 = a + (18 – 1) × (-3)
⇒ -5 = a + 17 × (-3)
⇒ -5 = a – 51 ⇒ a = -5 + 51 = 46
Thus, a = 46

(iv) an = a + (n – 1)d
⇒ 3.6 = -18.9 + (n – 1) × 2.5
⇒ (n – 1) × 2.5 = 3.6 + 18.9
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 2
⇒ n = 9 + 1 = 10
Thus, n = 10

(v) an = a + (n- 1)d
⇒ an = 3.5 + (105 – 1) × 0
⇒ an = 3.5 + 104 × 0 ⇒ an = 3.5 + 0 = 3.5
Thus, an = 3.5

Question 2.
Choose the correct choice in the following and justify:
(i) 30th term of the AP: 10,7,4, , is, ….,
(A) 97
(B) 77
(C) -77
(D) -87

(ii) 11th term of the AP: -3, \(-\frac{1}{2}\), 2, …. ,is
(A) 28
(B) 22
(C) -38
(D) -48\(\frac{1}{2}\)
Solution:
(i) (C): Here, a = 10, n = 30
∵ T10 = a + (n – 1)d and d = 7 – 10 = -3
∴ T30 = 10 + (30 – 1) × (-3)
⇒ T30 = 10 + 29 × (-3)
⇒ T30 = 10 – 87 = -77

(ii) (B): Here, a = -3, n = 11 and
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 3

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 3.
In the following APs, find the missing terms in the boxes:
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 50
Solution:
(i) Here, a = 2, T3 = 26
Let common difference = d
∴ Tn = a + (n- 1 )d
⇒ T3 = 2 + (3 – 1)d
⇒ 26 = 2 + 2 d
⇒ 2d = 26 – 2 = 24
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 4
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 51

(ii) Let the first term = a
and common difference = d
Here, T2 = 13 and T4 = 3
T2 = a + d = 13, T4 = a + 3d = 3
T1 – T2 = (a + 3d) – (a + d) = 3 – 13
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 5

(iii)
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 6

(iv) Here, a = – 4, T6 = 6
∵ Tn = a + (n -1 )d
T6 = – 4 + (6 – 1)d ⇒ 6 = -4 + 5d ⇒ 5d = 6 + 4 = d = 10 – 5 = 2
T2 = a + d = -4 + 2 =-2
T3 = a + 2d = -4 + 2(2) = 0
T4 = a + 3d = -4 + 3(2) = 2
T5 = a + 4d = -4 + 4(2) = 4
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 52

(v) Here, T2 = 38 and T6 = -22
∴ T2 = a + d = 38, T6 = a + 5d = -22
⇒ T6 – T2 = a + 5d – (a + d) = -22 – 38 -60
⇒ 4d = -60 ⇒ d = \(\frac{-60}{4}\) = -15
a + d = 38 ⇒ a + (-15) = 38
⇒ a = 38 + 15 = 53
Now,
T3 = a + 2d = 53 + 2(-15) = 53 – 30 = 23
T4 = a + 3d = 53 + 3(-15) = 53 – 45 = 8
T5 = a + 4d = 53 + 4(-15) = 53 – 60 = -7
Thus missing terms are
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 53

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 4.
Which term of the AP: 3, 8, 13, 18, is 78?
Solution:
Let the nth term be 78
Here, a = 3 ⇒ T1 = 3 and T2 = 8
∴ d = T2 – T1 = 8 – 3 = 5
And, Tn = a + (n- 1 )d
⇒ 78 = 3 + (n – 1) × 5 ⇒ 78 – 3 = (n -1) × 5
⇒ 75 = (n – 1) × 5 ⇒ (n – 1) = 75 ÷ 5 = 15
⇒ n = 15 + 1 = 16
Thus, 78 is the 16th term of the given AP.

Question 5.
Find the number of terms in each of the following APs:
(i) 7,13,19, …….. ,205
(ii) 18, \(15 \frac{1}{2}\), 13, …… ,-47
Solution:
(i) Here, a = 7,d = 13 – 7 = 6
Let total number of terms be n.
∴ Tn = 205
Now, Tn = a + (n – 1) ×d
= 7 + (n – 1) × 6 = 205
⇒ (n – 1) × 6 = 205 – 7 = 198
⇒ n – 1 = \(\frac{198}{6}=33\)
∴ n = 33 + 1 = 34
Thus, the required number of terms is 34.

(ii)
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 7
Thus, the required number of terms is 27.

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 6.
Check whether -150 is a term of the AP:
11, 8, 5, 2…
Solution:
For the given AP,
we have a = 11, d = 8 -11 = -3
Let -150 be the nth term of the given AP
∴ Tn = a + (n – 1 )d
⇒ -150 = 11 + (n – 1) × (-3)
⇒ -150 – 11 = (n – 1) × (-3)
⇒ -161 = (n – 1) ⇒ (-3)
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 8
But n should be a positive integer.
Thus, -150 is not a term of the given AP

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 7.
Find the 31st term of an AP whose 11th term is 38 and the 16th term is 73.
Solution:
Here, T11 = 38 and T16 = 73
Let the first term = a and the common difference = d.
Tn = a + (n – 1 )d
Then, Tn = a + (11 – 1)d = 38
⇒ a + 10d = 38 …(1)
and T16 = a + (16 – 1)d = 73
⇒ a + 15d = 73 …(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
(a + 15d) – (a + 10d) = 73 – 38
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 9
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 10

Question 8.
An AP consists of 50 terms of which 3rd term is 12 and the last term is 106. Find the 29th term.
Solution:
Here, n = 50, T3 = 12, Tn = 106
⇒ T50 = 106
Let the first term = a and the common difference = d
Tn = a + (n – 1 )d
T3 = a + 2d = 12 …(1)
T50 = a + 49d = 106 …(2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 11

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 9.
If the 3rd and the 9th terms of an AP are 4 and -8 respectively, which term of this AP is zero?
Solution:
Here, T3 = 4 and T9 = -8
Tn = a + (n – 1)d
T3 = a + 2d = 4 …. (1)
T9 = a + 8d = – 8 …. (2)
Subtracting (1) from (2), we get
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 12

Question 10.
The 17th term of an AP exceeds its 10th term by 7. Find the common difference.
Solution:
Let a be the first term and d the common difference of the given AP
Now, using n = a + (n – 1 )d, we have
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 13
Thus, the common difference is 1.

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 11.
Which term of the AP : 3, 15, 27, 39,… will be 132 more than its 54th term?
Solution:
Here, a = 3, d = 15 – 3 = 12
Using Tn = a + (n – 1 )d, we get
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 14
Thus, 132 more than 54th term is the 65th term.

Question 12.
Two APs have the same common difference. The difference between their 100th terms is 100, what is the difference between their 1000th terms?
Solution:
Let for the 1st AP, the first term = a and common difference = d
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 15
And for the 2nd AP, the first term = a and common difference = d
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 16
According to the condition,
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 17

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 13.
How many three-digit numbers are divisible by 7?
Solution:
The first three-digit number divisible by 7 is 105.
The last such three-digit number divisible by 7 is 994.
∴ The AP is 105,112,119, ,994
Let n be the required number of terms Here, a = 105, d = 7 and n = 994
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 18
Thus, 128 numbers of 3-digits are divisible by 7.

Question 14.
How many multiples of 4 lie between 10 and 250?
Solution:
The first multiple of 4 beyond 10 is 12.
The multiple of 4 just below 250 is 248.
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 19
Thus, the required number of terms is 60.

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 15.
For what value of n, are the nth terms of two APs: 63,65,67 … and 3,10,17, …. equal?
Solution:
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 20
Thus, the 13th terms of the two given AP’s are equal.

Question 16.
Determine the AP whose third term is 16 and the 7th term exceeds the 5th term by 12.
Solution:
Let the first term = a and the common difference = d
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 21

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 17.
Find the 20th term from the last term of the AP : 3, 8, 13, …, 253.
Solution:
We have, the last term (l) = 253
Here, d = 8 – 3 = 5
Since, the nth term before the last term is given by l – (n – 1 )d
We have 20th term from the last term = l – (20 – 1) × 5 = 253 – 19 × 5 = 253 – 95 = 158

Question 18.
The sum of the 4th and 8th terms of an AP is 24 and the sum of the 6th and 10th terms is 44. Find the first three terms of the AP.
Solution:
Let the first term = a and the common difference = d
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 22

Question 19.
Subba Rao started work in 1995 at an annual salary of ₹ 5000 and received an increment of ? 200 each year. In which year did his income reach ₹ 7000?
Solution:
Here, a = ₹ 5000 and d = ₹ 200
Let, in the nth year Subba Rao gets ₹ 7000.
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 23

MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2

Question 20.
Ramkali saved ₹ 5 in the first week of a year and then increased her weekly savings by ₹ 1.75. If in the nth week, her weekly savings become ₹ 20.75, find n.
Solution:
Here, a = ₹ 5 and d = ₹ 1.75
MP Board Class 10th Maths Solutions Chapter 5 Arithmetic Progressions Ex 5.2 24
Thus, the required number of weeks is 10.

MP Board Class 10th Hindi Vasanti Solutions Chapter 17 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Hindi Book Solutions Chapter 17 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर (डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर) Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Hindi Vasanti Solutions Chapter 17 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर (डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर)

गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर पाठ्य-पुस्तक के प्रश्नोत्तर

गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर लघु-उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
भारत के उत्तरी और दक्षिणी छोरों के नाम लिखिए।
उत्तर-भारत के उत्तरी और दक्षिणी छोर हैं-कन्याकुमारी और हिमालय।

प्रश्न 2.
कश्मीर प्रत्येक भारतीय को क्यों लुभाता है? ।
उत्तर
‘अगर कही स्वर्ग है तो वह यहीं है। इसलिए कश्मीर प्रत्येक भारतीय को लुभाता है।

प्रश्न 3.
कन्याकुमारी और गोश्रीनगर (कोचीन) भारत के किन राज्यों में स्थित है?
उत्तर
कन्याकुमारी और गोश्रीनगर (कोचीन) तमिलनाडु और केरल राज्यों में है।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
श्रीनगर के सबसे ऊँचे स्थान का नाम बताइए।
उत्तर
श्रीनगर के सबसे ऊँचे स्थान का नाम-शंकराचार्य पहाड़ी।

प्रश्न 5.
कांगड़ी का उपयोग कश्मीरी क्यों करते हैं?
उत्तर
कांगड़ी का उपयोग कश्मीरी ठण्ड से बचने के लिए करते हैं।

 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर दीर्घ-उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
कश्मीर के बारे में पौराणिक और ऐतिहासिक कौन-सी बातें कही गई हैं।
उत्तर
कश्मीर के बारे में पौराणिक बातें महाभारत काल की हैं। इतिहासकाल में अशोक ने कश्मीर में अनेक बौद्ध-विहार व स्तूप बनवाए।

प्रश्न 2.
‘कश्मीरी जंगल में मंगल करते है।’ उक्त पंक्ति को समझाइए।
उत्तर
‘कश्मीरी जंगल में मंगल करते हैं।’ अर्थात् कश्मीरी किसी प्रकार की कठिनाई की परवाह न करते हुए प्रकृति का जी भरकर आनन्द लेते हैं।

प्रश्न 3.
लेखक ने डल झील को कश्मीर की शान क्यों कहा है?
उत्तर
लेखक ने डल झील को कश्मीर का शान कहा है, क्योंकि वह अनेक प्रकार के आनंद का मुख्य केंद्र है।

प्रश्न 4.
‘पृथ्वी पर अगर कहीं स्वर्ग है, तो वह यहीं है’ इस कथन का भाव स्पष्ट करिए।
उत्तर
‘पृथ्वी पर अगर कहीं स्वर्ग है तो वह यहीं है’ इस कथन का भाव यह है कि कश्मीर की सुंदरता संसार में सबसे अधिक है। उसके सुख और आनंद के सामने और कहीं सभी सुख-आनंद फीके जान पड़ते हैं। वह तो स्वर्ग के समान ही है।

प्रश्न 5.
‘कश्मीर की मिट्टी में ही प्यार-मुहब्बत की महक है।’ इस कवन को स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
‘कश्मीर की मिट्टी में ही प्यार-मुहब्बत की महक है।’ उपर्युक्त कथन के द्वारा लेखक ने यह कहना चाहा है कि कश्मीरवासियों में अपनापन है। एकता है, भाईचारा है, प्यार-दुलार है। एक-दूसरे के सुख-दुख समझने की भावना है। सहानुभूति और सद्भाव है।

गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर भाषा-अनुशीलन

प्रश्न 1.
संधि-विच्छेद कर संधि का नाम लिखिए
हिमालय, दुर्गम, जगतगुरु, प्रामाणिक।
उत्तर
MP Board Class 10th Hindi Vasanti Solutions Chapter 17 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर img-1

प्रश्न 2.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के विलोम शब्द लिखिए
विशाल, संतुष्ट, कठोर, दुर्गम, प्रत्यक्ष।
उत्तर
शब्द – विलोम शब्द
विशाल – लघु
संतुष्ट – असंतुष्ट
कठोर – कोमल
दुर्गम – सुगम
प्रत्यक्ष – अप्रत्यक्ष।

प्रश्न 3.
निम्नलिखित शब्दों के पर्यायवाची शब्द लिखिए
भूमि, पहाड़, अभिलाषा, प्रेम, कृषक।
उत्तर
भूमि – जमीन, धरती
पहाड़ – पर्वत, भूधर
अभिलाषा – इच्छा, चाह
प्रेम – स्नेह, प्यार
कृषक – किसान, खेतिहर।

प्रश्न 4.
निम्नलिखित वाक्यांशों के लिए एक शब्द लिखिए
जहाँ पहुँचना कठिन हो, जिसकी आवश्यकता न हो, जनमानस में प्रचलित घटना या कवा, पर्यटन करने वाला।
उत्तर
वाक्यांश – एक शब्द
जहाँ पहुँचना कठिन हो| – दुर्गम
जिसकी आवश्यकता न हो – अनावश्यक
जनमानस में प्रचलित घटना या कथा – जनश्रुति
पर्यटन करने वाला – पर्यटक।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
वाक्यों में प्रयोग कीजिए
जंगल में मंगल, ईद का चाँद होना, दिल लुभाना, चेहरा खिलना।
उत्तर
वाक्यांश – वाक्य-प्रयोग
जंगल में मंगल – कश्मीरी जंगल में मंगल मनाते हैं।
ईद का चाँद होना – विदेश मित्र तो ईद का चाँद होते हैं।
दिल लुभाना – उसने अपनी योग्यता से सबके दिल को लुभा लिया।
चेहरा खिलना – लाटरी निकलने पर भिखारी का चेहरा खिल उठा।

गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर  योग्यता-विस्तार

प्रश्न 1. प्रदेश के प्रर्यटन स्थलों के चित्रों का संकलन कीजिए।
प्रश्न 2. किसी भी पर्वतीय पर्यटन स्थल पर जाते समय आप क्या-क्या तैयारी करेंगे? बताइए।
प्रश्न 3. क्या आप कभी पर्यटन के लिए गए हैं। यदि हाँ तो उसके संबंध में स्मृति के आधार पर अपने विचारों को क्रमबद्ध कीजिए।
उत्तर
उपर्युक्त प्रश्नों को छात्र/छात्रा अपने अध्यापक/अध्यापिका की सहायता से हल करें।

 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर परीक्षोपयोगी अतिरिक्त प्रश्नोत्तर

अर्थग्रहण संबंधी प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
‘गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर’ यात्रा-वृत्तांत का प्रतिपाय स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
‘गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर’ यात्रा-वृत्तांत डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर लिखित एक रोचक और ज्ञानवर्द्धक यात्रा-वृत्तांत है। इस यात्रा-वृत्तांत में लेखक ने भारत के एक विशाल छोर गोश्रीनगर (कोचीन) से श्रीनगर तक की मनोहारी तथा रोमांचक यात्रा का वर्णन किया है। यात्रा के दौरान हिमालय का पर्वतीय सौंदर्य, छोटे-बडे. हरे मैदान, डल झील के शिकारे तथा प्राकृतिक मनोहारी दृश्य पर्यटकों को अपनी ओर आकर्षित करते हैं। इस अवर्णनीय, अद्वितीय और अद्भुत आनंद का स्वयं अनुभव करके ही जाना जा सकता है। अपने साथ के यात्रियों के आत्मीय व्यवहार का सहज-स्वाभाविक वर्णन प्रस्तुत यात्रा-वृत्तांत को और अधिक प्रभावशाली बनाता है।

प्रश्न 2.
कोचीन से श्रीनगर लेखक कैसे पहुँचा?
उत्तर
कोचीन से श्रीनगर लेखक रेल और बस के द्वारा पहुँचा। पहले वह कोचीन से रेल द्वारा अनेक प्रदेशों से गुजरता हुआ जम्मू पहुँचा। इसके बाद वह वहाँ से बस के द्वारा श्रीनगर पहुँचा।

प्रश्न 3.
श्री शंकराचार्य पहाड़ी की क्या विशेषताएँ हैं?
उत्तर
श्री शंकराचार्य पहाड़ी श्रीनगर का सबसे ऊँचा स्थान है। यह मठ बहुत पराना है और जनश्रुति के अनुसार, यहाँ का मंदिर पाण्डव वंश के राजाओं का बनाया हुआ है। यहाँ शिवजी और शंकराचार्य की मूर्तियाँ हैं और मंदिर तक पहुँचने के लिए सीढ़ियाँ चढ़नी पड़ती हैं। पहले सड़क से पैदल ही मंदिर तक पहुँच सकते थे। अब मोटर से भी जाया जा सकता है। इस ऊँचे पहाड़ पर खड़े होकर श्रीनगर का काफी बड़ा हिस्सा दिखाई देता है।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 4.
निम्नलिखित कथनों के लिए दिए गए विकल्पों में से सही विकल्प का चयन कीजिए।
1. विशाल भारत के छोर हैं
1. दो
2. चार
3. पाँच
4. तीन
उत्तर
1. दो

2. कोचीन है
1. मद्रास में
2. आंध्र-प्रदेश में
3. केरल में
4. कश्मीर में।
उत्तर
3. केरल में

3. कश्मीर की राजधानी है
1. जम्मू
2. जम्मू तवी
3. कोचीन
4. श्रीनगर।
उत्तर
4. श्रीनगर।

4. पृथ्वी पर कहीं स्वर्ग है तो वह है
1. कोचीन में
2. कश्मीर में
3. मैसूर में
4. जम्मू में।
उत्तर
2. कश्मीर में

5. घाटी में पहले थी
1. नदी
2. झील
3. खाईं
4. हरियाली।
उत्तर
(2) झील।

प्रश्न 5.
रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति दिए गए विकल्पों में से उचित शब्दों के चयन से कीजिए।
1. कन्याकुमारी की सागर-तरंगें अपने मंद हास से हमें ………….. करती हैं। (भ्रमित, चकित)
2. पृथ्वी पर अगर कहीं स्वर्ग है, तो वह ………….. है। (वहीं. यहीं)
3. महाभारत काल से ही कश्मीर-शासकों की …………… मिलती हैं। (गाथाएँ, कथाएँ)
4. प्रभाती पवन में …………… भरी शीतलता थी। (घुटनभरी, चुभनभरी)
5. डल झील …………….. का मुख्य केन्द्र है। (जम्मू, कश्मीर)
उत्तर
1. चकित
2. वहीं
3. गाथाएँ
4. चुभन भरी
5. कश्मीर।

प्रश्न 6.
सही जोड़ी मिलाकर लिखिए।
सबद – दिवाकर वर्मा
कालिदास की समालोचना – उषा वर्मा
वैदेही बनवास – कबीरदास
तुम्हारी विरासत – महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी
आस्था के स्वर – हरिऔध।
उत्तर
सबद- कबीरदास
कालिदास की समालोचना – महावीर प्रसाद द्विवेदी
वैदेही वनवास – हरिऔध
तुम्हारी विरासत – उषा वर्मा
आस्था के स्वर – दिवाकर वर्मा।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 7.
निम्नलिखित वाक्य सत्य हैं या असत्य? वाक्य के आगे लिखिए।
1. सम्राट ललितादित्य, साहित्यकार और कला-प्रेमी थे।
2. कोट्टायम से तक्कड़ी का रास्ता पहाडी नहीं है।
3. लेखक जलपान-विश्राम से पहले कुछ देर चहलकदमी करता रहा।
4. कांजीगुंड से श्रीनगर की समतल नहीं थी।
5. कश्मीर में कई बोलियाँ हैं।
उत्तर
1. सत्य
2. असत्य
3. सत्य
4. असत्य
5. सत्य।

प्रश्न 8.
निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर एक शब्द में दीजिए
1. घाटी में पहले कौन-सी झील थी? ।
2. कश्मीर में अनेक बौद्ध विहार और स्तूप किसने बनवाए थे? … 3. लेखक बनिहाल रेस्ट हाउस के सामने शाम को कब पहुँचा?
4. कांजीगुंड से श्रीनगर कितने घण्टे में पहुँचा?
5. नए शिकारे का मल्लाह कौन था?
उत्तर
1. सतीसर
2. सम्राट अशोक ने
3. साढ़े चार बजे
4. दो
5. युसूफ

 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
लेखक कहाँ से कहाँ के लिए रवाना हो गया?
उत्तर
लेखक गोश्रीनगर (कोचीन) से श्रीनगर के लिए रवाना हो गया।

प्रश्न 2.
किसी ने यहाँ तक क्या कहा है?
उत्तर
किसी ने यहाँ तक कहा है कि पृथ्वी पर अगर कहीं स्वर्ग है, तो वह यहीं है।

प्रश्न 3.
कश्मीर की प्रकृति ने प्रदान किए हैं?
उत्तर
कश्मीर की प्रकृति ने जिस प्रकार मिठास और मोहक रंग सेब और केसर में भर दिए हैं, उसी प्रकार की मिठास और रंग यहाँ के किशोर और किशोरियों को दिल खोलकर प्रदान किए हैं।

गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर लेखक-परिचय

जीवन-परिचय-आधुनिक हिन्दी रचनाकारों में विशेष रूप से दक्षिण भारतीय हिन्दी साहित्यकारों में डॉ. एन. ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर का अधिक सम्मानजनक स्थान है। आप अपनी आरंभिक और उच्चस्तरीय शिक्षा समाप्त करके अध्यापन करने लगे। इस सिलसिले में आप केरल विश्वविद्यालय के विभिन्न महाविद्यालयों में अध्यापन के बाद केरल विश्वविद्यालय के हिन्दी विभाग में प्राध्यापक और विभागाध्यक्ष रहे। आप कोचीन विश्वविद्यालय के हिन्दी विभाग के प्रथम आचार्य और विभागाध्यक्ष के साथ-साथ भाषा संकाय के डीन भी रहे।

रचनाएँ-डॉ. एन. ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर की निम्नलिखित रचनाएँ हैंललित निबंध-‘उठता चाँद’, ‘डूबता सूरज’, ‘फूल और काँटे’। आलोचना-‘आधुनिक हिन्दी काव्य’, ‘मलयालम काव्य’

भाषा-शैली-डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर का साहित्य विविध भाषा-शैली का है। इसलिए उसमें अंग्रेजी, मलयालम, तमिल और हिन्दी के शब्दों से भरपूर है।

आपकी शैली वर्णनात्मक-गवेषणात्मक है। कहीं-कहीं वह सरल और सुबोध भी है।

साहित्य में स्थान-डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर का हिन्दी साहित्य में सुपरिचत स्थान है। दक्षिण भारत के हिन्दी रचनाकारों में विशेष रूप आप उल्लेखनीय हैं। दक्षिण के ‘अनेक विश्व-विद्यालयों से संबंद्ध रहते हुए आपने कई राज्य स्तर एवं राष्ट्रीय स्तर के पुरस्कार प्राप्त किए हैं।

MP Board Solutions

 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर  यात्रा वृत्तान्त का सारांश

इस यात्रा वृत्तान्त में लेखक ने गो श्रीनगर (कोचीन) से भी श्रीनगर तक की रोमांचक यात्रा का वर्णन किया है। लेखक के अनुसार-विशाल भारत के दो छोर-कन्याकुमारी और हिमालय हैं। यात्रा-साहित्य में इन दोनों के प्रति जिज्ञासा होती है। कश्मीर सबको लुभाता है। कहा भी गया है कि पृथ्वी पर अगर कहीं स्वर्ग है तो वह यहाँ है। लेखक कोचीन से श्रीनगर रेल द्वारा अनेक प्रदेशों से गुजरता हुआ पहुँचा। वह जम्मू के पर्वतीय नगर से श्री नगर बस द्वारा पहुँच गया। रास्ते में उसने देखा कि किस तरह लोग कठोर प्रकृति से संघर्ष, समझौता और प्रेम करके दुर्गम ऊँचे पर्वतीय प्रदेश में भी कृषि करके जीवन बिताते हैं। इंजीनियरों की अद्भुत प्रतिमा, अदम्य साहस और शक्ति से इस दुर्गम पर्वत को सुगम बना दिया था। लेखक इससे दो घण्टे में अपने साथियों के साथ बस द्वारा श्रीनगर पहुँच गया। यहाँ का सारा वातावरण उसे मोहने लगा था। उसने देखा कि श्री शंकराचार्य पहाड़ी श्रीनगर का सबसे ऊँचा स्थान है। यह मठ बहुत
पुराना है। यहाँ शिव जी और शंकराचार्य दोनों की मर्तियाँ हैं। श्रीनगर के डल झील. तैरते बाग और उनके चारों ओर की पहाड़ियों के निराले दृश्य बड़े ही मनोहारी हैं। नए शिकारे का मल्लाह किशोर था, जिसके हाथ बड़ी फुरती से चप्पू पर चल रहे थे। लेखक के साथी भी उसका साथ दे रहे थे। उस मल्लाह के गले से मौज में सुरीली आवाज आ रही थी। ठेठ कश्मीरी लोकगीत और ठेठ देहाती कण्ठ। दो-चार पंक्तियों को बार-बार दुहरा रहा था-कश्मीर की मिट्टी में ही प्यार-मुहब्बत की महक है।

 गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर संदर्भ-प्रसंग सहित व्याख्या

(1) छोटी-छोटी जरूरी चीजें सारे देश को कैसे एकतामय कर देती हैं। खोजने पर केरल का बना साबुन भी शायद मिल जाता। बस अब तेज चाल से जवाहर-सुरंग की ओर बढ़ी। इस पथ को पार करते हुए पुलकित हुए बिना नहीं रह सकते। इंजीनियरों की अद्भुत प्रतिभा, अदम्य साहस और कार्य-शक्ति ने इस दुर्गम पर्वत में विशाल सुरंग-पच बनाकर कश्मीर और शेष भारत का पथ पूरे वर्ष भर चलने लायक बना दिया। प्रकाश-धारा बहाती, सीटी बजाती, बस सुरंग पथ से आगे बढ़ रही थी। रोमांचकारी दृश्य था। मानव शक्ति से यंत्र शक्ति की श्रेष्ठता को मानते हुए हम आगे बढ़ रहे थे।

शब्दार्व-पव-रास्ता। पुलकित-प्रसन्न। दुर्गम-कठिन। लायक-योग्य।

संदर्भ-प्रस्तुत गद्यांश हमारी पाठ्य-पुस्तक ‘हिंदी सामान्य’ 10वीं में संकलित लेखक डॉ. एन.ई. विश्वनाथ अय्यर लिखित यात्रा-वृत्तान्त ‘गोश्रीनगर से श्रीनगर’ से है।

प्रसंग-प्रस्तुत गद्यांश में लेखक ने कश्मीर के लिए की गई अपनी यात्रा के अनुभव का उल्लेख करते हुए कहा है कि

व्याख्या-न केवल बड़ी-बड़ी चीजें ही अपितु छोटी-सी-छोटी जरूरत की चीजें भी पूरे देश की एकता को कायम रखने में सहायक होती हैं। श्रीनगर में इस दृष्टि से केरल में बना हुआ साबुन ढूँढ़ने पर जरूर मिल जाता। बस की रफ्तार बढ़ी और जवाहर-सुरंग को पार कर गई। इससे उसे अपने साथियों के साथ अधिक आनंद आया। उसने यह अनुभव किया इस दुर्गम पथ को सुगम बनाने में इंजीनियरों की अदभत प्रतिभा, अदम्य साहस और महान कार्य-शक्ति निश्चय ही सराहनीय है। उसका ही यह सुफल है कि कश्मीर भारत के दूसरे भाग से हमेशा के लिए जड़े रहने योग्य बन गया है। बस सरंग पथ से प्रकाशधारा बहाती हुई और सीटी बजाती हुई आगे बढ़ रही थी। उस समय का दृश्य रोमांचकारी हो चला था। उस समय वह अपने साथियों के साथ मानव-शक्ति में यंत्र-शक्ति को श्रेष्ठता की स्वीकारते हुए बस से आगे बढ़ते जा रहा था।

विशेष-

  1. कश्मीर के दुर्गम स्थानों का उल्लेख है।
  2. यह अंश ज्ञानवर्द्धक है।

अर्थग्रहण संबंधी प्रश्नोत्तर
प्रश्न 1.
कौन-सी चीजें क्या कर देती हैं? उत्तर-छोटी-छोटी जरूरत की चीजें देश को एकतामय कर देती हैं।

प्रश्न 2.
क्यों रोमांचकारी दृश्य था?
उत्तर
रोमांचकारी दृश्य इसलिए था कि दुर्गम पर्वतीय प्रदेश को सुगम बनाने का अद्भुत और बेजोड़ कार्य इंजीनियरों द्वारा किया गया था। दूसरी बात यह कि बस प्रकाश-धारा बहाती और सीटी बजाती हुई सुरंग पथ से आगे बढ़ रही थी।

विषय-वस्तु पर आधारित प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न
उपर्युक्त गयांश का आशय स्पष्ट कीजिए।
उत्तर
उपर्युक्त गद्यांश के द्वारा लेखक ने आज के यांत्रिक युग का महत्वांकन करना चाहा है। इस संदर्भ में लेखक ने यह सुस्पष्ट करने का प्रयास किया है कि मानव-शक्ति से यांत्रिक शक्ति बहुत ही अधिक है। फिर मानवी-शक्ति के बिना यांत्रिक शक्ति का कोई उपयोग नहीं हो सकता है।

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions Page No. 200

Question 1.
What does an electric circuit mean?
Answer:
A continuous and closed path of an electric current is called an electric circuit.

Question 2.
Define the unit of current.
Answer:
The SI unit of electric current is ampere (A).
When I coulomb of electric charge flows through any cross. Section of a conductor in I second, the electric current flowing through it is said to be 1 ampere.
∵ 1 ampere = 1C/1s

Question 3.
Calculate the number of electrons constituting one coulomb of charge.
Answer:
The SI unit of electric charge is column, which is equivalent to the charge contained in nearly 6 × 1018 electrons.

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions Page No. 202

Question 1.
Name a device that helps to maintain a potential difference across a conductor.
Answer:
A source of electricity such as battery, cell, power supply etc. can maintain a potential difference.

Question 2.
What is meant by saying that the potential difference between two points is 1 V?
Answer:
One Volt is the potential difference between two points in a current-carrying conductor when 1 joule of work is done to move a charge of 1 coulomb from one point to the other.
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 96 Q 2
1 V = 1 Jc-1

Question 3.
How much energy is given to each coulomb of charge passing through a 6 V battery?
Answer:
W = VQ
= 6 × 1 = 6 joules
Hence 6 joules of energy is given to each coulomb of charge passing through a 6 V battery.

MP Board Solutions

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions page No. 209

Question 1.
On what factors does the resistance of a conductor depend?
Answer:
The resistance of a conductor depends upon main four factors which are given below:

  1. Length of the conductor.
  2. Cross-sectional area of the conductor.
  3. Natural of material of the conductor.
  4. Temperature of the conductor.

Question 2.
Will current flow more easily through a thick wire or a thin wire of the same material, when connected to the same source? Why?
Answer:
Thicker the wire, lower is the resistance of the wire. Hence, current flows more easily through a thick wire. It is because the resistance of a conductor is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section.

Question 3.
Let the resistance of an electrical component remains constant while the potential difference across the two ends of the component decreases to half of its former value. What change will occur in the current through it?
Answer:
As per ohm’s law, V = IR
\(\mathrm{I}=\frac{\mathrm{V}}{\mathrm{R}}\) —— (i)
Potential difference is half
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 103 Q 3
∴ Current flowing is also half of ts former value.

Question 4.
Why are coils of electric toasters and electric irons made of an alloy rather than a pure metal?
Answer:
a) Resistivity of iron = 10.0 × 10-8
Resistivity of Mercury = 94.0 × 10-8
Resistivity of an alloy is greater than iron. By this we conclude that, Iron is good conductor of heat comparing to Mercury.
b) Resistivity of silver is less, hence it is a good conductor of heat.

Question 5.
Use the data in Table 12.1 to answer the following:
Electrical resistivity of some substances at 20°C

Material Resistivity (Ωm)
Conductor Silver 1.60 x 10-8
Copper 1.62 x 10-8
Aluminium 2.63 x 10-8
Tungsten 5.20 x 10-8
Nickel 6.84 x 10-8
Iron 10.0 x 10-8
Chromium 12.9 x 10-8
Mercury 94.0 x 10-8
Manganese 1.84 x 10-6
Alloys Constantan 49 x 10-6
Manganin 44 x 10-6
Nichrome 100 x 10-6
Insulators Glass 1010 – 1014
Hard rubber 1013 – 1016
Ebonite 1015 – 1017
Diamond 1012 – 1013
Paper (dry) 1012

(a) Which among iron and mercury is a better conductor?
(b) Which material is the best conductor?
Answer:
(a) Resistivity of iron = 10.0 × 10-8 Ωm
Resistivity of mercury = 94.0 × 10-8 Ωm
Hence, resistivity of mercury is more than that of iron. This implies that iron is a better conductor than mercury.
(b) It can be observed from table that the resistivity of silver is the lowest among the listed materials. Hence, it is the best conductor.

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions page No. 213

Question 1.
Draw a schematic diagram of a circuit consisting of a battery of ‘three cells of 2 V each, a 5 Ω resistor, an 8 Ω resistor, and a 12 Ω resistor, and a plug key, all connected in series.
Answer:
Schematic diagram of a circuit:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 1
Question 2.
Redraw the circuit of question 1, putting in an ammeter to measure the current through the resistors and a voltmeter to measure the potential difference across the 12 Ω resistor. What would be the readings in the ammeter and the voltmeter?
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 2
Hence, reading in the ammeter would be 0.24 A and reading in voltmeter would be 2.88 V.

MP Board Solutions

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions Page No. 216

Question 1.
Judge the equivalent resistance when the following are connected in parallel:
(a) 1Ω, and 106 Ω
(b) 1 Ω, and 103 Ω and 106 Ω
Answer:
(a) 1 ohm and 106 times ohm
R1 = 1 ohm
R2 = 106 times = 1000000 ohm
Total resistance (parallel)
1/R = 1/R1 + 1/R2
= 1/1 + 1/1000000
= 1000000 + 1 /1000000
= 1000000/ 1000000
1/R = 1/1 ohm (approx.)
∴ Resistance = 1 ohm (approx.)

(b) Given R1 = 1 ohm
R2 = 103 ohm
R3 = 106 ohm
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 3

Question 2.
An electric lamp of 100Ω, a toaster of resistance 50Ω and a water filter of resistance 500Ω are connected in parallel to a 220 V source. What is the resistance of an electric iron connected to the same source that takes as much current as all three appliances, and what is the current through it?
Answer:
Resistance of Electric 1 amp R1 = 100Ω
Resistance of Tosser, R2 = 50Ω
Resistance of water filter, R3 = 50Ω
Potential difference, V = 220V
When these are connected in parallel,
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 110 Q 2
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 110 Q 2.1
7.04A of electricity is obtained by three appliances
Resistance of an electric iron connected to the same source that takes as much current as all three appliances
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 110 Q 2.2
∴ Resistance of iron box = 31.25Ω
Electricity flowing through this = 7.04A.

Question 3.
What are the advantages of connecting electrical devices in parallel with the battery instead of connecting them in series?
Answer:
(i) In parallel circuit, if one electrical appliance stops working due to some defect, then all other appliances keep working normally. In series circuit, if one electrical appliance stops working due to some defect, then all other appliances also stop working.

(ii) In parallel circuits, each electrical appliance gets the same voltage as that of the power supply line. In series circuit, appliances do not get the same voltage, as that of the power supply line.

(iii) In the parallel connection of electrical appliances, the overall resistance of the household circuit is reduced due to which the current from the power supply is high. In the series connection, the overall resistance of the circuit increases too much due to which the current from the power supply is low.

Question 4.
How can three resistors of resistances 2 Ω, 3 Ω, and 6 Ω be connected to give a total resistance of (a) 4Ω, (b) 1Ω?
Answer:
Given,
R1 = 2 Ω
R2 = 3 Ω
R3 = 6 Ω
(a) When R2 and R3 are connected in parallel with R1 in series we receive
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 4
(b) When R1, R2, R3 are connected in parallel we receive
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 5

Question 5.
What is (a) the highest, (b) the lowest total resistance that can be secured by combinations of four coils of resistance 4 Ω, 8 Ω, 12 Ω, 24 Ω?
Answer:
(a) For highest resistance according to question resistances must be connected in series:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 6
4 Ω, 8 Ω, 12 Ω, 24 Ω
R1 = 4 Ω
R2 = 8 Ω
R3 = 12 Ω
R4 = 24 Ω
Total resistance in series = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4
= 4 + 8 + 12 + 24
= 48 Ω
Now, resistance is maximum when connected in series.

(b) For lowest resistance, resistances must be connected in parallel.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 7
Resistance is lowest when connected in parallel.

MP Board Solutions

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions Page No. 218

Question 1.
Why does the cord of an electric heater not glow while the heating element does?
Answer:
In cord of an electric heater, as current flows these become hot arid glows but in case of electric heater this will not happen.

Question 2.
Compute the heat generated while transferring 96000 coulomb of charge in one hour through a potential difference of 50 V.
Answer:
Given, Charge = 96000 coulomb
Time = 1 hour = 3600 seconds
Potential difference = 50 V Ω
As we know, I = Q/T
I = 96000/36000 = 80/3 amp.
V = I × R
50 = 80/3 × R
So, R = 15/8 Ω
Now, Heat = I2RT
= (80/3)2 × 15/8 × 3600
800 × 6000
= 4800000 joules or 4.8 × 106 J

Question 3.
An electric iron of resistance 20Ω takes a current of 5 A. Calculate the heat developed in 30 s.
Answer:
As per Joule’s law
H = VIt
H = IR = 5A × 20Ω = 100V
I = 5A, t = 30 sec.
∴ H = 100 × 5 × 30 J
= 15000 J = 1.5 × 104 J.

Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Intext Questions Page No. 220

Question 1.
What determines the rate at which energy is delivered by a current?
Answer:
The rate at which electric energy is dissipated or consumed in an electric circuit is termed as electric power.
P = VI.

Question 2.
An electric motor takes 5 A from a 220 V line. Determine the power of the motor and the energy consumed in 2 h.
Answer:
P = VI
V = 220V, and I = 5A.
Power P = 220 × 5 = 1100 W
Power of the motor = P × t
P = 1100 W.
t = 2 Hr 2 × 60 × 60 W
= 7200 S
∴ Energy consumed, E = 1100 × 7200 J
= 7920000
= 7.92 × 106J.

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 NCERT Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
A piece of wire of resistance R is cut into five equal parts. These parts are then connected in parallel. If the equivalent resistance of this combination is R’, then the ratio \(\frac { R }{ R` } \) is –
(a) \(\frac { 1 }{ 25 }\)
(b) \(\frac { 1 }{ 5 }\)
(c) 5
(d) 25
Answer:
(d) 25

Question 2.
Which of the following terms does not represent electrical power in a circuit?
(a) I2R
(b) IR2
(c) VI
(d) \(\frac { { V }^{ 2 } }{ R } \)
Answer:
(b) IR2

Question 3.
An electric bulb is rated 220 V and 100 W. When it is operated on 110 V, the power consumed will be –
(a) 100 W
(b) 75 W
(c) 50 W
(d) 25 W
Answer:
(d) 25 W

Question 4.
Two conducting wires of the same material and of equal lengths and equal diameters are first connected in series and then parallel in a circuit across the same potential difference. The ratio of heat produced in series and parallel combinations would be-
(a) 1 : 2
(b) 2 : 1
(c) 1 : 4
(d) 4 : 1
Answer:
(c) 1 : 4

Question 5.
How is a voltmeter connected in the circuit to measure the potential difference between two points?
Answer:
Voltmeter is connected in parallel in the circuit to measure the potential difference between two points.

Question 6.
A copper wire has diameter 0.5 mm and resistivity of 1.6 × 10-8 Ω m. What will be the length of this wire to make its resistance 10 Ω? How much does the resistance change if the diameter is doubled?
Answer:
Given, Diameter = 0.5 mm = 0.0005 m
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 8
So, the resistance is one-fourth if the diameter is doubled.

Question 7.
The values of current I flowing in a given resistor for the corresponding values of potential difference V across the resistors are given below:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 9
Plot a graph between V and I and calculate the resistance of that resistor are given below:
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 10 (2)
Question 8.
When a 12 V battery is connected across an unknown resistor, there is a current of 2.5 mA in the circuit. Find the value of the resistance of the resistor.
Answer:
Given, V = 12v
I = 2.5 mA = 2.5 × 10-3 A
As we know, R = \(\frac { V }{ 1 } \)
R = \(\frac{12 \mathrm{V}}{2.5 \times 10^{-3} \mathrm{A}}\) = 48000 Ω
So, R = 4.8 kΩ

Question 9.
A battery of 9 V is connected in series with resistors of 0.2 Ω, 0.3 Ω, 0.4 Ω, 0.5 Ω, and 12 Ω respectively. How much current would flow through the 12 Ω resistor.
Answer:
R1 = 0.2 Ω R2 = 0.3 Ω R3 = 0.4 Ω R4 = 0.5 Ω R5 = 12 Ω
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 10
Given, V = 9 V
R5 = 0.2 Ω + 0.3 Ω + 0.4 Ω + 0.5 Ω + 12 Ω
= 13.4 Ω
According to formula I = \(\frac { V }{ R } \)
= \(\frac{9 \mathrm{V}}{13.4 \Omega}\)
= 0.67 A
0.67 A current would flow through the 12 Ω resistor.

Question 10.
How many 176 Ω resistors (in parallel) are required to carry 5 A on a 220 V line?
Answer:
Given
I = 5 A V = 220 V
Now, Let the number of 176 Ω resistors be n.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 11
So, four resistors of 176 Ω are required to carry 5 A on a 220 V line.

Question 11.
Show how you would connect three resistors, each of resistance 6Ω, so that the combination has a resistance of (i) 9Ω, (ii) 4Ω.
Answer:
If resistors are connected in series 6Ω + 6Ω + 6Ω =18Ω This ia not correct
When they are connected in parallel
\(\frac{1}{6}+\frac{1}{6}+\frac{1}{6}=3\) This is also wrong,
i) When they are connected in parallel
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 11
Two 6Ω resistors are connected in parallel
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 11.1
If 3rd resistor of 6Ω and 3Ω are connected in series, it becomes 6Ω + 3Ω = 9Ω.
ii) When they are connected in series
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 11.2
Resistance = 6Ω + 6Ω
= 12Ω
If 3rd resistor 6Ω is connected to 12Ω in parallel
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 11.3
Total resistance = 4Ω.

Question 12.
Several electric bulbs designed to be used on a 220 V electric supply line, are rated 10 W. How many lamps can be connected in parallel with each other across the two wires of 220 V line if the maximum allowable current is 5 A?
Answer:
Here V = 220V
I – 5A
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 12
∴ 110 lamps can be connected in parallel with each other across the two wires.

Question 13.
A hot plate of an electric oven connected to a 220 V line has two resistance coils A and B, each of 24Ω resistance, which may be used separately, in series, or in parallel. What are the currents in the three cases?
Answer:
(i) If coils are connected separately V = 220 V
Resistance R1 = 240
As per ohm’s law, V = IR
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 13
∴ If coils are connected separately 9.16A electricity flows in the coil.
(ii) If coils are connected in series
Resistance R2 = 24Ω + 24Ω = 48Ω
As per ohm’s law V = IR
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 13.1
∴ If coils are connected in series 4.58A electricity flows.

Question 14.
Compare the power used in the 20 resistors in each of the following circuits:
(i) a 6 V battery in series with 1Ω and 2Ω resistors, and
(ii) a 4 V battery in parallel with 12Ω and 2Ω resistors.
Answer:
(i) Potential Difference V = 6V
If 1Ω and 2Ω resistors are connected in series, then Resistance
R = 1 + 2 = 3W.
As per ohm’s law
\(\mathrm{I}=\frac{6}{3}=2 \mathrm{A}\)
P(I2)R = (2)2 × 2 = 8W.
(ii) Potential difference V = 4V
If 12Ω and 2Ω resistors are connected in parallel, voltage is equal
Voltage of resistance 2 W is 4 volts
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 14
∴ Power of 2Ω is 8 W.

Question 15.
Two lamps, one rated 100 W at 220 V, and the other 60 W at 220 V, are connected in parallel to electric mains supply. What current is drawn from the line if the supply voltage is 220 V?
Answer:
Both lamps are connected in parallel potential difference = 220 V
Power = V × I.
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity Ex Q 15

Question 16.
Which uses more energy, a 250 W TV set in 1 hr, or a 1200 W toaster in 10 minutes?
Answer:
250W TV set in used in 1 Hr, then its energy
= 250 × 3600 = 9 × 105
energy of Toaster = 1200 × 600
If it is used in 10 minutes, then its power = 1200 × 600 × 7.2 × 105 J
∴ Energy of 250 W TV set is used in 1 Hr is greater than 1200 W toaster used in 10 minutes.

Question 17.
An electric heater of resistance 8Ω draws 15 A from the service mains 2 hours.
Calculate the rate at which heat is developed in the heater.
Answer:
P = I2R
R = 8Ω, I = 15A
P= (15)2 × 8 = 1800 J/s.
∴ Rate at which heat is developed in the heater
= 1800 J/s.

Question 18.
Explain the following:
(a) Why is the tungsten used almost exclusively for filament of electric lamps?
(b) Why arc the conductors of electric heating devices, such as bread-toasters and electric irons, majle of an alloy rather than a pure metal?
(c) Why is the series arrangement not used for domestic circuits?
(d) How does the resistance of a wire vary with its area of cross-section?
(e) Why are copper and aluminium wires usually employed for electricity transmission?
Answer:
(a) Tungsten used almost exclusively for filament of electric lamps because its melting point is very high and resistivity of tungsten is low, it has special property of glowing on heating, it does not oxidized.

(b) The conductors of electric heating devices such as bread toasters and electric irons are made of alloy because resistivity of an alloy is higher than metal so alloy produces large amount of heat. They do not get oxidized. Melting point is also high.

(c) As in series, circuit voltage is divided. Components of a series circuit receives only small voltage so the amount of current decreases and the device turn hot and do not work properly. Hence, series arrangement is avoided being used in domestic circuits.

(d) Resistance (R) of a wire is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section (A) i.e., when area of cross section decreases the resistance increases or vice versa.

(e) Copper and aluminium are usually used for electricity transmission because they are good conductors of electricity and also have low resistivity and do not get heated.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Additional Important Questions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
SI unit of an electric current is equal to
(a) 6 × 108 C
(b) 9.8 × 1010 C
(c) 1.6 × 10-19 C
(d) None of these
Answer:
(d) None of these

Question 2.
Which materials have changing resistivity?
(a) Conductors
(b) Semiconductors
(c) Non-metals
(d) Super metals
Answer:
(b) Semiconductors

Question 3.
If wire in a circuit is doubled its resistivity will be?
(a) Two times
(b) Ten times
(c) Zero
(d) half
Answer:
(d) half

Question 4.
A wire used in circuit must be
(a) Highly resistant
(b) Non resistance
(c) Have high melting point
(d) None of these
Answer:
(b) Non resistance

Question 5.
A heating w ire must have
(a) High melting point
(b) High conductivity to heat
(c) Both
(d) None
Answer:
(b) High conductivity to heat

Question 6.
SI unit of resistance is:
(a) Coulomb
(b) Ampere
(c) Ohm
(d) Ohm – meter
Answer:
(c) Ohm

Question 7.
Symbol for use of voltmeter in circuit is:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 12
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 13

Question 8.
Symbol for use of battery in circuit is:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 14
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 15

Question 9.
Relation of potential difference and current is represented by:
(a) Joule’s law
(b) Ohm’s law
(c) Dalton’s law
(d) None
Answer:
(b) Ohm’s law

Question 10.
Formula which represents the relation among potential difference and current following in a circuit is:
(a) V = IR
(b) V = I/R
(c) l = Q/t
(d) R = p \(\frac { l }{ A } \)
Answer:
(a) V = IR

Question 11.
Kilo watt is a unit for:
(a) Power
(b) Electrical energy commercial
(c) Resistance
(d) Current flow in circuit
Answer:
(a) Power

Question 12.
Which one has less resistance?
(a) 10 watt bulb
(b) 15 watt LED
(c) 60 watt bulb
(d) 60 watt LED.
Answer:
(a) 10 watt bulb

Question 13.
In which type of combinations resistance is more?
(a) Series Combination
(b) Parallel combination
(c) both
(d) Single resistance unit.
Answer:
(a) Series Combination

Question 14.
Joule’s law formulation is
(a) H = IRT
(b) H = I2RT
(c) P = VI
(d) RT = PV
Answer:
(d) RT = PV

Question 15.
Hardest metal which can resist maximum heat is:
(a) Lead
(b) Tungsten
(c) Silver
(d) Carbon
Answer:
(b) Tungsten

Question 16.
If current passing a circuit is 10 A and wire is connected to 100 volt line resistant in the wire will be:
(a) 10 A
(b) 10 Ω
(c) 100 Ω
(d) O Ω
Answer:
(b) 10 Ω

Question 17.
An insulator has a resistivity equals to:
(a) 10-8 Ω m
(b) 10 Ω m
(c) 5 Ω m
(d) 10-18
Answer:
(a) 10-8 Ω m

Question 18.
Calculate current-(I) in circuit given below:
(a) 0.6 A
(b) 20 A
(c) 50 A
(d) 10 A
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 16
Answer:
(a) 0.6 A

Question 19.
If resistors are arranged in parallel with value 1 Ω, 2 Ω and 3 Ω Total resistant will be:
(a) more than 3 Ω
(b) less than 3 Ω
(c) less than 1 Ω
(d) equal to 1 Ω
Answer:
(b) less than 3 Ω

Question 20.
The changing 1 kWh to joule will be equal to
(a) 3.6 × 106 J
(b) 3.6 × 10-6 J
(c) 1.6 × 106 J
(d) 1 × 106 J
Answer:
(a) 3.6 × 106 J

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What kind of circuit is required for flow of current ?
Answer:
Closed.

Question 2.
Draw a schematic diagram of a simple electric with battery, bulb, ammeter and key.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 17

Question 3.
Express in formula form:

  1. net charge of a circuit
  2. time taken for production of a unit amount of current.

Answer:

  1. Q = It.
  2. t = Q/I.

Question 4.
What is the value of an electric charge for an electron?
Answer:
-1.6 × 10-19 C.

Question 5.
Formulate relationship between potential difference and current.
Answer:
V = IR.

Question 6.
Draw the graph verifying ohm’s law.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 18

Question 7
Draw circuit with three resistor in series combination.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 19

Question 8.
Represent with diagram:
(i) A cell
(ii) A bulb.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 20

Question 9.
Which material has highest conductivity and least resistance?
Answer:
Super conductors.

Question 10.
Which quality of electrical energy is inversely proportional to electrical power?
Answer:
Resistance.

Question 11.
Calculate resistance between terminal P & Q of following diagram.
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 21
First R1 and R2 are in series.
So, R’ = R1 + R2 = 1 Ω + 1 Ω = 2 Ω.
then, R3 and R4 are in series
R” = R3 + R4 = 1 Ω + 1 Ω = 2 Ω
Now both R’ and R” are in parallel.
\(\frac { 1 }{ R } \) = \(\frac{1}{R^{\prime}}+\frac{1}{R^{\prime \prime}}+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{2}=1\)
So, R = 1 Ω

Question 12.
If a circuit has open key will current flow from it?
Answer:
No.

Question 13.
If ammeter is not placed in circuit will current flow?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 14.
Which gas is filled in electric bulb?
Answer:
Argon.

Question 15.
Write the formula representing relationship between heat produced and current flowing in a circuit.
Answer:
H = I2RT.

Question 16.
Write the formula to calculate power generated by a circuit a with current M.
Answer:
Since, P = VI
Putting value of I, P = VM (I = m, Given)

Question 17.
Convert 5 kWh in joule.
Answer:
1 kWh = 3.6 × 106 Joule
5 kWh = 5 × 3.6 × 106 J.
= 16 × 106 J
or 1.6 × 107 J

Question 18
One volt ampere is equal to how many watt power?
Answer:
1 Watt Power.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is electric current?
Answer:
Total charge which pass through a particular area in unit time is called electric current of that particular conductor.

Question 2.
What is potential difference?
Answer:
Movement of electron need a pressure difference among conductors. Hence, battery or current flow suppliers are added to circuit. This difference in potential is called potential difference.

Question 3.
Define Ohm’s law.
Answer:
Ohm’s law states that current flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to its potential difference. It is represented by formula,
V α I
or V = RI
or V = IR
Here, R is a constant known as resistance.

Question 4.
Why resistance is applied to a circuit?
Answer:
To control the current flow in desired way resistance is applied. Example- Regulator of fan give desired speed of wind flow by controlling flow of current which is being converted to physical energy by fan.

Question 5.
Write down the factors at which the resistance of the conductor depends.
Answer:

  1. Length of wire: Resistance is directly proportional to length R ∝ L.
  2. Area cross section: Resistance is inversely proportional to area cross section of a wire R ∝ 1/A.
  3. Nature of material.
  4. Temperature of the conductor.

Question 6.
Arrange the resistivity in decreasing order of following material,
Iron, Silver, Tungsten, Manganin and Glass
Answer:
Glass > Manganin > Iron > Tungsten > Silver.

Question 7.
Give reason for the following:

  1. Electric bulbs are usually filled with chemically inactive gases like nitrogen and argon.
  2. Copper and aluminium wires are usually employed for electricity transmission.
  3. Fuse wire is placed in series with the device.

Answer:

  1. Electric bulbs are usually filled with chemically inactive gases like nitrogen and argon because these gases do not react with the hot tungsten filament and hence, prolong the life of filament of the electric bulb.
  2. Copper and aluminium wires are usually employed for electricity transmission because copper and aluminium have low resistivity and thus, they are very good conductors of electricity.
  3. Fuse wire is placed in series with the device because when large current passes through the circuit the fuse wire gets heated up and melts and whole circuit breaks and the device is protected from the damage.

Question 8.
If R1 = 10 Ω, R2 = 20 Ω and R3 = 30 Ω, calculate the effective resistance when they are connected in series to a battery of 6 V. Also find the current flowing in the circuit.
(a) Current flows through different resistances, when these are joined in series, as shown in the below figure:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 22
(b) R1 = 10 Ω, R2 = 20 Ω, R3 = 30 Ω
Effective resistance, R = R1 + R2 + R3
R 10 + 20 + 30 = 60 Ω
Potential difference, V = 6V,
Current, I = ?
According to Ohm’s law
V = IR

Question 9.
Find the resistance between points A and B in the circuit diagram given below
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 23
Answer:
R2, R3, R4 are in series and have resultant resistance R
R’ = R2 + R3 + R4
= 2 + 2 + 2 = 6 Ω
R’ is in parallel combination with R1
∴ Resultant resistance of the circuit (R’)
⇒ \(\frac { 1 }{ R } \) = \(\frac{1}{R_{1}}+\frac{1}{R_{1}}\) = \(\frac { 1 }{ 6 } \) + \(\frac { 1 }{ 6 } \) = \(\frac { 2 }{ 6 } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ 3 } \)
∴ Resistance, R = 3 Ω.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
An electric iron consumes energy at a rate of 840 W when heating is at the maximum and 360 W when the heating is at the minimum. The voltage at which it is running is 220 V. What are the current and resistance in each case?
Solution:
At maximum heating:
The consumption of energy (electric) is given at the rate of 840 W at voltage 220 V.
P = 840 Ω, V = 220 V
Then current, I1 = ?
∴ P = V × I1
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 24

Question 2.
Three resistors of 5 Ω,10 Ω and 15 Ω are connected in series and the combination is connected to battery of 30 V. Ammeter and Voltmeter are connected in the circuit. Draw a circuit diagram to connect devices all the in correct order. What is the current flowing and potential difference across 10 Ω resistance?
Answer:
Current flowing I = ?
V2 = ?
Total resistance, R = R1 + R2 + R3
= 5 + 10 + 15 = 30 Ω
Total potential difference, V = 30 volts
According to Ohm’s law V = IR
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 25
Potential difference across 10 Ω is 10 volts.

Question 3.
Nichrome wire of length ‘l’ and radius ‘r’ has resistance of 10 Ω. How would the resistance of the wire change when:
(a) (i) Only length of the wire is doubled?
(ii) Only diameter of the wire is doubled? Justify your answer.
(b) Why element of electrical heating devices are made up of alloys?
Solution:
(a) Resistance, R ∝ 1
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 26
(i) Resistance is directly proportional to the length of the conductor. If length of nichrome wire (I) is doubled its resistance also gets doubled.
∴ R’ new resistance = 20 Ω

(ii) The resistance of the wire is inversely proportional to the square of its diameter. If the diameter of the wire is doubled, its resistance becomes one-fourth.
∴ R’, new resistance = \(\frac { 10 }{ 4 } \) Ω = 2.5 Ω.

(b) The heating elements of electrical heating appliances are made up of nichrome alloy because,

  • Nichrome has very high resistivity due to which it produces a lot of heat on passing current.
  • Nichrome does not undergo oxidation easily even at high temperature, it can be kept red hot without burning.

Question 4.
The resistance of a wire of 0.01 cm radius is 10 Ω. If the resistivity of the material of the wire is 50 × 10-8 ohm meter, find the length of the wire.
Answer:
Resistance of a wire, R = 10 Ω Radius, r = 0.01 × 10-2 m
Resistivity, p = 50 × 10-8 ohm meter Length of the wire, l = ?
Area of cross section, A = πr2 = 3.14 × (0.01 × 1o-2)2 m2
= 3.14 × 0.01 × 0.01 × 10-4 m2
= 3.14 × 10-8 m2
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 27

Question 5.
(a) Calculate the resistance of the wire using the graph.
(b) How many 176 Ω resistors in parallel are required to carry 5 A on a 220 V line?
(c) Define electric power. Derive relation between power, potential difference and resistance.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 28
Answer:
(a) Resistance of wire = Slope of the graph
According to Ohm’s law,
V = IR or R = \(\frac { V }{ I } \)
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 29
(b) Resistance, R1 = 176 Ω, No. of resistors = n,
Current, I = 5A
Potential difference, V = 220 volts, Resultant resistance = R According to Ohm s law,
V = IR, R = \(\frac { V }{ 1 } \) = \(\frac { 220 }{ 5 } \) = 44 Ω
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 30
Thus, 4 resistors of 176 Ω in parallel combination are required to carry 5 A on a 220 V line.

(c) Electric power is defined as the electrical work done per unit-time.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 31
The work done, W by current, I when it flows for time t under potential difference V is given by
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 32

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 12 NCERT Textbook Activities

Class 10 Science Activity 12.1 Pages No. 203.204

  • Set up circuit as shown in figure, consisting of a mchrome wire XY of length, say 0.5 m, an ammeter, a voltmeter and four cells of 1.5 V each (Nichrome is an alloy of nickel, chromium, manganese, and iron metals.)
  • First use only cell as the source in the circuit. Note the reading of the voltmeter V for the potential difference across the nichrome wire XY in the circuit. Tabulate them in table given.
  • Next connect two cells in the circuit and note the respective readings of the ammeter and voltmeter for the values of current through the nichrome wire and potential difference across the nichrome wire.
  • Repeat the above steps using three cells and then four cells in the circuit separately.
  • Calculate the ratio of V to 1 for each pair of potential difference V and current I.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 33
  • Plot a graph between V and 1, and observe the nature of the graph.

Observations:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 34
Approximately same value for \(\frac { V }{ I } \) will be obtained in each case. The straight line is obtained in the V – I graph. Thus, \(\frac { V }{ I } \) is a constant ratio.

Class 10 Science Activity 12.2 Page No. 205

  • Take a nichrome wire, a torch bulb, a 10 W bulb and an ammeter (0-5 A range), a plug key and some connecting wires.
  • Set up the circuit by connecting four dry cells of 1.5 V each in series with the ammeter leaving a gap XY in the circuit as shown in Fig. 12.1.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 35
  • Complete the circuit by connecting the nichrome wire in the gap XY. Plug the key. Note down the ammeter reading. Take out the key from the plug. [Note: Always take out the key from the plug after measuring the current the circuit.
  • Replace the nichrome wire with the torch bulb in the circuit and find the current through it by measuring the reading of the ammeter.
  • Now repeat the above step with the 10 W bulb in the gap XY.
  • Are the ammeter readings differ for different components in the gap XY? What do the above observations indicate?
  • You may repeat this Activity by keeping any material component in the gap. Observe the ammeter readings in each case. Analyse the observations.

Observations:

  • The current is different for different components as certain components offer an easy path for the flow of electric current while the others resist the flow.

Class 10 Science Activity 12.3 Page No. 206

  • Complete an electric circuit consisting of cell, an ammeter, a nichrome wire of length l [say, marked (1)] ana a plug key, as shown in Fig. 12.2.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 36
    Electric circuit to study the factors on which the resistance of conducting wires depends.
  • Figure 12.2. Electric circuit ti study the factors on which the resistance of conducting wires depends
  • Now, plug the key. Note the current in the ammeter.
  • Replace the nichrome wire by another nichrome wire of same thickness but twice the length, that is 2l [marked (2) in the Fig. 12.2],
  • Note the ammeter reading.
  • Now replace the wire by a thicker nichrome wire of the same length / [marked (3)]. A thicker wire has a larger cross-sectional area. Again note down the current through the circuit.
  • Instead of taking a nichrome wire, connect a copper wire [marked (4) in Fig. 12.2] in the circuit. Let the w ire be of the same length and same area of cross-section as that of the first nichrome wire [marked (1)]. Note the value of the current.
  • Notice the difference in the current in all cases.
  • Does the current depend in the length of the conductor?
  • Does the current depend on the area of cross-section of the wire used?

Observations:

  • The length of the conductor affects the current flow. Ammeter reading decreases to one-half when the length of the wire is doubled.
  • The cross-section of the wire also affects the current flow. The length and cross-section changes affect the resistance also.

Class 10 Science Activity 12.4 Page No. 210

  • Join three resistors of different values in series. Connect them with a battery, an ammeter and a plug key. as shown in Fig. 12.3. You may use the resistors of values like 1Ω, 2Ω, 3Ω etc, and a battery of 6 V for performing this Activity.
  • Plug the key. Note the ammeter reading.
  • Change the position if ammeter to anywhere in between the resistors. Note the ammeter reading each time.
  • Do you find any change in the value of current through the ammeter?MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 37

Observations:

  • The value of the current in the ammeter remains unchanged. This shows that it is independent of its position in the electric current. This shows that the current is the same in every part of a series combination.

Class 10 Science Activity 12.5 Page No. 211

  • In Activity 12.4, insert a voltmeter across the ands X and Y of the series combination of three resistors, as shown in Fig. 12.4.
  • Plug the key in the circuit and note series combination of resistors. Let it be V. Now measure the potential difference across the two terminals of the battery. Compare the two values.
  • Take out the plug key and disconnect the voltmeter. Now insert the voltmeter across the ands X and P the first resistor, as shown in Fig. 12.4.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 38
  • Plug the key and measure the potential difference across the first resistor. Lei it be V1.
  • Similarly, measure the potential difference across the first resistor, separately. Let these values be V3, and V2, respectively.
  • Deduce a relationship between V, V1, V2 and V3.

Observations:

• The potential difference (V) is equal to the sum of potential differences V1, V2, and V3.
• Total potential difference across a combination of resistors in series is equal to the sum of potential difference across the individual resistors,
V = V1 + V2 + V3

Class 10 Science Activity 12.6 Page No. 211

  • Make a parallel combination. X Y of three resistors having resistances R1, R2, and R3, respectively Connect it with a battery, a plug key and an ammeter, as shown in Fig. 12.5. Also connect a voltmeter in parallel with the combination of resistors
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 39
  • Plug the key and note the ammeter reading. Let the current be I. Also take the voltmeter reading. It gives the potential difference V, across the combination. The potential difference across each resistor is also V. This can be checked by connecting the voltmeter across each individual resistor (see Fig. 12.6).
  • Take out the plug from the key. Remove the ammeter and voltmeter from the circuit. Insert the ammeter in series with the resistor Rl, as shown in Fig. 12.6. Note the ammeter reading, 11.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity 40

Similarly, measure the currents through R2 and R3 Let these be I2, and I3, respectively. What is the relationship between I, I1, I2 and I3?

Observations:

  • The total current I, is equal to the sum of the separate currents through each branch of the combination,
    I = I1 + I2 + I3

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th English Solutions The Rainbow Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree (W.B. Yeats)

Lake Isle of Innisfree Textbook Exercises

Lake Isle of Innisfree  Vocabulary

I. Distinguish between the following pairs of words:
MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree 1
Answer:
Rows—Boys are standing in rows.
Rose—He rose to greet his uncle.
Be—Be honest
Bee—The bee gathers honey from the flowers.
Peace—India believes in peace and prosperity.
Piece—I gave him a piece of advice.
Veil—Muslim women wear veils.
Well—I am quite well.
Morning—I got up early in the morning.
Mourning—She kept mourning for days when her daughter died.
Shore—The ship has reached the shore.
Sure—I am sure of success.
Heart—Do not take my words to heart.
Hurt—He was hurt while playing football.

II. Describe in your own words the following:
a lake, a river, the sea.
Answer:

  • A lake is a large area of water surrounded by land.
  • A river is a large natural stream of water flowing in a channel.
  • The sea is the salt water that covers most of the earth’s surface and surrounds its continents and islands.

Comprehension
A. Answer the following questions in about 25 words.

Question 1.
What does the poet want to do after going to the lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
After going to the lake Isle of Innisfree, the poet wants to build a small cabin in a secluded place. He will grow vegetables for his own use near his cabin. He will also have a hive for his honey bees.

Question 2.
How does peace come to the poet in the lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
At dawn, the poet will hear cricket’s song. He would hear the song of the linnets flying all around in the evening. He would view the stars glimmering in the sky at midnight. All these beauties of nature would bring him peace of mind.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
What impressions do the varying times of the day leave on the poet’s mind in the lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
The varying times of the day leave a deep impression on the poet’s mind. The melodious sounds of small insects like cricket attract the poet in the morning. Several insects flying in the sky in the evening create a lively atmosphere for him. The noon gives a purple coloured brightness for him. It cheers his heart.

Question 4.
How does the poet hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore in the lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
Sometimes the poet is far away from Innisfree. He is standing on the roadside or on the pavement. Even then he hears in the deep core of his heart the low sounds of lake water lapping with the shore in the Lake Isle of Innisfree.

Question 5.
How do the lines in each of .the three quatrains of the poem rhyme?
Answer:
In the 1st quatrain ‘Innisfree’ rhymes with ‘honey bee.’ and ‘made’ rhymes with ‘glade.’
In the 2nd quatrain ‘slow’ rhymes with ‘glow’ and ‘sings’ rhymes with ‘wings.’
In the 3rd quatrain ‘day’ rhymes with ‘grey’ and ‘shore’ rhymes with ‘core.’

B. Answer the following questions in about 50 words.

Question 1.
Why does the poet want to go to the lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
The poet is standing on a London pavement. It is a noisy and crowded place. Innisfree is a lovely island. It is situated in a lake. It is a place of great natural beauty. It is free from din and bustle of modern world. It gives peace to the poet’s mind. He finds a world of difference between London and Innisfree. Therefore, he wants to go to the Lake Isle of Innisfree. The sounds of the lake beckon him. He dare not resist their strong and sincere call.

Question 2.
What is the significance of the nine bean rows with which the poet wants to build a hive for the honey-bee in the lake Isle of Innisfee?
Answer:
The poet longs to grow vegetables and plants for his own use. He would grow nine-bean rows. The honey bees will hum loudly all around. Their sweet humming will produce a sweet music. The honey bees build their hives which are like nine-bean rows. The bees will confuse it as their hive and gather honey there. In this way, the poet will enjoy the musical humming of the bees. He would also get honey and vegetables. It would grant his soul satisfaction, charm and peace.

Speaking Skill

I. I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin build there, of clay and ivattles made:
Nine bean-roivs will I have there, a hive for the honeybee,
And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

The poet here dreams of simple unadorned life close to nature on an island. According to him, life in London is full of disgust and boredom. He decides to sail to Innisfree and make for himself a small hut by the side of the Sea. Only in such a heaven the poet can have peace and contentment. Compare and contrast life in the city and life in the country. Discuss with your friends.
Answer:
Life in the city versus life in the country.

Life in the City Life in the County
City life has numerous attrac­tions and advantages. There are facilities of trade, employment, recreation, education and advanced medical aid. There are glamour, hotels, clubs, cars and of course fashion models. There are different modes of transport and communication. Everything is available in plenty. The life of the people is hectic and hasty. People do not waste time in gossips and quarrels. A big city is like the garden of Eden. But there is pollution every-where in the city. A village is free from the din and noise which damages physical health. The country is slow but steady. People do not suffer from hypertension. There is crowdfree and open atmo­sphere. People live in the lap of nature. Atmosphere is free from air pollution. Fresh air, water, milk and vegetables are in plenty. Life is not showy and artificial. The rural games are healthy. They are simple in mind, speech and action. Rural life is heavenly life.

II. Speak on your recollections of childhood with the help of the following clues:
companions, games, carefree life style, school, old friends and sweet memories
Answer:
I am sixteen years old. I have many recollections of my childhood. I had a number of companions. We used to play kabaddi and football. We had no cares or worries. Our lifestyle was carefree. I used to study in a public school. I used to go to school in the school bus. A few students of my class were my close friends. We used to tease the naughty students. We used to help our friends in studies. We used to bathe in a lake every morning. We went out for the morning walk daily.

Writing Skill

Question 1.
You have been to a sight seeing trip to a lake recently. Make a diary entry of your experiences.
Answer:
18th June, 20xx 10 P.M.
Our class decided to go to Sultanpur lake for a sight seeing trip. We had hired a bus. We reached there at sunrise. We heard the songs of birds. There were a large number of tourists there. We took photos of birds and trees. We splashed water of the lake on one another. We sat on the grass. We took tea and snacks. Then we bathed in the cool water of the lake. We had a cultural programme. Many tourists joined us. We spent four hours there in full joy and pleasure.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
‘Nature has a remedy for all’. Elaborate the thought.
Answer:
Nature has a Remedy for all. An apple a day keeps the doctor away is a well known saying. The apples come direct from woods. A morning walk in open spaces makes one healthy. The sick people go to hills and countryside. They regain health. All the herbs are found in natural surroundings. The money-minded persons trade in honey, hides, timber and fuel woods. They get these items direct from forests. All the nutrients, medicines and minerals are provided by nature. Fresh water comes from nature. In short, nature caters to the needs of all. As such, nature has a remedy for all. It is the best healer. It provides us with mental peace and joy.

Think It Over

Question 1.
The person who risks nothing does nothing, has nothing, and is nothing. He may avoid suffering and sorrow. But he cannot learn, feel, change, or grow. Chained by his attitudes he is a slave. He has forfeited his freedom. Only a person who risks is free. Think and write your views on it.
Answer:
Risk can be defined as the probable and potential loss arising out of uncertainties. Uncertainties arise due to changes taking place in the prevailing environment. A person who invests money in banks does not get as much profit like the person who invests in business. He may avoid suffering and sorrow for some time but he will regret forever. Such a person remains static. He fails to get extra benefits. If a country does not take risk in driving away encroachers it would lose both its land and prestige. One who does not enter a river for fear of risk can never go across it. Risks are the stepping stones to success.

Question 2.
A man is a hero, not because he is braver than anyone else, but because he is brave for ten minutes longer. Ponder over it.
Answer:
For self-attempt.

Things To Do

Prepare a project of a historical/educational visit. Take help of the points given below:

  1. peer/group which undertakes the project
  2. selection of the place to be visited and time of the visit
  3. learning activities:
    • the geography of the place
    • the history of the place
    • important people of historical personalities of the place
    • important events connected with the place
  4. guide and counsellor
  5. allotment of job/work’
  6. budget (approximate expenditure)

Answer:
For self-attempt.

Lake Isle of Innisfree Additional Important Questions

A. Read the stanzas and answer the questions that follow:

1.I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
and a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made:
Nine beanrows will I have there,
a hive for the honey bee,
and live alone in the bee-loud glade.
I shall have some peace there, for peace
comes dropping slow,
dropping from the veils
of the morning to where the cricket sings,
there midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon
a purple glow and evening full of the linnet’s wings. (Page 122) (M.P. Board 2012)

MP Board Solutions

Questions:
(i) Identify the poem and the poet.
(ii) What does the poet mean by ’I will arise’?
(Hi) Why does the poet want to go to Innisfree?
(iv) What does the poet want to do after going to the Lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answers:
(i) The poem is Lake Isle of Innisfree and the poet is WB Yeats.
(ii) The poet means to say that he will build a cabin and live there.
(iii) The poet wants to go there for peace.
(iv) The poet will enjoy peace and bliss of nature.

2. And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;
There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow
And evening full of the linnet’s wings. (Page 122)

Questions:
(a) The poet of the above stanza is
(i) Robert Frost
(ii) William Wordsworth
(iii) John Keats
(iv) W.B. Yeats

(b) Find the word from the above stanza which is opposite in meaning to ‘midday’.
(c) Find the word from the above stanza which means same as ‘shine’.
(d) Who sings there in the morning?
Answers:
(a) (iv) W.B. Yeats
(b) midnight
(c) glow
(d) A cricket sings there in the morning.

I. Match the following:
1. The poet wants to go – (a) the bees back to
2. His cabin will be of – (b) crickets’ song at dawn
3. He will have a hive for – (c) Innisfree
4. He will hear – (d) beckons him
5. The sound of lake water – (e) clay and thin sticks.
Answer:
1. (c), 2. (e), 3. (a), 4. (b), 5. (d).

II. Pick up the correct choice:
(i) ’Lake Isle of Innisfree’ is composed by:
(a) W.B. Yeats
(b) John Keats
(c) William Wordsworth
(d) Milton.
Answer:
(a) W.B. Yeats

(b) A. And a small – (hut/cabin) build there.
B. And live alone in the – (bee-loud/beloved) glade.
C. There midnight is all a – (glitter/glimmer) and noon a purple glow.
D. I hear it in the – (large/deep) heart’s core.
Answer:
A. cabin
B. bee-loud
C. glimmer
D. deep.

MP Board Solutions

III. Write ‘True’ or ‘False’:
1. Innisfree is a little island in Lough Gill.
2. The poet intends to have twelve bean-rows there.
3. Peace drops there from the veils of the morning to where the circket sings.
4. There the noon is full of linnet’s wings.
5. The poet hears lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore.
Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True.

IV. Fill in the following blanks:
1. And a small cabin build there of ……………. and wattles made.
2. And live ………….. in the bee-loud glade.
3. There ……………… is all a glimmer.
4. There evening is full of linnet’s ………..
5. He hears …………. water lapping with low sound.
Answer:

  1. clay
  2. alone
  3. midnight
  4. wings
  5. lake.

B. Short Answer Type Questions (In about 25 words)

Question 1.
What does the poet hear and see in Innisfree? What effect does it have on him?
Answer:
The poet hears cricket’s songs in the dim light of the dawn in Innisfree. He hears the songs of. the linnets flying here and there. He sees the stars glimmering in the sky at midnight. All these beauties of nature
bring peace to the poet’s mind.

Question 2.
What does the poet hear in his ‘heart’s core even when he is far away from Innisfree?
Answer:
The poet was standing on a london pavement. He had spent most of his boyhood in Sligo. He had visited Innisfree many times. He hears the sound of the lake water beating against the shores of the lake. He hears it day and night in his heart.

Question 3.
‘And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings.” Elaborate the idea contained in these lines.
Answer:
The poet feels that he has been transported to Innisfree. He hears the cricket singing somewhere near him in the twilight of the morning. It is singing songs of a care free life. The poet hopes to get some slow dropping peace by hearing the cricket’s song.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Explain: ‘Bee-loud glade’ and ‘Evenings full of the linnet’s wings’?
Answer:
The honey-bees are humming loudly all around. Their sweet humming is producing sweet music. It brings the picture of lovely glade to our mind. Linnets keep flying all around in the sky in the evenings. They are also producing a sweet music. It brings the picture of lovely evenings to our mind.

C. Long Answer Type Questions (In about 50 words)

Question 1.
The poet W.B. Yeats is greatly inclined towards nature. Justify.
Answer:
The poet visited the Lake Isle of Innisfree many a time in his teens. He lives in London but is fed up with its rat-race. He wants to go back to Innsifree. He will build a small and simple cabin in a secluded place. He will enjoy the sights of birds crickets and linnets and hear their songs. He will enjoy the glimmer of stars at midnight. The purple glow of sun at noon will provide charm to his weary soul. The flowing water of the lake and its low sounds will gladden his heart. This shows that he is greatly inclined towards nature.

Question 2.
What are the ideas contained in the poem ‘The Lake Isle of Innisfree?
Answer:
W.B. Yeats is fed up with the rat-race going on in London. He wants to go back to Innisfree. The old memories of the lake Isle haunt him. He thinks of building a small and simple cabin there. He would grow beans there. He would enjoy the constant working of nature. He would seek peace hearing the songs of crickets and linnets. The natural sights of starry nights and glowing noons will grant his soul satisfaction, fascination and peace. He will feel charmed at the sight of lapping water flowing towards the shore slowly. The ideas of peace, beauty, happiness and satisfaction are contained in this poem.

Introduction

The poet wants to go back to Innisfree, a place devoid of all the fret and fury of the world in turmoil. He longs to spend his life these days in peace. He will be happy there.

Summary in English

The poet wants to go back to Innisfree as soon as possible. He will build a small cabin there with clay and thin sticks. He will grow vegetables (beans) in rows. He will have a hive for the bees. He will live alone in his beloved glade.

The poet hopes to get peace by hearing cricket song at dawn and enjoying the glimmer of stars at midnight. The purple glow of the sun will amuse his weary soul at noon. The song of linnets will provide him with joy in the evenings. He hears the sound of lake water constantly in the core of his heart. It beckons him. He dare not resist the strong call. Therefore, he desires to go there immediately.

MP Board Solutions

Summary in Hindi

कवि यथासम्भव शीघ्र ही वापिस इनिजफ्री जाना चाहता है। वह मिट्टी तथा पतली लकड़ियों से वहाँ एक छोटी कोठरी बनाएगा। वह पंक्तियों में सब्जियाँ (सेम) उगाएगा। वह मधुमक्खियों के लिए छत्ता बनाएगा। वह अपने प्रिय वनीय स्थान में अकेला रहेगा।

कवि को आशा है कि वह प्रातः झींगुरों के गीत सुनकर और आधी रात में सितारों की टिमटिमाहट का आनन्द लेते हुए शान्ति प्राप्त करेगा। दोपहर को सूर्य की बैंगनी चमक उसकी थकी हुई आत्मा को आनन्दित करेगी। शाम को उसे लिनेट चिड़िया का गीत आह्लादित करेगा। वह अपने हृदय के केन्द्र में निरन्तर झील के पानी की कलकल ध्वनि सुनता रहता है। वह उसे पुकारती है। उसमें उसकी सशक्त आवाज का विरोध करने का साहस नहीं है, इसलिए वह तुरन्त वहाँ जाना चाहता है।

Word-Meanings

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree 2

Some Important Pronunciations

MP Board Class 10th English The Rainbow Solutions Chapter 14 Lake Isle of Innisfree 3

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Intext Questions

Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Intext Questions Page No. 168

Question 1.
Define the principal focus of a concave mirror.
Answer:
The number of rays parallel to the principal axis are falling on a concave mirror which meat at a point is called principal focus of the concave mirror.

(or)

Light rays that are parallel to the principal axis of a concave mirror converge at a specific point on its principal axis after reflecting from the mirror. This point is known as the principal focus of concave mirror.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 1

Question 2.
The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is 20 cm. What is its focal length?
Answer:
R = 2f Here R = 20 cm
20 = 2f
∴ \(f=\frac { 20 }{ 2 } =10\)
∴ Focal length = 10 cm.

Question 3.
Name a mirror that can give an erect and enlarged image of an object.
Answer:
Concave mirror can give an erect and enlarged image of an object when object is placed between the pole and principal focus.

Question 4.
Why do we prefer a convex mirror as a rear-view mirror in vehicles?
Answer:
A convex mirror when fitted at rear-view position of vehicles, it gives a wider field of view, with which driver can see most of the traffic behind him. Convex mirrors give a virtual, erect and diminished image of the objects in front of it. So, we prefer a convex mirror as a rear-view mirror in vehicles.

MP Board Solutions

Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Intext Questions Page No. 171

Question 1.
Find the focal length of a convex mirror whose radius of curvature is 32 cm.
Answer:
Radius of curvature, R = 32 cm
Radius of curvature = 2f
\(R=2f=\frac { R }{ 2 } =\frac { 32 }{ 2 } =16\)
∴ Convex mirror focal length is = 16cm

Question 2.
A concave mirror produces three times magnified (enlarged) real image of an object placed at 10 cm in front of it. Where is the image located?
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 2
Let the height of the object = h0 = h
Then, height of the image, h1 = -3h (Image formed is real)
= \(\frac { -3h }{ h } \) = \(\frac { -v }{ u } \)
Object-distance, u = – 10 cm
v = 3 × (- 10)
= – 30 cm
Here, the negative sign indicates that an inverted image is formed at a distance of 30 cm in front of the given concave mirror.

Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Intext Questions Page No. 176

Question 1.
A ray of light travelling in air enters obliquely into water. Does the light ray bend towards the normal or away from the normal? Why?
Answer:
Lightray bend towards normal. Because when a ray of light enters from rearer medium to denser medium, it changes its direction in the second medium.

Question 2.
Light enters from air to glass having refractive index 1.50. What is the speed of light in the glass? The speed of light in vacuum is 3 × 108 ms-1.
Answer:
Refractive index of a medium:
µm = Speed of light in vacuum/Speed of light in the medium
Speed of light in vacuum, c = 3 × 108 ms-1
Refractive index of glass, µg = 1.50
Speed of light in the glass,
v = Speed of light in vacuum / Refractive index of glass
= c/µg
= 3 × 108/1.50
= 2 × 108 ms-1.

Question 3.
Find out, from Table the medium having highest optical density. Also find the medium w ith lowest optical density.
Table:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 3
Answer:
Highest optical density = Diamond.
Lowest optical density = Air.

Optical density of a medium is proportional to the refractive index. Hence, medium with highest refractive index will have the highest optical density and vice-versa. It can be observed from table that diamond and air respectively have the highest and lowest refractive index. Therefore, diamond has the highest optical density and air has the lowest optical density.

Question 4.
You are given kerosene, turpentine and water. In which of these does the light travel fastest? Use the information given in table.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 4
Answer:
Light travel faster in water when compared to kerosene and turpentine, since the refractive index of water is lower than kerosene and turpentine. The speed of light is inversely proportional to the refractive index.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 5

Question 5.
The refractive index of diamond is 2.42. What is the meaning of this statement?
Answer:
It means Ratio of velocity of light in air and velocity of air in diamond is 2.42.

MP Board Solutions

Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Intext Questions Page No. 184

Question 1.
Define 1 dioptre of power of a lens.
Answer:
1 dioptre is the power of lens whose focal length is 1 metre 1 D = 1 m-1

Question 2.
A convex lens forms a real and inverted image of a needle at a distance of 50 cm from it. Where is the needle placed in front of the convex lens if the image is equal to the size of the object? Also, find the power of the lens.
Answer:
Image of Needle is real and inverted means this is real image it is 2f
Image is at a distance of 50 cm
Hence needle is kept 50 cm in front of convex lens.
Distance of object, u = – 50 cm.
Distance of image v = 50 cm
Focal length f = ?
As per lens formula.
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 94 Q 2.1
f = 25 cm = 0.25 m
Power of the lens
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 94 Q 2
Power of the lens P = + 4D.

Question 3.
Find the power of a concave lens of focal length 2 m.
Answer:
Focal length of concave lens, f = 2 m
Power of lens, P = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ (-2) } \) = -0.5D

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 NCERT Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Which one of the following materials cannot be used to make a lens?
(a) Water
(b) Glass
(c) Plastic
(d) Clay
Answer:
(d) A lens allows light to pass through it, but clay does not have that property.

Question 2.
The image formed by a concave mirror is observed to be virtual, erect and larger than the object. Where should be the position of the object?
(a) Between the principal focus and the centre of curvature
(b) At the centre of curvature
(c) Beyond the centre of curvature
(d) Between the pole of the mirror and its principal focus.
Answer:
(d) Between the pole of the mirror and its principal focus.

Question 3.
Where should an object be placed in front of a convex lens to get a real image of the size of the object?
(a) At the principal focus of the lens
(b) At twice the focal length
(c) At infinity
(d) Between the optical centre of the lens and its principal focus.
Answer:
(b) When an object is placed at the centre of curvature in front of a convex lens, its image is formed at the centre of curvature on the other side of the lens.

Question 4.
A spherical mirror and a thin spherical lens have each a focal length of -15 cm. The mirror and the lens are likely to be:
(а) both concave
(b) both convex
(c) the mirror is concave and the lens is convex
(d) the mirror is convex, but the lens is concave
Answer:
(а) both concave

Question 5.
No matter how far you stand from a mirror, your image appears erpct. The mirror is likely to be
(a) plane
(b) concave
(c) convex
(d) either plane or convex
Answer:
(d) either plane or convex

Question 6.
Which of the following lenses would you prefer to use while reading small letters found in a dictionary?
(a) A convex lens of focal length 50 cm
(b) A concave lens of focal length 50 cm
(c) A convex lens of focal length 5 cm
(d) A concave lens of focal length 5 cm
Answer:
(c)

Question 7.
We wish to obtain an erect image of an object, using a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. What should be the range of distance of the object from the mirror? What is the nature of the image? Is the image larger or smaller than the object? Draw a ray diagram to show the image formation in this case.
Answer:
Range of the distance of the object = 0 cm to 15 cm.
Nature of the image = virtual, erect and larger than the object.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 6

Question 8.
Name the type of mirror used in the following situations.
(a) Headlights of a car.
(b) Side/rear-view mirror of a vehicle.
(c) Solar furnace.
Support your answer with reason.
Answer:
(a) Concave mirror: Concave mirrors can produce powerful parallel ’ beam of light when the light source is placed at their principal focus. Hence, we can visualize ways easily in little light.

(b) Convex mirror: A convex mirror when fitted at rear view position of vehicles, it gives a wider field of view, with which driver can see most of the traffic behind him.

(c) Concave mirror: They are converging mirrors. This is because it concentrates the parallel rays of sun at principal focus and increase intensity of light falling on it.

Question 9.
One-half of a convex lens is covered with a black paper. Will this lens produce a complete image of the object? Verify your answer experimentally. Explain your observations.
Answer:
Yes, the convex lens will form complete image of the object, even if its one half is covered with black paper. Following two cases can better explain it:

Case I : When the upper half of the lens is covered.
In this case, a ray of light coming from the object is being refracted by the lower half of the lens. These rays meet at the other side of the lens to form the image of the given object.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 7
Case II : If the lower half of the lens is covered.
In this case, a ray of light coming from the object is being refracted by the upper half of the lens. These rays meet at the other side of the lens to form the image of the given object.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 8

Question 10.
An object 5 cm in length.is held 25 cm away from a converging lens of focal length 10 cm. Draw the ray diagram and find the position, size and the nature of the image formed.
Answer:
Converging lens means a convex lens. As the distances given in the question are large, so we choose a scale of 1 : 5, i.e., 1 cm represents 5 cm. Therefore, on this scale 5 cm high object, object distance of 25 cm and focal length of 10 cm can be represented by 1 cm high, 5 cm and 2 cm lines respectively. Now, we draw the ray diagram as follows;

  1. Draw a horizontal line to represent ‘die principal axis of the convex lens.
  2. Centre line is shown by DE.
  3. Mark two foci F and F’ on two sides of the lens, each at a distance of 2 cm from the lens.
  4. Draw an arrow AB of height 1 cm on the left side of lens at a distance of 5 cm from the lens.
  5. Draw a line AD parallel to principal axis and then allow it to pass straight through the focus (F’) on the right side of the lens.
    MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 9
  6. Draw a line from A to C (centre of the lens), which goes straight without deviation.
  7. Let the two lines starting from A meet at A’.
  8. Draw A’B’, perpendicular to the principal axis from A’.
  9. Now A’B represents the real, but inverted image of the object AB.
  10. Then, measure CB’ and A’B’. It is found that CB’ = 3.3 cm and A’B’ = 0.7 cm.
  11. Thus the final position, nature and size of the image A’B’ are
    • (a) Position of image A’B’ = 3.3 cm × 5 = 16.5 cm from the lens on opposite side.
    • (b) Nature of image A’B’: Real and inverted.
    • (c) Height of image A’B’: 0.7 × 5 = 3.5 cm, i.e., image is smaller than the object.

Question 11.
A concave lens of focal length 15 cm forms an image 10 cm from the lens. How far is the object placed from the lens? Draw the ray diagram.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 10
Answer:
Focal length of concave lens f = – 15 cm
Image distance, v = – 10 cm
According to the lens formula,
\(\frac { 1 }{ v } \) – \(\frac { 1 }{ u } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \)
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 11
On solving we get, u = – 30 cm
The negative value of u indicates that the object is placed 30 cm in front of the lens. This is shown in the above ray diagram.

Question 12.
An object is placed at a distance of 10 cm from a convex mirror of focal length 15 cm. Find the position and nature of the image.
Answer:
Focal length of convex mirror,
f = +15 cm
Object distance, u = -10 cm
As per lens formula
KSEEB SSLC Class 10 Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction Ex Q 12
Magnification \(=\frac{v}{u}=\frac{-6}{-10}=0.6\)
Virtual image is formed at the distance of 6 cm and it is erect.

Question 13.
The magnification produced by a plane mirror is +1. What does this mean?
Answer:
The positive sign means image formed by a plane mirror is virtual and erect. Since, the magnification is I, it means that the size of the image is equal to the size of the object.

Question 14.
An object 5.0 cm in length is placed at a distance of 20 cm in front of a convex mirror of radius of curvature 30 cm. Find the position of the image, its nature and size.
Answer:
Object distance, u = – 20 cm
Object height, h = 5 cm
Radius of curvature, R = 30 cm
Radius of curvature = 2 × focal length
R = 2f ⇒ f = 15 cm
According to the mirror formula,
\(\frac { 1 }{ v } \) + \(\frac { 1 }{ u } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \)
The positive value indicates that the image is formed behind the mirror.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 12
The positive value of image height indicates image is virtual, erect and smaller in size.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 13

Question 15
An object of size 7.0 cm is placed at 27 cm in front of a concave mirror of focal length 18 cm. At what distance from the mirror should a screen be placed, so that a sharp focussed image can be obtained? Find the size and the nature of the image.
Answer:
Object-distance, u = – 27 cm
Object-height, h = 7 cm
Focal length, f = – 18 cm
According to the mirror formula,
\(\frac { 1 }{ v } \) + \(\frac { 1 }{ u } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \)
Putting values, \(\frac { 1 }{ v } \) + \(\frac { 1 }{ (-27) } \) = \(\frac { 1 }{ (-18) } \)
So, v = – 54 cm
The screen should be placed at a distance of 54 cm in front of the given mirror
and \(\frac{h_{2}}{h_{1}}=\frac{-v}{u}\)
h2 = -14 cm
The negative value of image indicates that the image is inverted.

Question 16.
Find the focal length of a lens of power – 2.0 D. What type of lens is this?
Answer:
Given, P = -2D
Power of lens. p = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \)
and, f = – \(\frac { 1 }{ 2 } \)
\(\frac{h_{2}}{h_{1}}=\frac{-v}{u}\)
= – 0.5 m
A concave lens, because it has a negative value of focal length.

Question 17.
A doctor has prescribed a corrective lens of power + 1.5 D. Find the focal length of the lens. Is the prescribed lens diverging or converging?
Answer:
Given, P = 1.5.D
Power of lens, P = \(\frac { 1 }{ f } \)
and, focal length f = \(\frac { 1 }{ 1.5 } \)
= \(\frac { 10 }{ 15 } \) = 0.66 m
A convex lens, because it has a positive focal length. Lens is converging.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Additional Important Questions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The image formed by a convex lens is virtual, erect and larger than the object. The position of the object must be:
(a) Between the lens and its focus
(b) At the focus
(c) At twice the focal length
(d) At infinity
Answer:
(a) Between the lens and its focus

Question 2.
A real image formed by a convex lens is always:
(a) On the same side of the lens as the object
(b) Erect
(c) Inverted
(d) Smaller than the object
Answer:
(c) Inverted

Question 3.
If an object is moved towards a convex lens, the size of its image:
(a) Decreases
(b) Increases
(c) First decreases and then increases
(d) Remains the same
Ans.
(b) Increases

Question 4.
An object is placed at a distance of 30 cm from a concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. The image will be:
(a) Real and of same size
(b) Real and magnified
(c) Real and diminished
(d) virtual and magnified
Answer:
(a) Real and of same size

Question 5.
A concave mirror always forms real and inverted image except when the object is placed:
(a) At infinity
(b) Between F and C
(c) At F
(d) Between F and pole of the mirror
Answer:
(b) Between F and C

Question 6.
The mirror which has a wide field of view must be:
(a) Concave
(b) Convex
(c) Plane
(d) None of these
Ans.
(b) Convex

Question 7.
The image formed by a concave mirror:
(a) Is always real
(b) Is always virtual
(c) Can be both real and virtual
(d) None of these
Ans.
(c) Can be both real and virtual

Question 8.
An object is placed 20 cm from a convex lens of focal length 10 cm. The image must be:
(a) Real and diminished
(b) Real and of same size
(c) Real and enlarged
(d) Virtual and enlarged
Answer:
(b) Real and of same size

Question 9.
The ratio of the focal length of spherical mirror to its radius of curvature is:
(a) 0.5
(b) 1
(c) 2
(d) 3
Answer:
(a) 0.5

Question 10.
A real and inverted image of the same size is formed by a concave mirror when the object is placed:
(a) Between the mirror and its focus.
(b) Between the focus and the centre of curvature.
(c) At the centre of curvature.
(d) Beyond the centre of curvature.
Ans.
(c) At the centre of curvature.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a mirror? Mention the different types of mirrors commonly used.
Answer:
Mirror: A highly polished surface which is smooth enough to reflect a good fraction of light incident on it is called a mirror. The mirror may be a highly polished metal surface or an ordinary glass plate coated with a thin silver layer.

Question 2.
What is the number of images of an object held between two plane parallel mirrors?
Answer:
Infinity.

Question 3.
Does the refractive index for a given pair of media depend on the angle of incidence?
Answer:
No, it is independent of the angle of incidence.

Question 4.
The refractive index of water with respect to air is \(\frac { 4 }{ 3 } \). What is the refractive index of air with respect to water?
Answer:
Refractive index of air with respect to water = \(\frac { 3 }{ 4 } \)

Question 5.
Can absolute refractive index of a medium exceed unity?
Answer:
No, because speed of light is maximum in vacuum.

Question 6.
Why does a ray of light bend when it travels from one medium to another?
Answer:
The bending of light or refraction occurs due to the change in the speed of light as it passes from one medium to another due to change in the density of the medium.

Question 7.
What happens when a ray of light strikes the surface of separation between the two media at right angle?
Ans.
The ray of light passes undeflected from one medium to another.
Here, ∠i = ∠r = 0°

Question 8.
What do you mean by a magnification less than unity?
Answer:
It means that the size of the image is smaller than the size of the object.

Question 9.
Which spherical mirror has

  1. a real focus and
  2. a virtual focus?

Answer:

  1. A concave mirror has a real focus.
  2. A convex mirror has a virtual focus.

Question 10.
State the position of the object for which a concave mirror produces virtual magnified image.
Answer:
The object should be placed between F and P of the concave mirror.

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Name the type of mirror(s) that should be used to obtain:
(i) a magnified and virtual image.
(ii) a diminished and virtual image of an object.
Draw labelled diagrams to show the formation of the required image in each of the above two cases. Which of these mirrors could also form a magnified and real image of the object? State the position of object for which this could happen.
Answer:
(i) Concave mirror.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 14
Fig. 10.3 : Concave mirror with the object between F and P.

(ii) Convex mirror.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 15
Fig. 10.4: Convex mirror with the object between pole and infinity.

Question 2.
Explain the uses of concave and convex mirrors.
Answer:
Uses of concave mirrors:
1. Shaving mirror : A concave mirror is used as a shaving or make-up mirror because it forms erect and enlarged image of the face when it is held closer to the face.

2. As head mirror : E.N.T. specialists use a concave mirror on their forehead. The light from a lamp after reflection from the mirror is focussed into the throat, ear or nose of the patient making the affected part more visible.

3. In ophthalmoscope : It consists of a concave mirror with a small hole at its centre. The doctor looks through the hole from behind the mirror while a beam of light from a lamp reflected from it, is directed into the pupil of patient’s eye which makes the retina visible.

4. In headlights : Concave mirrors are used as reflectors in headlights of motor vehicles railway engines, torch lights etc. The source is placed at the focus of the concave mirror. The light rays after reflection travel over a. large distance as a parallel beam of high intensity.

5. In astronomical telescopes : A concave mirror of large diameter (5 m or more) is used as objective in an astronomical telescope. It collects light from the sky and makes visible even those faint stars which cannot be seen with naked eye.

6. In solar furnaces : Large concave mirrors are used to concentrate sunlight to produce heat in solar furnace.

Uses of convex mirrors : Drivers use convex mirror as a rear-view mirror in automobiles because of the following two reasons:

  1. A convex mirror always forms an erect, virtual and diminished image of an object placed anywhere in front of it.
  2. A convex mirror has a wider field of view than a plane mirror of the same size as shown in Fig. 10.5.

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 16
Fig. 10.5: Field of view of (a) a plane mirror, (b) a convex mirror.

Thus, convex mirrors enable the driver to view much larger traffic behind him than would be possible with a plane mirror. The main disadvantage of a convex mirror is that it does not give the correct distance and the speed of the vehicle approaching from behind.

Question 3.
State the characteristics of the image formed by a convex mirror. What is the value of angle of incidence and angle of reflection when a ray of light retraces its path after reflection from a convex mirror? Illustrate with the help of a ray diagram.
Answer:
Properties of the image formed by a convex mirror:

(a) The image is always virtual and erect.
(b) The image is highly diminished or point sized.
(c) It is always formed between F and P.
(d) As the object is moved towards the pole of a convex mirror, image also moves towards its pole and gradually increases in size till its size becomes almost equal to that of the object.

When array of light retraces its path, ∠i = ∠r = 0°.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 17

Fig. 10.6: A ray directed towards C is reflected back along same path after reflection from a convex mirror.

Question 4.
State the new Cartesian sign convention followed for reflection of light by spherical mirrors.
Answer:
According to this convention:

  1. The object is on the left of the mirror. So all the ray diagrams are drawn with the incident light travelling from left to right.
  2. All the distances parallel to the principal axis are measured from the pole of the mirror.
  3. All distances measured in the direction of incident light are taken as positive.
  4. All distances measured in the opposite direction of incident light are taken as negative.
  5. Heights measured upwards and perpendicular to the principal axis are taken positive.
  6. Heights measured downwards and perpendicular to the principal axis are taken negative.

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 18
Fig. 10.7: New Cartesian sign convention for reflection of light by spherical mirrors.

Question 5.
State the type of mirror preferred as
(i) rear view mirror in vehicles
(ii) shaving mirror. Justify your answer giving two reasons in each case.
Answer:
(i) A convex mirror is preferred as a rear-view mirror because:

(a) It always forms an erect, virtual and diminished image of an object placed anywhere in front of it.
(b) It has wider field of view.

(ii) A concave mirror is preferred as a shaving mirror because when it is held closer to the face, it forms:

(a) an enlarged image of the face.
(b) an erect image of the face.

Question 6.
State the laws of refraction of light.
Answer:
Laws of refraction of light: The refraction of light obeys the following two laws:
1st law: The incident ray, the refracted ray and normal to the interface of two transparent media at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane.

2nd law: The ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is constant for a given pair of media.
Mathematically,
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 19
The ratio µ21 is called refractive index of the second medium with respect to the first medium. The second law of refraction is also called Snell’s law of refraction.

Question 7.
What is the physical significance of refractive index?
Answer:
The refractive index of any medium gives the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. For example, the refractive index of water, µw = 1.33. This means that the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum or air to the speed of light in water is 1.33.

Question 8.
What do you mean by optically denser and optically rarer media? How is the speed of light related to optical density?
Answer:
The optical density of a medium represents its ability to refract light. A medium having larger refractive index is called optically denser medium than the other. The other medium having lower refractive index is called optically rarer medium.

The speed of light is higher in a rarer medium than a denser medium. Thus, a ray of light travelling from a rarer medium to a denser medium slows down and bends towards the normal.

When it travels from a denser medium to a rarer medium, it speeds up and bends away from the normal.

Table:
Refractive indices of some material media (with respect to vacuum)
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 20

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
With the help of a ray diagram, state and explain the laws of reflection of light at a plane mirror. Mark the angles of incidence and reflection clearly on the diagram.
Answer:
As shown in Fig. 10.8, when a ray of light is incident on a mirror, it gets reflected in accordance with the following laws of reflection.
1st law: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.
2nd law: The angle of incidence (i) is equal to the angle of reflection (r) i.e.∠i = ∠r
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 21
Fig.10.8: Reflection in a plane mirror.

Question 2.
What is lateral inversion of an image? What is the cause of lateral inversion?
Answer:
Lateral inversion: If we stand before a plane mirror and move our right hand, our image appears to move its left hand. In fact, our entire image is reversed sideways. This sideways reversal of the image is known as lateral inversion.

Cause of lateral inversion: Lateral inversion is due to the fact that in a plane mirror the image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front of it, and that the front of the image and the front of the object face each other. The laterally inverted image of the word PAPYRUS is as shown in Fig. 10.9. The images of symmetrical letters like A, H, I, M, O, T, U, V, W, X, Y, 8 are not affected by lateral inversion.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 22
Fig.10.9: Lateral inversion before a mirror.

Question 3.
Define the following terms in connection with spherical mirrors:
(i) Angular aperture
(ii) Centre of curvature
(iii) Radius of curvature
(iv) Principal axis
(v) Linear aperture
(vi) Pole
(vii) Principal force
(viii) Focal length
(ix) Principle focus Focal plane.
Answer:
Definition in connection with spherical mirrors: In Fig 10.10, let APB be a principal section of a spherical mirror, i.e., the section cut by a plane passing through pole and centre of curvature of the mirror
(i) Angular aperture : It is the angle ACB subtended by the boundary of the spherical mirror at its centre of curvature.
(ii) Centre of curvature : It is the centre C of the sphere of which the mirror forms a part.
(iii) Radius of curvature : It is the radius R (= AC or BC) of the sphere of which the mirror forms a part.
(iv) Principal axis : The line passing through the pole and the centre of curvature of mirror is called its principal axis.
(v) Linear aperture : It is the diameter AB of the circular boundary of the spherical mirror.
(vi) Pole: It is the middle point P of the spherical mirror.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 23
Fig. 10.10: Characteristics of a concave mirror.

Question 4.
Deduce a relation between focal length (f) and radius of curvature (R) for a concave mirror.
Answer:
Relation between f and R for a concave mirror: As shown in Fig. 10.11, consider a ray AB parallel to the principal axis and incident at the point B of a concave mirror. After reflection from the mirror, this ray passes through its focus F, obeying the laws of reflection. If C is the centre of curvature, then CP = R, is the radius of curvature and CB is normal to the mirror at point B.
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 24
Fig. 10.11: Relation betweenTand R for a concave mirror.

According to the law of reflection, ∠i = ∠r
As AB is parallel to CP, so ∠a = ∠i (Alternate angles)
∠a = ∠r
Thus, ∆ BCF is isosceles,
Hence, CF = FB.
If the aperture (or size) of the mirror is small, then B lies close to P, so that,
FB = FP
FP = CF = \(\frac { 1 }{ 2 } \) CP
or f = \(\frac { R }{ 2 } \)
or Focal lenght = \(\frac { 1 }{ 2 } \) × Radius of curvature
Thus, the principal focus of a spherical mirror lies midway between the pole and the centre of curvature.

Question 5.
What happens to the size of the image formed by a convex mirror, when an object is gradually moved towards the mirror?
Answer:
When the object is at position A1B1, its virtual image is at a1b1 When the object is at position A2B2, its virtual image is at a2b2. So, when an object is gradually moved towards the pole of a convex mirror, its image also moves towards its pole and gradually increases in size till it has a size almost equal to that of the object. However, the image is always formed between F and P.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 10th Science Chapter 10 NCERT Text Book Activities

Class 10 Science Activity 10.1 Page No. 161

  • Take a large shining spoon. Try to view your face in its curved surface.
  • Do you get the image? Is it smaller or larger?
  • Move the spoon slowly away from your face. Observe the image. How docs it change?
  • Reverse the spoon and repeat the Activity. How does the image look like now?
  • Compare the characteristics of the image on the tw o surfaces.

Observations:

  • The image is formed that is smaller in size.
  • On moving the spoon away, the size of the image gradually decreases with increasing field of view.
  • On reversing the spoon, spoon w hen dose forms elect and magnified image on the inner curved ..urface. As we move away, image gets inverted and gradually decrease in Its size.
  • The image on outer surface of spoon is erect and gradually decreases in size on moving away. The image of spoon on inner surface is erect and gets inverted on moving away. The size also decreases when moved away.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.2 Page No. 162

Caution: Do not look at the Sun directly or even into a mirror reflecting sunlight. It may damage your eyes.

  • Hold a concave mirror in your hand and direct its reflecting surface towards the Sun.
  • Direct the light reflected by the mirror on to a sheet of paper held close to the mirror.
  • Move the sheet of paper back and forth gradually until you find on the paper sheet a bright, sharp spot of light.
  • Hold the mirror and the paper in the same position for a few minutes. What do you observe? Why?

Observations:

  • The paper starts burning when the mirror and paper are held in the same position for a few minutes as light rays from the sun, sharply focuses on this point and due to which heat concentrates at a point resulting in burning because of intense heating.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.3 Pages No. 163,164

You have already learnt a way of determining the focal length of a concave mirror. In activity 10.2, you have seen that the sharp bright spot of light you got on the paper is, in fact, the image of the Sun. It was a tiny, real, inverted image. You got the approximate focal length of the concave mirror by measuring the distance of the image from the mirror:

  • Take a concave mirror. Find out its approximate focal length in the w ay described above. Note down the value of focal length. (You can also find it out by obtaining image of a distant object on a sheet of paper.)
  • Mark a line on a table with a chalk. Place the concave mirror on a stand. Place the stand over the line such that its pole lies over the line.
  • Draw with a chalk two more lines parallel to the previous line such that the distance between any two successive lines it equal to the focal length of the minor. These lines will now correspond to the positions of the points P, F and C, respectively. Remember – For a spherical mirror of small aperture, the principal focus F lies midway between the pole P and the centre of curvature C.
  • Keep a bright object, say a burning candle, at a position far beyond C. Place a paper screen and move it in front of the mirror till you obtain a sharp bright image of the candle flame on it.
  • Observe the image carefully. Note down its nature, position and relative size with respect to the object size.
  • Repeat the activity by placing the candle-(a) just beyond C, (b) at C, (c) between F and C. (d) at F, and (c) between P and F.
  • In one of the cases, you may not get the image on the screen. Identify the position of the object in such a case, Then, look for its virtual image in the mirror itself.
  • Note down and tabulate your observations.

Observations:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 25

Class 10 Science Activity 10.4 Page No. 166

  • Draw neat ray diagrams for each position of the object shown in previous activity 10.3 observations.
  • You may take any two of the rays mentioned in the previous section for locating the image.
  • Compare your diagram with those given in Fig. 10.1.
  • Describe the nature, position and relative size of the image formed in each case.
  • Tabulate the results in a convenient format.

Observations:

MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 26
Fig. 10.1: Ray diagrams for the image formation by a concave mirror.

Position of the object Position of the. image Size of the image Nature of the image
At infinity At the focus F, behind the mirror Highly diminished, point-sized Virtual and erect
Between infinity and the pole P of the mirror Between P and F, behind the mirror Diminished Virtual and erect

Class 10 Science Activity 10.5 Page No. 167

  • Take a convex mirror. Hold it in one hand.
  • I Iold a pencil in the upright position in the other hand.
  • Observe the image of the pencil in the mirror. Is the image erect or inverted? Is it diminished or enlarged?
  • Move the pencil away from the mirror slowly. Does the image become smaller or larger?
  • Repeat this Activity carefully. State whether the image will move closer to or farther away from the focus as the object is moved away from the min or?

Observations:

  • The image is erect and diminished. The image becomes smaller or moving pencil away.
  • The image moves closer to the focus as the object is moved away from the mirror.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.6 Page No 167

  • Observe the image of a distant object, say a distant tree, in a plane mirror.
  • Could you see a full-length image?
  • Try with plane minors of different sizes. Did you see the entire object in the image?
  • Repeat this Activity with a concave mirror. Did the mirror show full length image of the object?
  • Now try using a convex mirror. Did you succeed? Explain your observations with reason.

Observations:

  • No, full – length image of a distant object is not seen in a plane mirror.
  • The entire images of the objects were not seen.
  • No, the mirror do not show full length image of the object.
  • Yes, with the convex mirror we can see full length image of distant object with under field of view’ this is because the convex mirror are used as rear or side view mirrors in vehicles. The image formed is diminished, erect and virtual.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.7 Page No. 172

  • Place a coin at the bottom of a bucket filled with water.
  • With your eye to a side above water, try to pick up the coin in one go. Did you succeed in picking up the coin?
  • Repeat the Activity. Why did you not succeed in doing it in one go?
  • Ask your friends to do this. Compare your experience with theirs.

Observations:

  • No, we cannot succeed in picking up the coin.
  • This happens due to refraction, the coin appears to he at some other place from where it is actually present. The light rays coming out from water tends to bend creating this problem.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.8 Page No. 172

  • Place a large shallow bowl on a Table and put a coin in it.
  • Move away slowly from the bowl. Stop when the coin just disappears from your sight.
  • Ask a friend to pour water gently into the bowl without disturbing the coin.
  • Keep looking for the coin from your position. Does the coin becomes visible again from your position? How could this happen?

Observations:

  • Yes, on pouring water, it again becomes visible and little raised due to refraction.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.9 Page No. 172

  • Draw a thick straight line in ink, over a sheet of white paper placed on a Table.
  • Place a glass slab over the line in such a way that one of its edges make an angle with the line.
  • Look at the portion of the line under the slab from the sides. What do you observe? Does the line under the glass slab appear to be bent at the edges ?
  • Next, place the glass slab such that it is normal to the line. What do you observe now’ Does the part of the line under the glass slab appear bent?
  • Look at the line from the top of the glass slab. Does the part of the line, beneath the slab, appear to be raised? Why does this happen?

Observations:

  • The line under the glass slab appear bent at the edges due to refraction.
  • No, now it does not appear bend as a ray of light perpendicular to the plane of a refracting medium does not change angle during refraction.
  • Yes, this is also due to refraction that apparent position of image of object seems nearer than its actual position.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.10 Page No. 173

  • Fix a sheet of white paper on a drawing board using drawing pins.
  • Place a rectangular glass slab over the sheet in the middle.
  • Draw the outline of the slab with a pencil. Let us name the outline as ABCD.
  • Take four identical pins.
  • Fix two pins, say E and F, vertically such that the line joining the pins is inclined to the edge AB.
  • Look for the images of the pins E and F through the opposite edge. Fix two other pins, say G and H, such that these pins and the images of E and F lie on a straight line.
  • Remove the pins and the slab.
  • Join the positions of tip of the pins E and F and produce the line up to AB. Let EF meet AB at O. Similarly, join the positions of tip of the pins G and H and produce it up to the edge CD. Let HG meet CD at O’.
  • Join O and O’. Also produce EF up to P, as shown by a dotted line in Fig. 10.2.

Observations:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 27
Fig. 10.2: Refraction of light through a rectangular glass slab.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.11 Page No. 177

Caution: Do not look at the Sun directly or through a lens while doing this Activity or otherwise. You may damage your eyes if you do so.

  • Hold a convex lens in your hand. Direct it towards the Sun.
  • Focus the light from the Sun on a sheet of paper. Obtain a sharp bright image of the Sun.
  • Hold the paper and the lens in the same position for a while. Keep observing the paper. What happened? Why? Recall your experience in Activity 10.2.

Observations:

  • This is due to sharp focusing of all rays at a single point after passing through the lens. The concentration of light rays increases at a point resulting in burning of paper.

Class 10 Science Activity 10.12 Page No. 178

  • Take a convex lens. Find its approximate focal length in a way described in Activity 10.11.
  • Draw five parallel straight lines, using chalk, on a long Table such that the distance between the successive lines is equal to the focal length of the lens.
  • Place the lens on a lens stand. Place it on the central line such that the optical centre of the lens lies just over the line.
  • The two lines on cither side of the lens correspond to F and 2F of the lens respectively. Mark them with appropriate letters such as 2F1, F1, F2 and 2F2, respectively.
  • Place a burning candle, far beyond 2F, to the left. Obtain a clear sharp image on a screen on the opposite side of the lens.
  • Note down the nature, position and relative size of the image.
  • Repeat this Activity by placing object just behind 2F1 between F1 and 2F1 at F1, between F1 and O. Note down and tabulate your observations.

Observations:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 28

Class 10 Science Activity 10.13 Page No. 179

  • Take a concave lens. Place it on a lens stand.
  • Place a burning candle on one side of the lens.
  • Look through the lens from the other side and observe the image. Try to get the image on a screen, if possible. If not, observe the image directly through the lens.
  • Note down the nature, relative size and approximate position of the image.
  • Move the candle away from the lens. Note the change in the size of the image. What happens to the size of the image when the candle is placed too far away from the lens.

Observations:
MP Board Class 10th Science Solutions Chapter 10 Light Reflection and Refraction 29

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 5 The Sneeze

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 10th English Solutions Chapter 5 The Sneeze Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 5 The Sneeze

The Sneeze Textual Exercises

Word Power

A. Write the meanings of the given phrases and use them in your own sentences.
(निम्न के अर्थ लिखो व अपने वाक्यों में प्रयोग करो।)
Answer:
(a) took off – to remove
It was so hot in the room that Raj took off his shirt.

(b) bald spot – a place in the head that lacks hair.
When Mohan was sitting under a tree, a bird came and sat on his bald spot.

(c) In front of – opposite to something.
I parked the car in front of his garden.

(d) in the course of time – in mean time.
When the teacher was checking the copies of other students Seema completed her work in the course of time.

(e) get out – order to go out.
The teacher ordered Lavish to get out of the classroom when he interrupted her again and again during the lecture.

MP Board Solutions

B. Choose the correct meanings of the following words from the given alternatives.
(सही उत्तर चुनो।)
1. crawl-
(i) run
(ii) to move slowly
(iii) jump
Answer:
(ii) to move slowly

2. pavement-
(i) footpath
(ii) pavilion
(iii) zebra-crossing
Answer:
(i) footpath

3. sneeze-
(i) breathe
(ii) belch
(iii) sudden and noisy release of air through nose.
Answer:
(iii) sudden and noisy release of air through nose.

4. malice-
(i) wish to harm others
(ii) wish to help others
(iii) wish to play together
Answer:
(i) wish to harm others

5. spatter-
(i) scatter
(ii) shatter
(iii) collect
Answer:
(i) scatter

C. Some of the verbs given below have been taken from the lesson; consult a dictionary and find out the noun forms of these verbs.
(दी गई क्रियाओं के संज्ञा रूप लिखिए।)
Answer:
Verb                     Noun
prohibit           prohibition
define              definition
avoid               avoidance
idle                  idleness
consider          consideration

How Much Have I Understood?

A. Answer the following questions. (One or two sentences)
(निम्न प्रश्नों के उत्तर एक या दो वाक्यों में दीजिए।)

Question 1.
Who was Tcherviakoff?
(हु वास् शरवीएकॉफ?)
शरवियाकॉफ कौन था?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff was a minor official.
(शरवियाकॉफ वॉज़ अ माइनर ऑफिशियल।)
शरवियाकॉफ एक निम्न पदाधिकारी था।

Question 2.
What was Tcherviakoff doing in the opera house?
(व्हॉट वॉज़ शरवियाकॉफ डूइंग इन द ओपेरा हाऊस?)
शरवियाकॉफ ओपेरा हाऊस में क्या कर रहा था?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff was watching a famous opera in the opera house.
शरवियाकॉफ वॉज़ वॉचिंग अ फेमस ओपेरा इन द ओपेरा हाऊस।)
शरवियाकॉफ ओपेरा हाऊस में एक प्रसिद्ध ओपेरा (नाटक) देख रहा था।

Question 3.
What happened in the opera house?
(व्हॉट हैपण्ड इन द ओपेरा हाऊस?)
ओपेरा हाऊस में क्या हुआ?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff sneezed over a higher official, General Brizjaloff in the opera house.
(शरवियाकॉफ स्नीज्ड् ओवर अ हायर ऑफिशियल, जनरल ब्रिज़ोलॉफ इन द ओपेरा हाऊस।)
शरवियाकॉफ ओपेरा में उच्च पदाधिकारी जनरल ब्रिज़ालॉफ के ऊपर छींका।

Question 4.
Why did Tcherviakoff feel ashamed?
(व्हाय डिड शरवियाकॉफ फील अशेम्ड्?)
शरवियाकॉफ शर्मिन्दा क्यों हुआ?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff felt ashamed because he had sneezed over a person sitting in front of him.
(शरवियाकॉफ फेल्ट अशेम्ड बिकॉज़ ही हैड स्नीज्ड ओवर। अ पर्सन सिटिंग इन फ्रन्ट ऑफ हिम।)
शरवियाकॉफ अपने आगे बैठे एक व्यक्ति पर छींक दिया था इसीलिए वह शर्मिन्दा हुआ।

Question 5.
Who was the person on whom Tcherviakoff sneezed?
(हू वॉज़ द पर्सन ऑन हूम शरवियाकॉफ स्नीज्ड?)
शरवियाकॉफ किस व्यक्ति पर छींका?
Answer:
The person on whom Tcherviakoff sneezed was a higher official named General Brizjaloff.
(द पर्सन ऑन हूम शरवियाकॉफ स्नीज्ड वॉज़ अ हायर ऑफिशियल नेम्ड् जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ।)
शरवियाकॉफ उच्च पदाधिकारी जनरल ब्रिज़ालॉफ पर छींका।

Question 6.
What did Tcherviakoff think after sneezing?
(व्हॉट डिड शरवियाकॉफ थिंक आफ्टर स्नीजिंग?)
शरवियाकॉफ ने छींकने के बाद क्या सोचा?
Answer:
After sneezing, Tcherviakoff thought of apologizing the person on whom he had sneezed.
(आफ्टर स्नीजिंग, शरवियाकॉफ थॉट ऑफ एपॉलोजाइजिंग द पर्सन ऑन हूम ही हैड स्नीज्ड्।)
छींकने के बाद, शरवियाकॉफ ने उस व्यक्ति से माफी माँगने की सोची जिस पर उसने छींका था।

Question 7.
What did Tcherviakoff’s wife advise him?
(व्हॉट डिड शरवियाकॉफ वाइफ एडवाइज़ हिम?)
शरवियाकॉफ की पत्नी ने उसे क्या सलाह दी?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff’s wife advised him to go and apologize General Brizjaloff, on whom he had sneezed.
(शरवियाकॉफ्स वाइफ एजवाइज़्ड हिम टू गो एण्ड एपॉलोजाइज़ जनरल ब्रिज़ालॉफ, ऑन हूम ही हैड स्नीज्ड।)
शरवियाकॉफ की पत्नी ने उसे सलाह दी कि उसे जनरल ब्रिज़ालॉफ जिस पर उसने छींका है, से जाकर माफी मांगनी चाहिए।

MP Board Solutions

B. Answer the following questions. (Three or four sentences)
(निम्न प्रश्नों के उत्तर तीन या चार वाक्यों में दीजिए।)

Question 1.
How did Tcherviakoff apologize in the office? How did the General react?
(हाउ डिड शरवियाकॉफ एपॉलोजाइज़ इन द ऑफिस? हाउ डिड द जनरल रिएक्ट?)
शरवियाकॉफ ने कार्यालय में किस प्रकार माफी माँगी? जनरल ने क्या प्रतिक्रिया जताई?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff tried to apologize to the general three times in his office. At the first time he tried to explain him that his sneezing was accidental but the General scolded him. He, therefore thought that he is angry and tried to explain the matter again. The General said to him that he was joking and went away. He again went to him the next day to explain that he had not sneezed on him purposely. This time the General got very angry on him and ordered him to get out.

(शरवियाकॉफ ट्राइड टू एपॉलोजाइज़ टू द जनरल थ्री टाइम्स इन हिज़ ऑफिस। एट द फर्स्ट टाइम ही ट्राइड टू एक्स्प्ले न हिम दैट हिज़ स्नीजिंग वॉज़ एक्सीडेन्टल बट द जनरल स्कोल्डेड हिम। ही, देअरफोर थॉट दैट ही इज़ एंग्री एण्ड ट्राइड टू एक्सप्लेन द मैटर अगेन। द जनरल सेड टू हिम दैट ही वॉज़ जोकिंग एण्ड वेन्ट अवे। ही अगेन वेन्ट् टू हिम द नेक्स्ट डे ट्र एक्स्प्ले न दैट ही हैड नॉट स्नीज्ड ऑन हिम परपसली। दिस टाइम द जनरल गॉट वेरी एंग्री ऑन हिम एण्ड ऑर्डर्ड हिम टू गेट आऊट।)

शरवियाकॉफ ने जनरल से उसके कार्यालय में तीन बार माफी माँगने की कोशिश की। पहली बार उसने उसे यह समझाने की कोशिश की कि उसका छींकना दुर्घटनापूर्वक था मगर जनरल ने उसे डाँट दिया। इसीलिए उसने सोचा कि वह उससे नाराज है और उसे दोबारा समझाने की कोशिश की। तब जनरल ने कहा वह मजाक कर रहा है और चला गया। शरवियाकॉफ उसके पास दूसरे दिन दोबारा गया यह समझाने के लिए कि उसने उसके ऊपर जान बूझकर नहीं छींका था। इस बार जनरल उस पर बहुत नाराज हुआ व उसने उसे बाहर निकल जाने के लिए कहा।

Question 2.
Why did Tcherviakoff die?
(व्हाय डिड शरवियाकॉफ डाइ?)
शरवियाकॉफ क्यों मर गया?
Answer:
Tcherviakoff died because when the General got very angry on him he felt he had done a great mistake. He was too much worried. His worry got on his nerves and he died.
(शरवियोकॉफ डाइड बिकॉज़ व्हेन द जनरल गॉट वेरी एंग्री ऑन हिम ही फेल्ट ही हैड डन अ ग्रेट मिस्टेक। ही वॉज़ टू मच वरिड। हिज़ वरी गॉट ऑन हिज़ नर्स एण्ड ही डाइड।)
शरवियाकॉफ को जब जनरल ने बुरी तरह डाँट दिया तब उसे महसूस हुआ कि उसने बहुत बड़ी गलती कर दी है। वह अत्यधिक चिन्तित हो गया। उसकी चिन्ता उसे परेशान करने लगी अतः वह मर गया।

Question 3.
Write down sometraits of Tcherviakoff’s character in your own words.
(राइट डाऊन सम ट्रेट्स् ऑफ शरवियाकॉफ कैरेक्टर इन योर ओन वर्ड्स)
शरवियाकॉफ के चरित्र की कुछ विशेषताएँ अपने शब्दों में लिखिए।
Answer:
Tcherviakoff was a person who was too much worried about small things. He used to think much and was concerned about others. He was also not egoistic and lacked self respect, as the General scolded him so many times then also he went to him again and again. He was a very emotional person because when the General insulted him in the end and asked him to get out, he felt very bad and thought he had done a great mistake and therefore died.

(शरवियाकॉफ वॉज़ अ पर्सन हू वॉज़ टू मच वरिड् अबाऊट स्मॉल थिंग्स। ही यूज्ड टू थिंक मच एण्ड वॉज कन्सर्ड अबाऊट अदर्स। ही वॉज ऑल्सो नॉट ईगोइस्टिक एण्ड लैक्ड सेल्फ रिस्पेक्ट एज द जनरल स्कोल्ड्ड हिम सो मैनी टाइम्स देन ऑल्सो ही वेण्ट टू हिम अगेन एण्ड अगेन। ही वाज ए वेरी इमोशनल पर्सन बिकॉज़ व्हेन द जनरल इन्सल्ड हिम इन द ऍन्ड एण्ड आस्क्ड हिम टू गेट आऊट, ही फेल्ट वेरी बैड एण्ड थॉट ही हैड डन अ ग्रेट मिस्टेक एण्ड देअरफोर डाइड।)

शरवियाकॉफ छोटी-छोटी बातों पर चिन्तित होने वाला व्यक्ति था। वह बहुत सोचता था व दूसरे के बारे में चिन्तित रहता था। वह अभिमानी भी नहीं था व उसमें स्वाभिमान की कमी थी क्योंकि जनरल के उसे कई बार डाँटने के बाद भी वह उसके पास बार-बार जाता था। वह अत्यधिक भावुक इंसान था क्योंकि जब अन्त में जनरल ने उसका अपमान किया तो उसे बहुत बुरा लगा, उसने सोचा कि उसने बड़ी गलती की है और वह मर गया।

C. Choose the correct alternatives.
(सही उत्तर चुनो।)

1. Ivan Tcherviakoff was a ……..
(i) general.
(ii) secretary
(iii) leader
(iv) minor official
Answer:
(iv) minor official

2. Tcherviakoff recognised the oldman, he was …………
(i) Colonel Vladimir
(ii) General Brizjaloff
(iii) Captain Dimnitri
(iv) General Gabriel
Answer:
(ii) General Brizjaloff

3. Tcherviakoff felt deeply ashamed because
(i) he was sitting on another person’s seat
(ii) he was watching the opera without a ticket
(iii) he had sneezed on an old man accidentally
(iv) he was not dressed properly
Answer:
(iii) he had sneezed on an old man accidentally

4. Tcherviakoff addressed General Brizjaloff as………….
(i) Your Excellency
(ii) Dear Excellency
(iii) Dear Sir
(iv) Dear Mr. Brizjaloff
Answer:
(i) Your Excellency

5. Tcherviakoff kept on going to General Brizjaloff to beg his pardon again and again because……
(i) he was playing a practical joke
(ii) he was too much worried
(iii) his promotion was as stake
(iv) he had gone mad
Answer:
(ii) he was too much worried

MP Board Solutions

Language Practice

Put the verbs in their past perfect continuous form.
(रिक्त स्थान भरो)

  1. Sapna found the book. She ……….. it for 5 hours. (look for).
  2. The businessman went bankrupt. He ………. money for several years. (lose)
  3. Malini felt tired. She ……….. in the pond since morning. (swim)
  4. I was half an hour late. I ………. for the bus for 40 minutes. (wait)
  5. I ……….. tennis for two hours. I got tired and took rest. (play)

Answer:

  1. had been looking for
  2. had been losing
  3. had been swimming
  4. had been waiting
  5. had been playing

Listening Time

A. The teacher will read out the second paragraph of the lesson. The students will listen carefully and fill in the blanks.
(रिक्त स्थान भरो)
Answer:
Now, sneezing is not prohibited to anyone. Peasants sneeze, and chiefs of police, sneeze, everyone sneezes. Tcherviakoff did not feel embarassed at what he had done. He wiped his nose with his handkerchief and glanced about him politely to make sure that he had not disturbed anyone by his sneezing. And then he felt deeply ashamed. He saw that an old man who was sitting in front of him was painfully wiping his bald spot and the back of his neck with his glove and muttering something.

B. The teacher will read out the words and the students will repeat them.
(निम्न शब्दों को दोहराओ।)
Answer:
MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 5 The Sneeze 1

Speaking Time

One student will ask the question from the table given in the text and the other will answer.
(तालिका में दिये गये प्रश्नों को एक छात्र पूछेगा व दूसरा उनके उत्तर देगा)
Answer:
Students will get the following answers of the following questions given in the text.
(छात्रों को पुस्तक में दिये गये प्रश्नों के निम्न उत्तर मिलोंगे)

Question 1.
Which animal has padded feet?
Answer:
A camel has padded feet.

Question 2.
Which bird has a long beak?
Answer:
Tailor bird has a long beak.

Question 3.
Which bird has beautiful wings?
Answer:
A peacock has beautiful wings.

Question 4.
Which animal has lovely horns?
Answer:
A deer has lovely horns.

Question 5.
Which animal has webbed feet?
Answer:
A frog has webbed feet.

Question 6.
Which bird has a red beak?
Answer:
A parrot has a red beak.

Question 7.
Which animal has a bushy tail?
Answer:
A dog has a bushy tail.

MP Board Solutions

Pair Work

Use the clues and advise your partner what he/she should do and what he/she shouldn’t.

1. If you want to have good teeth (eat too many sweets/visit the dentist regularly)
Answer:
If you want to have good teeth you should visit the dentist regularly.

2. If you are driving on a busy road (wear a seat beltluse a mobile phone)
Answer:
If you are driving on a busy road you should wear a seat belt.

3. If you want to pass a job interview (dress smartlylarrive late)
Answer:
If you want to pass a job interview you should dress smartly.

4. If you want a healthy heart (eat fatty foodtake a lot of exercise)
Answer:
If you want a healthy heart you should take a lot of exercise.

Writing Time

You are Irfan, studying in Excellence School Lakhnadon Seoni. Write an application to your principal requesting him to issue you a character certificate.
(अपने प्रधानाध्यापक को चरित्र प्रमाण-पत्र देने के लिए पत्र लिखिए)
Answer:
To,
The Principal,
Excellence School,
Lakhnadon Seoni

Respected Sir,
I beg to state that I have passed my IX std. examination this year from your school. My. father is getting transferred to Indore. Therefore I am taking admission in a new school there. So I need a character certificate.

If you kindly issue me the character certificate I shall be highly obliged.

Yours obediently
Irfan

Things to do

Make a list of the things that worry you. How can you get rid of your worries? Do yoga regularly to free yourself from your worries.
(37 बातों की सूची बनाएँ जो आपको चिन्तित करती हैं। आप अपनी चिन्ताओं से कैसे छूट सकते हैं।)
Answer:
Students can make a list of the things that worry them themselves.
(छात्र उन्हें चिन्तित करने वाली बातों की स्वयं सूची बनायें)

The Sneeze Difficult Word Meanings 

MP Board Class 10th General English The Spring Blossom Solutions Chapter 5 The Sneeze 2

MP Board Solutions

The Sneeze Summary, Pronunciation & Translation

One beautiful evening, Ivan Tcherviakoff, a minor official, was sitting in the opera-house watching a famous opera. As he sat there, he felt extremely relaxed and happy. But suddenly his face grew wrinkled, his eyes rolled, and he held his breath-he took off his glasses, bent forward, and hachoo! He sneezed.

(वन ब्यूटिफुल ईवनिंग, इवान शरवियाकॉफ, अ माइनर ऑफिशियल, वॉज़ सिटिंग इन द ओपेरा-हाऊस वॉचिंग अ फेमस ऑपरा. ऐज़ ही सेट देयर, ही फेल्ट ऐक्स्ट्रीलि रिलैक्स्ड ऐण्ड हैप्पी. बट सडन्ली हिज़ फेस ग्रियु रिंकल्ड, हिज़ आईज़ रोल्ड, ऐण्ड ही हेल्ड हिज़ ब्रेथ-ही टुक ऑफ हिज़ ग्लासेज़, बेण्ट फॉरवर्ड, ऐण्ड हा ऽ ऽ ऽ छु ऽ ऽ ऽ ही स्नीज़्ड।)

अनुवाद :
एक खूबसूरत शाम इवान शरवियाकॉफ जो एक निम्न स्तरीय अधिकारी था नाट्यशाला में बैठा हुआ एक मशहूर नृत्य नाटिका देख रहा था। वह वहाँ बैठा हुआ बहुत खुश और निश्चिंत महसूस कर रहा था। अचानक से उसका चेहरा विक्रत हो झुर्रियोंदार हो गया, उसकी आँखें पलट गईं, उसने अपनी साँस रोक ली अपना चश्मा उतारा, आगे को झुका और हा ऽ ऽ छू ऽ ऽ! वह छींका।

Now, sneezing is not prohibited to anyone. Peasants sneeze, and chiefs of police sneeze, and even politicians seenze; everyone sneezes. Naturally, Tcherviakoff did not feel embarrassed at what he had done. He wiped his nose with his handkerchief and glanced about him politely to make sure that he had not disturbed anyone by his sneezing. And then he felt deeply ashamed. He saw that an old man who was sitting in front of him was painfully wiping his bald spot and the back of his neck with his glove and muttering something. He was, Tcherviakoff recognized, General Brizjaloff of the Department of Highways.

(नाऊ, स्नीज़िग इज नॉट प्रॉहिबिटिड टू एनीवन. पेज़न्ट्स स्नीज़, ऐण्ड चीफ्स ऑफ पुलिस स्नीज़, ऐण्ड ईवन पॉलिटीशियन्स स्नीज़; एवरीवन स्नीज़िस. नैचुरली, शरवियाकॉफ डिड नॉट फील एम्बैरेस्ड ऐट वॉट ही हैड डन ही वाईप्ड हिज़ नोज़ विद हिज़ हैंडकरचीफ ऐण्ड ग्लान्सड अबाऊट हिम पोलाईट्ली टू मेक श्योर दैट ही हैड नॉट डिस्टर्बड एनीवन बाई हिज़ स्नीजिंग. ऐण्ड देन ही फैल्ट डीपली अशेम्ड. ही सॉ दैट ऐन ओल्ड मैन टू वॉज़ सिटिंग इन फ्रण्ट ऑफ हिम वॉज़ पेनफुली वाईपिंग हिज़ बाल्ड स्पॉट ऐण्ड द बैक ऑफ हिज़ नेक विद् हिज़ ग्लव ऐण्ड मटरिंग समथिंग। ही वॉज़, शरवियाकॉफ रिकॉग्नाईज्ड, जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ ऑफ द डिपार्टमेण्ट ऑफ हाईवेज़।)

अनुवाद :
अब किसी के लिए भी छींकना तो प्रतिबन्धित नहीं है। किसान छींकते हैं, पुलिस के उच्चाधिकारी छींकते हैं, यहाँ तक कि राजनेता भी छींकते हैं; सभी छींकते हैं। स्वाभाविक रूप से शरवियाकॉफ को अपने किए पर कोई शर्मिन्दगी नहीं थी। उसने रुमाल से अपनी नाक पोंछी और फिर यह देखने के लिए कि उसने किसी को परेशान तो नहीं किया वह विनीत भाव से इधर-उधर देखने लगा। फिर वो बेहद शर्मिन्दा हुआ। उसने देखा कि उसके सामने बैठा हुआ वृद्ध व्यक्ति दुखी होकर अपने सिर के टकले भाग को और गर्दन को अपने दस्ताने से पोंछ रहा था और साथ में कुछ बड़बड़ा रहा था। शरवियाकॉफ ने उन्हें पहचान लिया। वह राजमार्ग विभाग के जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ थे।

“I sneezed on him,’ thought Tcherviakoff. ‘He is not my chief, but still it is awkward. I must apologize.’

Tcherviakoff cleared his throat, shifted himself forward, and whispered in the general’s ear, I beg your pardon, Your Excellency! Sneezed on you. I accidentally ………’
Never mind, never mind …….’
‘For Heaven’s sake, excuse me. II ……. I didn’t mean to ……..
‘Oh, sit down, please! Let me listen to what is being said.’

(‘आई स्नीज़्ड ऑन हिम’ थॉट शरवियाकॉफ़ ‘ही इज़ नॉट माई चीफ, बट स्टिल इट इज़ ऑकवर्ड. आई मस्ट अपोलोजाइज़’।

शरवियाकॉफ क्लीयर्ड हिज़ थ्रोट, शिफ्टिड हिमसेल्फ फॉरवर्ड, ऐण्ड व्हिस्पर्ड इन द जनरल ‘स् ईअर, ‘आई बेग यॉर पार्डन, यॉर ऐक्सिलेन्सी! स्नीज्ड ऑन यू. आई ऐक्सिडेण्टली ……..
‘नेवर माइन्ड, नेवर माइन्ड …….. ‘
‘फॉर हैवन्स सेक, एक्स्क्यू ज़ मी. आई …….. आई डिडण्ट। (डिड नॉट) मीन टू …….।’
‘ओह, सिट डाऊन प्लीज़! लेट मी लिसन टू …….. वॉट इज़ बीईंग सेड।’)

अनुवाद :
शरवियाकॉफ ने सोचा मैं उन पर छीका वह मेरे विभाग के मुखिया नहीं हैं पर फिर भी है तो यह भद्दा ही। मुझे उनसे क्षमा याचना करनी चाहिए।

शरवियाकॉफ ने अपना गला साफ किया, आगे को खिसका और जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ के कानों में फुसफुसाया ‘क्षमा प्रार्थी हूँ, हुजूर। आप पर छींका, मैं गलती से ……..
‘कोई बात नहीं, कोई बात नहीं ……….’
ईश्वर के लिए, मुझे क्षमा करें। मैं …….. मेरा ऐसा इरादा नहीं…………
‘अरे बैठ जाओ, कृपा करके! मुझे सुनने दो जो कहा जा रहा है।’

Tcherviakoff was terribly confused. He smiled idiotically and began watching the opera again. He looked at the stage, but no longer felt happy. Anxiety was beginning to trouble him. During the next interval, he approached General Brizjaloff and murmured, ‘I sneezed on Your Excellency, excuse me. You see, I ……… did not do it to

‘Oh, enough of that. I had already forgotten about it and you keep on at the samething!’ said the general, impatiently twitching his lower lip.

(शरवियाकॉफ वॉज़ टेरिबली कन्फ्यूज्ड ही स्माईल्ड इडियॉटिकली ऐण्ड बिगैन वॉचिंग द ऑपरा अगेन. ही लुक्ड ऐट द स्टेज, वट नो लॉन्गर फैल्ट हैप्पी. ऐंग्जाइटी वॉज़ बिगिनिंग टू ट्रबल हिम. ड्यूरिंग द नेक्स्ट इन्टरवेल, ही अप्रोच्ड जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ ऐण्ड मरमर्ड, ‘आई स्नीज़्ड ऑन यॉर ऐक्सिलेन्सी, एक्सक्यूज़ मी यू सी, आई …….. डिड नॉट डू इट टू …….!

‘ओह, एनफ ऑफ दैट. आई हैड ऑलरेडी फॉरगॉटन अबाऊट इट ऐण्ड यू कीप ऑन ऐट द सेम थिंग!’ सेड द जनरल इम्पेशियण्ट्ली ट्विचिंग हिज़ लोअर लिप।)

अनुवाद :
शरवियाकॉफ बहुत ज्यादा परेशान था। वह बेवकूफों के जैसे मुस्कराया और फिर से नाटक देखने लगा। वह मंच की तरफ देख रहा था परन्तु अब पहले जैसा खुश नहीं था। व्याकुलता ने उसे परेशान करना आरम्भ कर दिया था। अगले मध्यान्तर में वो जनरल ब्रिजालॉफ के करीब पहुँचा और बुदबुदाया “मैं आप पर छींका हुजूर, मुझे क्षमा करें। दरअसल मैंने ऐसा इसलिए नहीं किया ……..’

“ओहं, बहुत हुआ। मैं पहले ही भूल चुका हूँ उस बारे में और तुम उसी पर अटके हुए हो।” जनरल ने बेसब्री से निचले होठ को सिकोड़ते हुए कहा।

MP Board Solutions

“He says he has forgotten it, but there is malice in his eyes,’ thought Tcherviakoff, glancing at the general suspiciously. ‘He won’t even speak. I must explain that I didn’t mean it ……… that sneezing is a law of nature …….. or else he might think I was spitting. If he doesn’t think so now, he will later.”

On reaching home, Tcherviakoff told his wife about the incident. She was alarmed at first, but when she learned that Brizjaloff was not her husband’s chief, she felt reassured.

(‘ही सेज़ ही हैज़ फॉरगॉटन इट, बट देयर इज़ मैलिस इन हिज़ आईज’, थॉट शरवियाकॉफ, ग्लान्सिंग ऐट द जनरल ससपिशियस्ली. ‘ही वोण्ट (वुड नॉट) ईवन स्पीक. आई मस्ट एक्स्प्ले न दैट आई डिडण्ट (डिड नॉट) मीन इट …….. दैट स्नीजिंग इज़ अ लॉ ऑफ नेचर …….. और एल्स ही माईट थिंक आई वॉज़ स्पिटिंग. इफ ही डज़ण्ट थिंक सो नाऊ, ही विल लेटर.’

ऑन रीचिंग होम, शरवियाकॉफ टोल्ड हिज़ वाईफ अबाऊट द इन्सिडेण्ट्र. शी वॉज़ अलार्मड ऐट फर्स्ट, बट व्हेन शी लन्ड दैट ब्रिजालॉफ वॉज़ नोट हर हस्बैण्ड्स चीफ, शी फैल्ट रीअशयोर्ड.)

अनुवाद :
‘यह कह रहे हैं कि यह भूल चुके हैं पर इनकी आँखों में द्वेष हैं।’ शरवियाकॉफ ने जनरल की तरफ देखते हुए अपने मन में सोचा। ‘यह बात तक नहीं कर रहे। मुझे उन्हें समझाना चाहिए कि मेरा ऐसा इरादा नहीं था, कि छींकना प्रकृति का नियम है ………अन्यथा वह यह समझेंगे कि मैं थूक रहा था। यदि अभी नहीं सोच रहे तो बाद में सोचेंगे।’

घर पहुँचकर शरवियाकॉफ ने अपनी पत्नी को घटना के बारे में बताया। पहले तो उसकी पत्नी घबरा गई पर जब उसे यह मालूम हुआ कि ब्रिज़ालॉफ उसके पति के विभाग का मुख्य अधिकारी नहीं है तो वह आश्वस्त हो गई।

‘Still, you must go and apologize,’ she said, ‘He might think you don’t know how to behave in society.’

“That’s just it!’ said Tcherviakoff, ‘I have apologized, but he acted so curiously. He didn’t say anything sensible. But, then there was no time for conversation.’

The following day Tcherviakoff shaved, wore his new uniform and went to Brizjaloff’s office to explain things to him. In the general’s reception room, there was a large crowd of petitioners. Sitting at a large table in the centre of the room was the general, who had already begun his reception. After he had interrogated several of the petitioners, the general raised his eyes to Tcherviakoff.

(‘स्टिल, यू मस्ट गो ऐण्ड अपॉलोजाईज,’ शी सेड,’ ‘ही. माईट थिंक यू डोण्ट (ड् नॉट) नो हाऊ टु बिहेव इन सोसायटी.)

‘दैट्स जस्ट इट!’ सेड शरवियाकॉफ, ‘आई हैव अपॉलोजाइज्ड, बट ही ऐक्टिड सो क्यूरियसली ही डिडण्ट (डिड नॉट) से एनीथिंग सेन्सिबल. बट, देन देयर वॉज़ नो टाईम फॉर कन्वरसेशन!

द फॉलोइंग डे शरवियाकॉफ शेटड, वोर हिज़ न्यू यूनिफॉर्म ऐण्ड वेण्ट टू ब्रिजालॉफ्स ऑफिस टू एक्स्प्लेन थिंग्स टु हिम इन द जनरल्स रिसेप्शन-रूम देयर वॉज़ अ लार्ज क्राऊड ऑफ पेटिशनर्स. सिटिंग ऐट अ लार्ज टेबल इन द सेण्टर ऑफ द रूम वॉज़ द जनरल, हू हैड ऑलरेडी बिगन हिज़ रिशेप्शन आफ्टर ही हैड इन्टरोगेटिड सेवरल ऑफ द पेटिशनर्स, द जनरल रेज्ड हिज़ आईज़ टू शरवियाकॉफ.)

अनुवाद :
फिर भी तुम्हें जाना चाहिए और माफी मांगनी चाहिए। वह यह समझेगा कि तुम्हें सामाजिक शिष्टाचार नहीं आते।’ उसकी पत्नी ने कहा।

‘बिल्कुल ठीक! मैंने उनसे क्षमा माँगी परन्तु उसका बर्ताव बड़ा अजीब सा था। उन्होंने ‘कुछ भी समझ आने योग्य नहीं कहा। परन्तु वहाँ बातचीत का समय भी नहीं था।’ शरवियाकॉफ ने कहा। अगले दिन शरवियाकॉफ ने दाड़ी बनाई, अपनी नई वर्दी पहनी और ब्रिजालॉफ के दफ्तर उनको स्पष्टीकरण देने पहुंचा। जनरल के स्वागत-कक्ष में फरियादियों की अच्छी-खासी भीड़ थी। कमरे के बीच में एक बड़ी से मेज के पीछे बैठे जनरल आए हुए लोगों की समस्याएं सुनना शुरू कर चुके थे। कई सारे फरियादियों से सवाल-जवाब के पश्चात् जनरल ने शरवियाकॉफ की तरफ देखा।

“Yesterday, at the opera-house, if you remember, Your Excellency ………’ the little official began, I sneezed and …….. accidentally spattered on you. Excuse ………’

‘You are talking about the same thing again? What nonsense! What can I do for you?’

Tcherviakoff turned pale. ‘He won’t speak to me!’ he said to himself. “That means he is angry. I must explain the whole thing to him.’

When the general had finished his interview with the last petitioner and was leaving, Tcherviakoff stepped up to him and murmured, ‘Your Excellency! If I dare to trouble you, it is only, I can assure you, from a feeling of repentance. I did not sneeze on purpose. Your Excellency must know that …….’

(‘यस्टर्डे, ऐट ओपेरा-हाऊस, इफ यू रिमेम्बर, यॉर एक्सिलेन्सी ………… ‘द लिटल ऑफिशियल बिगैन, ‘आई स्नीज्ड ऐण्ड ………. ऐक्सिडेण्ट्ली स्पैटर्ड ऑन यू. एक्स्क्यू ज़ ……….’

‘यू आर टॉकिंग अबाऊट द सेम थिंग अगेन? व्हॉट नॉनसेन्स! व्हॉट कैन आई डू फॉर यू?

शरवियाकॉफ टन्ड पेल. ही वोण्ट (वुड नॉट) स्पीक टू मी। ही सेड टू हिमसेल्फ़ दैट मीन्स ही इज़ ऐंग्री. आई मस्ट एक्स्प्ले न द होल थिंक टू हिम

व्हेन द जनरल हैड फिनिश्ड हिज़ इन्टरव्यू विद द लास्ट पेटिशनर ऐण्ड वॉज़ लीविंग, शरवियाकॉफ स्टेप्पड अप टू हिम ऐण्ड मरमर्ड, यॉर एक्सिलेन्सी! इफ आई डेयर टू ट्रबल यू, इट इज़ ओनली, आई कैन अश्योर यू, फ्रॉम अ फीलिंग ऑफ रिपेन्टेन्स। आई डिड नॉट स्नीज़ ऑल परपस. यॉर एक्सिलेन्सी मस्ट नो दैट ……….’)

अनुवाद :
‘कल नाट्यशाला में यदि आपको याद हो हुजूर ………..’ छोटे अधिकारी ने बोलना शुरू किया, ‘मैं छींका और  ………. अक्स्मात आप पर थूक की छीटें गिराई। मुझे क्षमा ……….’

‘तुम फिर उसी बारे में बात कर रहे हो। क्या बकवास है! मैं क्या कर सकता हूँ तुम्हारे लिए?

शरवियाकॉफ पीला पड़ गया ‘ये मुझसे बात नहीं करेंगे। उसने अपने आप से कहा’ इसका मतलब है कि मुझसे रुष्ट हैं।

‘मुझे उनको पूरी बात समझानी चाहिए।’ जब जनरल ने अन्तिम फरियादी से सवाल-जवाब कर लिए व जाने को हुए तो शरवियाकॉफ उनके पास आया और धीरे से बुदबुदाया ‘हुजूर! यदि मैं आपको बार-बार तकलीफ देने का साहस कर रहा हूँ तो सिर्फ इसलिए, मैं आपको यकीन दिलाता हूँ, पश्चाताप की भावना से। मैं जानबूझकर नहीं छींका था। हुजूर को यह मालूम होना चाहिए कि ………..।’

MP Board Solutions

The general made a fearful face and waved his hand in despair. “You are simply joking, sir!’ he said disappearing behind the door.

‘He says I am joking!’ thought Techerviakoff. ‘But there is no joke about this at all. He is a general and he can’t understand what a common man like me is going through! I am not going to beg that man’s pardon again! I’ll write him a letter, but I’ll not come here again.’

Tcherviakoff could not stop thinking about the incident as he walked homewards. He did not write that letter to the general. He thought and thought, but could not think of anything to write. He decided to go back to the general the following day and explain everything in person.

(द जनरल मेड अ फीअरफुल फेस ऐण्ड वेव्ड हिज़ हैण्ड इन डिस्पेअर, ‘यू आर सिम्पली जोकिंग, सर! ही सेड डिसअपीयरिंग बिहाईन्ड द डोर.

‘ही सेज़ आई ऐम जोकिंग!’ थॉट शरवियाकॉफ. बट देयर इज़ नो जोक अबाऊट दिस ऐट ऑल. ही इज अ जनरल ऐण्ड ही काण्ट (कैन नॉट) अन्डरस्टैण्ड व्हॉट अ कॉमन मैन लाईक मी इज़ गोइंग धू! आई एम नॉट गोइंग टू बैग दैट मैन्स पार्डन अगेन! आई विल राईट हिम अ लैटर, बट आई बिल नॉट कम हीयर अगेन’

शरवियाकॉफ कुड नॉट स्टॉप थिंकिंग अबाऊट द इन्सिडेण्ट ऐज़ ही वॉक्ड होमवर्ड्स ही डिड नॉट राईट दैट लैटर टू द जनरल. ही थॉट ऐण्ड थॉट, बट कुड नॉट थिंक ऑफ एनीथिंग टू राईट। ही डिसाइडिड टू गो बैक टू द जनरल द फॉलोइंग डे एण्ड एक्स्प्ले न एवरीथिंग इन पर्सन।)

अनुवाद :
अत्यन्त बुरा-सा मुँह बनाकर हाथों को हताशा से हिलाते हुए जनरल ने कहा, ‘तुम मजाक कर रहे हो महोदय!’ यह कहकर वह दरवाजे से अन्दर चला गया।

‘वह कह रहे हैं मैं मज़ाक कर रहा हूँ’ शरवियाकॉफ ने मन में सोचा। ‘परन्तु इसमें कुछ भी मज़ाक नहीं है। वह एक जनरल. हैं और वह यह समझ नहीं सकते कि मुझ जैसा आम आदमी कैसी मानसिक स्थितियों से गुज़र रहा है! अब मैं उनसे क्षमा प्रार्थना नहीं करूँगा! मैं उन्हें एक पत्र लिख दूँगा परन्तु यहाँ फिर नहीं आऊँगा।’

शरवियाकॉफ घर लौटते हुए भी इसी घटना के बारे में सोच रहा था। उसने जनरल को पत्र नहीं लिखा। वह सोचता रहा और सोचता रहा परन्तु क्या लिखे यह समझ नहीं पाया। उसने अगले दिन जनरल के पास जाकर व्यक्तिगत रूप से सब कुछ समझाने का निश्चय किया।

‘I came yesterday and troubled Your Excellency,’ he mumbled as he faced the general, “but not with the idea of joking, as Your Excellency remarked. I wanted to ask for your forgiveness because when I sneezed-I did not dream of joking. How could I dare do such a thing? To joke would be to show no respect for persons.’

‘Get out!’ roared the general, suddenly quaking and growing red in the face.

“What?’ whispered Tcherviakoff. He was horrified to see the general so angry.

Something seemed to break inside Tcherviakoff. He stumbled through the door and out into the street. He could not see or hear a thing, and he crawled along the pavement. He walked home mechanically and when he reached there, he lay down on a sofa without taking off his uniform, and died.

(‘आई केम यस्टरडे ऐण्ड ट्रबल्ड यॉर एक्सिलेन्सी,’ ही ममबल्ड ऐज़ ही फेस्ड द जनरल, ‘बट नॉट विद द आइडिया ऑफ जोकिंग, ऐज़ यॉर एक्सिलेन्सी रिमाड। आई वॉण्टिड टू आस्क फॉर यॉर फौरगिवनैस बिकॉज़ व्हेन आई स्नीज्ड-आई डिड नॉट ड्रीम ऑफ जोकिंग. हाऊ कुड आई डेयर डू सच अ थिंग? टू जोक वुड बी टू शो नो रिस्पैक्ट फॉर पर्सन्स’ – ‘गैट आऊट।’ रोर्ड द जनरल, सडनली क्वैकिंग ऐण्ड ग्रोइंग रेड इन द फेस.

‘व्हॉट? ‘ व्हिस्पर्ड शरवियाकॉफ, ही वॉज़ हॉरिफाईड टू सी द जनरल सो ऐंग्री.

समथिंग सीम्ड टू ब्रेक इनसाइड शरवियाकॉफ. ही स्टम्बल्ड श्रू द डोर ऐण्ड आऊट इन्टू द स्ट्रीट. ही कुड नॉट सी और हीयर अंथिंग, ऐण्ड ही क्रॉल्ड अलॉन्ग द पेवमेण्ट. ही वॉक्ड होम मेकैनिकली ऐण्ड व्हेन ही रीच्ड देयर, ही ले डाऊन ऑन अ सोफा विदाऊट टेकिंग ऑफ हिज़ यूनीफॉर्म, ऐण्ड डाईड.)

अनुवाद :
‘मैं कल आया था और हुजूर को तकलीफ दी थी’ वह बुदबुदाया जैसे ही उसका जनरल से सामना हुआ परन्तु मज़ाक करने के उद्देश्य से नहीं जैसा हुजूर ने कहा था। मैं आपसे माफी माँगना चाहता था क्योंकि मैं छींका था-मज़ाक करने का तो मैंने सपने में भी नहीं सोचा था। मैं ऐसी धृष्टता करने का साहस कैसे कर सकता था? मज़ाक करने का अर्थ हुआ किसी के प्रति असम्मान प्रदर्शित करना।’

‘बाहर निकलो!’ गरजा जनरल, अचानक, क्रोध से लाल हुए चेहरे के साथ।

‘क्या?’ शरवियाकॉफ बुदबुदाया। जनरल को इतना क्रोधित देख वह डर गया। शरवियाकॉफ के अन्दर जैसे कुछ टूट गया। वह लड़खड़ाता हुआ दरवाजे से निकलकर सड़क पर आ गया। उसे कुछ भी दिखाई नहीं दे रहा था न सुनाई दे रहा था, और वह सड़क के किनारे रेंगता हुआ सा चल रहा था। वह यन्त्रवत चलता हुआ घर पहुँचा और वहाँ पहुँचकर वो बिना अपनी वर्दी उतारे सोफे पर लेट गया और वह मर गया।