MP Board Class 11th Economics Important Questions Unit 6 Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours
MP Board Class 11th Economics Important Questions
Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours Objective Type Questions
Choose the correct option:
China republic was established in:
Which is the poorest nation:
In year 2010 which was biggest importer:
Economics of India and Pakistan depends for G.T.P:
(a) On primary level
(b) Secondary level
(c) Tertiary level
(d) None of these.
(c) Tertiary level
Which country adopted infant policy:
(d) None of these.
Fill in the blanks:
- Biggest contributor to India’s National Income is …………………………
- In China great leap forward mission started in ………………………..
- Pakistan has better situation in field of ………………………. than India and China.
- In ……………………… urban population is least.
- Emission of Carbon – di – oxide is maximum is …………………………..
- Availability of facility
Match the columns:
State true or false:
- In 1978 ‘Reform policy’ started by China get a great blow.
- Ratio of people below poverty line is higher in India.
- Economy of Pakistan achieved great help by remittance of labourers.
- In comparison to China Indian human development index is higher.
- The Great leap Forward programme was started in Pakistan.
Answer in one word:
- Which model was adopted by Pakistan for development?
- Renmanbi is the currency of which country?
- Which price policy is there in China?
- In 2014 HDI in India was?
- Which is the poorest among India, Pakistan and China?
- 0 – 609
Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write two indications of HDI?
- GNP per capita
- Life expectancy.
When did China started five year plans?
When did economic reforms started in India and Pakistan?
Economic reforms were started in 1951 in India and in 1956 in Pakistan.
Name the two areas where India is ahead of Pakistan?
Rate of GDP and Per Capita Income.
In which area China is ahead of India and Pakistan?
Human development and GNP per capita.
What is liberty indicator?
Liberty indicators means a tigers night to play in the governance of their country.
Name any two regional groups?
When did India and Pakistan became Independent?
When was People’s Republic of China established?
What was common in the development strategy of India, China and Pakistan?
Five Year Plans.
When was Great Leap Forward Movement started?
What is Great Leap Forward?
The Great Leap Forward was a campaign initiated in 1958 in China by Man’s which was aimed to Modernize China’s economy.
What is the objective of Great Leap Forward?
Industrialization of nation on large scale.
What was the objective of commune?
The objective of commune was collective farming.
When was the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution started?
What was the objective of Great Protestarion Cultural Revolution?
To send students and professionals to work and learn from country side.
When did economic reforms started in China?
When did economic reforms started in Pakistan?
Why is density of population of China is less than India and Pakistan?
Because the geographical area of China is big.
Which country adopted one child norm?
When was one child norm implemented in China?
In the end of decade of 1970.
Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours Short Answer Type Questions
Mention some examples of regional and economic groupings?
Following are some examples of regional and economic groupings:
- European Union
- G – 8
- G – 20
What are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economics?
Following are the various means by which countries are trying to strengthen their own domestic economics:
- Countries are forming regional and global groupings such as European Union, G – 8, G – 20, ASEAN, SAARC, etc.
- Countries are making comparison of their policies with the policies of their neighbouring countries.
What similar developmental strategies have India and Pakistan followed for their respective developmental paths?
Initially India and Pakistan adopted economic planning i.e., Five Year Plans as development strategy. Accordingly both the countries created a large public sector and raised public expenditure on social development. Till 1980 both the countries had similar growth rates and per capita income.
During this period, both the countries introduced a variety of regulated policy framework including tariff protection and direct import controls. During 1980s and 1990s, both the governments shifted their policy orientation to liberalisation and role of private sector. India introduced economic reforms in 1991 while Pakistan initiated economic in 1988.
Explain the Great Leap Forward Campaign of China as initiated in 1958?
Great Leap Forward (GLF) campaign was initiated in China in 1958 as a strategy of economic development. Under this, the main emphasis was on the industrialisation of the country on a massive scale. People were encouraged to set up industries in their backyards. In rural areas, commune system was followed to promote collective forming. However, the Great Leap Forward compaign could not succeed.
China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Do you agree? Elucidate?
Yes, we agree with the statement that China’s rapid industrial growth can be traced back to its reforms in 1978. Under the reforms, private sector firms and co – operative societies were allowed to produce goods. At this stage, state enterprises (State Owned Enterprises) were made to face competition.
Under dual pricing, farmers and industrial units were required to buy and sell fixed quantities of inputs and outputs on the basis of prices fixed by the government and the rest were purchased and sold at market prices. Besides, special economic zones were set up to attract foreign investors.
Describe the path of developmental initiatives taken by Pakistan for its economic development?
Pakistan became independent in 1947. Pakistan announced its first Five Year Plan in 1956. Till 1998, Pakistan had eighth Five Year Plans. Pakistan follows the mixed economy model with co – existence of public sector and private sector. In the initial period of planning, Pakistan adopted a policy of regulated environment characterised by tariff protection and import substitution.
As a result of huge public investment, the production of foodgrains also increased. In 1970s, capital goods industries were nationalised. However, by 1980, the emphasis was shifted to denationalisation and promation of private sector. The government offered incentives to the private sector. Reforms were introduced in Pakistan in 1988.
What is the important implication of the “one norm” in China?
The important implication of the “one norm” in the check on population growth. As a consequence, after a few decades, there will be more elderly people in proportion to young people. This will force China to take steps to provide social security measures with fewer workers.
Evaluate the various factors that led to the rapid growth in economic development in China?
Following are the various factors that led to the rapid growth in economic development in China:
1. Government Control:
Since its establishment in 1949, China followed the strategy of socialism under which all the sectors of the economy, enterprises and land were under the government control.
2. Great Leap Forward:
Great Leap Forward campaign was launched in 1958 to promote industrialisation and collective fanning in agriculture.
3. Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution:
During 1966 – 1976, students and professionals were sent to work and learn from the countryside.
4. Economic Reforms:
Economic reforms were introduced in China in 1978. China introduced reforms in phases. In the initial phase reforms were introduces in agriculture, foreign trade and investment sectors. In the later phase, reforms were initiated in the indus¬trial sector. To attract foreign investors, special economic zones were set up.
Group the following features pertaining to the economics of India, China and Pakistan?
- One – child norm
- Low fertility rate
- High degree of urbanization
- Mixed economy
- Very high fertility rate
- Large population
- High density of population
- Growth due to manufacturing sector
- Growth due to service sector.
Grouping of features pertaining to the economics of India, China and Pakistan are as follows:
Give reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan?
Following are the reasons for the slow growth and re-emergence of poverty in Pakistan:
- Decline in the growth rate of agriculture sector which employs the largest proportion of work force.
- Political instability in pakistan.
- High rate of inflation.
- Dependence on foreign loans.
What are the similarities in the developmental strategies of India, Pakistan and China?
Following are the similarities in the developmental strategies of India, Pakistan and China:
- All the three countries have started towards developmental path at the same time.
- All the three countries followed the similar developmental strategies. All the three countries started their development through Five Year Plans and emphasis on pubic sector.
- Till 1980s, all the three countries had similar growth rates and per capita income.
- All the three countries have introduced economic reforms.
Compare and contrast India and China’s sectoral contribution towards GDP in 2008. What does it indicate?
As far as sector wise contribution to growth is concerned in 2008, contribution of agriculture to GDP in China was 10% while in India it was 19%. On the other hand manufacturing contributes the highest to GDP in China at 47%, whereas, in India service sector contributes the highest at around 55%.
In the last two decades, the growth of agriculture sector has declined in both the countries. In the industrial sector, China has maintained a double-digit growth rate whereas for India industrial growth rate has declined. In the case of service sector, China has been able to raise its rate of growth in 2008 – 2010 while service sector growth in India has stagnated. China’s growth is mainly contributed by the manufacturing sector and India’s growth by service sector.
Development Experience of India: A Comparison with Neighbours Long Answer Type Questions
Mention the salient demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India?
The salient demographic indicators of China, Pakistan and India are discussed below:
1. The population of Pakistan is very small and accounts for roughly about one – tenth of China or India. Though, China is the largest nation and geographically occupies the largest area among the three nations its denstiy is the lowest.
2. One child norm was introduced in China in late 1970’s as population growth was the main reason. This was a measure led to a decline in the sex ratio, the proportion of females per 1000 males. Although sex ratio is based against females in all three countries are trying to adopt various measures to improve the situation. Due to one child norm, after few decades there will be more elderly people in proportion to young people.
3. The fertility rate is low in China and very high in Pakistan.
4. Urbanisation is high in both Pakistan and China with India having 28% of its people living in urban areas.
Mention the various indicators of human development?
Following are the various indicators of human development:
- Longevity or Life Expectancy at Birth: Longevity means the number of years of that a new bom infant can expect to live.
- Knowledge: Knowledge is measured by a combination of adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary school enrolment ratios.
- Decent standard of Living: It is measured by real per capita income at purchasing power parity in dollars.
- People below poverty line.
- Infant mortality rate:
- Maternal mortality rate.
- Adult literacy rate.
- GNP per capita etc.
Compare and contrast the development of India, China and Pakistan with respect to some salient human development indicators?
The following table presents the salient human development indicators in India, China and Pakistan:
Human Development Report 2011 and World Development Indicators (W. W. W. worldbank. Org)
Table shows the following points:
1. China is ahead of India and Pakistan in human development indicators. China has better ranking in terms of income indicator such as GDP per capita, or proportion of population below poverty line or health indicators such as mortality rates, access to sanitation, literacy, life expectancy or malnourishment.
2. Pakistan is ahead of India in reducing proportion of people below the poverty line with 37 – 2% people below poverty line in India while the ratio being 22 – 3% in Pakistan in 2004 – 2006.
3. Pakistan’s performance in education, sanitation and access to water is better than India.
4. Maternal mortality is very high in India and Pakistan as compared to China. In China, for one lakh births, only 38 women die whereas, in India and Pakistan, more than 200 women die.
5. All the three countries report providing improved water sources for most of its population.
6. Considering the international poverty rate of $ 1 a day, India has the largest share of poor among the three countries.