MP Board Class 11th Special English Important Questions Essay Writing
1. Forest and Human Life (M.P. 2009, 13)
Planting trees is called plantation and a huge area covered with a number of trees of different variety and quality are called forests, the need is to protect them and save them from illegal cutting and destruction. To encourage tree plantation and to develop an understanding and love for trees, government from time to time has launched many programmes all over the country and it has resulted that today we see a number of green trees on the roadside and along the railway track. Just as we need garments to cover and decorate our body similarly to increase the beauty of the earth trees are important. These trees not only decorate the earth but supply man with many important and necessary things. The first and foremost it supplies life saving oxygen to man, it brings rainfall and also is home of beautiful birds and animals.
Forest feeds many industries with raw material which are used for making products that are in demand thus forest helps in raising the economic condition of the country. Most of the present industries like paper, oil, rubber, etc. depend on forest for raw materials. These forests are also beneficial for these provide herbs and medicinal oil for preparing various medicines as well as artificial milk from the sap of the cow tree.
Forest helps to clean the atmosphere and purity air as well as make it pleasant. Today most of our forests are protected areas and are sanctuary that helps the government to earn foreign currency everyyear. Today world is alert towards the need of forest for human and world’s survival that a number of worldwide programmes been launched. In India every year we celebrate “Van Mahotsav’, it encourages tree plantation over wasteland to protect top soil. It is the present need of the mother earth.
2. Importance of Newspaper (Imp)
Role of Free Press in Democracy
A free press is the champion of the people’s rights and the enemy of oppression. It supports every good cause and exposes every false belief. It is the agent of truth, justice and civilization. People cannot be made slaves where press is free. In a democracy, the importance of press is even greater. The chief function of the press should be to protect the people from their rules. A free press works for the welfare of the people. It is the voice of the nation. It speaks fearlessly on national issues.
The most important function of a newspaper is to educate public opinion. It supplies accurate information to its readers. It is the eye-ope ler of the government and the public. It serves as a forum for the people. Through it people may know freely what is going on in the world. A free newspaper is the guardian of the people. It fights against authoritarian forces, injustice and exploitation.
The press acts as a public enquiry commission. Antinational and antisocial elements are afraid of the press because it brings to light their misdeeds. If the press is public-spirited it acts in an objective manner. No wonder then our politicians are more afraid of the newspa pers than the people.
It is the newspaper that exposes the misdeeds of the government. A controlled press is an insult to the nation. People must be free to express their opinion in the newspapers. It is a pity that in our country the newspapers are controlled by the capitalist class. All the newspapers cater the interest of the rich. They seldom espouse the cause of the poor of the underprivileged classes. The newspapers that create communal hatred are the enemies of the public. They spread false alarms. They excite violence. Government must put rigorous restriction on the publication of such reports. It causes a threat to the unity of the nation.
3. The Problem of Unemployment in India (Imp)
The problem of unemployment is the most difficult problem that faces our country. After so many years of independence, the problem has become more acute. There are more unemployed persons that they were at the time of independence. All the development plans have failed to provide employment to our young men and women. The number of job seekers on the registers of Employment Exchanges has multiplied.
There are several causes for the increased unemployment in India. Rapid industrialisation is one of them. Galloping birth rate and defective education system are some of other causes. The population of our country is increasing at an alarming rate. Whatever is achieved in terms of additional jobs is not too enough by fresh hands seeking unemployment.
India is still an underdeveloped nation. Ours is a rich country inhabited by the poor. It means that India is rich in natural resources, but they need exploitation. There is still a great scope for expansion on all fronts. There is enough barren land which can be brought under cultivation. More dams could be built and more electricity should be generated. We still need schools, hospitals, dispensaries, libraries and community centres. All these can provide work to millions.
Not much attention has been paid to handicraft and cottage industry. We must persuade our young people to engage themselves on these neglected areas of work. The government must make a provision for special subsidy for cottage industry in order to rehabilitate it.
Our education should be made job-oriented. But our education is liberal education. It has produced only babus. They are fit for nothing but clerical jobs which they do not get. Dignity of labour must be taught to the young. Machinery should be used carefully so that it does not displace workers. A proper coordination between industrial development and employment opportunities is required to be developed. Lure for machinery must be checked.
We must also check the fast growing population. This is of foremost importance. Unless this is achieved, no plan can give desired results. Family planning has to be popularised among the ignorant villagers who continue to be superstitious in the matter concerning births. Dignity of labour must be brought home to all. No work is low. We must not hesitate to use the hands and feet that God has given us. Our young must change their outlook if the cancer of unemployment has to be removed from our society.
4. T. V. and Education
The Educational Value of T.V.
Television is the wonderful invention of the present century. It is becoming very popular as a means of education throughout the world. In the western countries, the schools make full use of television in making education as effective and interesting as possible. In our country, it is still in its infancy. But the new education policy announced recently has laid sufficient stress on the modern aids of education and television has been given its due place. In Delhi schools, television is freely used as a means of education.
No one can deny the fact that television is the most effective means of imparting education. In scientific education in particular, good programmes on the television can easily make up for a bad teacher or an ill-equipped laboratory. Its audio-visual quality makes teaching through television more effective. It has a lasting imprint on the minds of the students. The importance of teaching subjects like Geography on television cannot be underes timated. The students can be shown actual Geographical facts and phenomena on television. They can be shown the rise of the monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean and their advancement to the land and mountains, resulting in monsoon rainfall throughout India. They can also be shown the lunar or solar eclipses.
The importance of using audio-visual aids while teaching other subjects also cannot be denied. It is true that a television lesson has the obvious disadvantages of the absence of student participation but this disadvantage can be overcome by planning a lesson in such a way that it can take of all possible reactions and by making the teacher discuss the problems of individual students at the end of a lesson. The actual celebration of some of the national days can be effectively shown on television. The students can listen to the speeches of our national leaders and can be benefited by it.
Sports have become an important part of our education system. Effective coaching in various sports can be given with the help of television. Actual test matches and other international sports events have inspired many a budding player.
One of the most important part of our planning in education is that of adult education. Television is a very useful medium of entertaining and enlightening our grown-up masses. If used properly, television can enlighten our ignorant masses.
5. Aim in Life (Imp)
The Choice of a Profession
“Aimless man is a boat without a rudder.” There are many professions that are open to young men and women. Teaching is one. It is a noble profession and it gives one an opportu nity of shaping the lives of young boys and girls and make them useful members of society. A teacher has to work very hard but the remuneration he gets for his hard work is extremely meagre. Then there is a law. There is much money in this profession but it kills the con science of the person who adopts this profession. Many a time a lawyer has to defend a criminal or a murderer and this is nothing short of committing the crime himself. That is why Mahatma Gandhi called the lawyer’s profession a liar’s profession. Lastly, there is business with its glittering gold but its financial implications deter me from entering business.
I would like to become a doctor. I have many reasons for choosing this profession. First, the medical profession is considered a very noble profession, rather the noblest by the rich and the poor alike. A doctor enjoys a social prestige and status hard to come by in other professions. Whatever people might think of teachers, engineers or businessmen, they always think very highly of doctors. There are a few doctors who do not follow the ethical methods and bring disrepute on their profession. But such doctors are happily very few indeed. I would follow medical ethics rather scrupulously. Another reason why I want to choose this profession is that it is an independent profession. One need not dance attendance upon rich and the great for advancement. Success is yours provided you are ready to take pains, adopt sympathetic attitude, and provide selfless and dedicated service. If a person is really sincere in his work even financial success can be achieved. There is no limit to a doctor’s income. And then the social status enjoyed by a doctor is just great. Man’s ambition in life is not only to amass wealth but also serve his fellow beings. And who can serve suffering humanity better than a doctor. He can bring smile on the glum face of a sick man. To save a person from the jaws of death is the highest act of charity and nobility. These are some of the reasons that have prompted me to adopt this noblest of profession.
6. Population Problem in India
Population problem is one of the biggest problem today faced by the world. India is facing this problem from a long time back, more than a crore has been added in our census since, 1947 and if it goes on like this the situation will become critical.
This problem has given rise to many other problems like food, employment, houses etc., and industrialization has added fuel to it. Industries have added pollution problem to the rapid increase of population. Insanitation and rapid increase in some areas have only added to this problem giving it a more severe look. Today it seems that this situation has gone out of our hand.
The rapid development in the field of medical science an average life-span of man has increased, as a result there is a downward trend in the death rate even the child mortality rate has reduced as a result there has been a rapid increase in population.
Indian were basically orthodox in their outlook and regarded birth control as a sin, but today due to rapid development of education and scientific knowledge the traditional outlook is fast-changing but still we have miles to go before any definite solution can be found, unless our villages are not made literate all scientific development will continue to become meaningless.
Under the leadership of Smt. Indira Gandhi a number of programmes had been launched to tackle the situation. The marriage age of the girls was increased to 18 years and child marriages were banned. Spread of education also helped in increasing the age of marriages for girls or boys alike. Family planning education programmes were launched and popularized. This enlightened the people towards their moral responsibility. They owed to the country. If we want our country to progress, we have to teach average man the value of small i planned family. We also need to revive our cottage industries and propagate the value of adult education so that our villagers understand the importance of small family.
7. The Importance of Games and Sports
(M.P. 2009, 10, 13, 15)
Games are necessary part of education. Just as books form part of education, games and sports also form part of education. Books enlighten the mind but games refresh the body. In a word, books and games are complementary to each other. For students both are essential.
The fitness of man is absolutely necessary to live a life worth. If a person is always engrossed in books he is bound to be dull and lifeless. So, books and games both are necessary for a student. Life without charm if one is not healthy. Games and sports go a long way in keeping a man healthy and fit.
Games are compulsory in schools. One period is reserved for games. But in colleges this is not the same. Many students never come to the playfield. Some ways must be devised so, that every youngman can be attracted towards the playground.
Games keep us healthy and in good spirits. After a game one feels refreshed and ready for the work of the day. Games also develop a sense of fellow feeling and comradeship on people. Team games are especially helpful in this regard. They teach us the spirit of following the orders of a fellow player, who happens to be our captain. However, games must not be played with the spirit of enmity. On the playfield persons who happen to be in a rival team are not our enemies but our opponents. On the playfield it is immaterial as to who wins and who loses, what is important is that the game is played with the spirit of the game. So, games can teach us the lesson of friendship. Games also inculcate in us a sense of discipline. Disci pline is the most important thing in the life of a man. Only those people succeed in their lives who lead a disciplined life and no place is better than a playfield to teach us about the discipline. An undisciplined man is bound to fail in the game of life. Further, games and sports help us to fight against the menace of caste, creed and colour. On a playfield one is only a player and a partner or opponent. He is not a Hindu or Muslim or Sikkh.
However, excessive indulge in games is bound to be harmful. Too much play is harmful to health as well. Then spending too much time on the playfield will-mean less time for studies for a student. So, there must be right balance between games, studies and other activities of life.
8. If I were the Prime Minister of India (Imp)
Man by nature is a dreamer and often dream of things that are nowhere real and far from becoming a fact. I too dream of becoming a Prime Minister of India if given a chance and choice. As a Prime Minister I would introduce many reforms both in social, economic and education circle.
The first thing I would do is to introduce and make moral education compulsory. I would remove poverty from the country and introduce reforms in agriculture granting loan so that young boys can start their own work.
As a Prime Minister I would stress up on spreading education so that the ignorance of superstition present in the society is removed and make a secular state in the true sense and would see that no political party favours any particular religion and no such thing or law are done that would hurt the sentiments of the people.
I shall set such an example of selfless service to the people that my successor may emulate my example. Such is my vision. If I ever get an opportunity to become the Prime Minister of India.
9. India of My Dream
World is fast moving towards the 21st century and it is essential that we redesign India and make it a world of dream which is bound to be different from what it is now.
It is the need that India should be conscious of her national identity as we prefer to identity ourselves on the basis of our community rather than identifying ourselves as an Indian, this tendency disintegrates us and diverts us from our goal. Let us on this 15th Aug. pledge ourselves to be Indian and to call ourselves Indian. The freedom and the development of the nation depends largely upon how far we are united and how strong our ties with one another are, for there is no short cut to peace and harmony as well as development.
For a powerful and resurgent India, education is vital and basic need, our constitution also guarantees it. It is the government’s responsibility to provide facility of education for all, therefore it has made education free for all students of up to 14 years age, but unfortunately even after 50 years of our Independence we have not been able to achieve the goal in spite of providing all that facilities and utilising all resources we have failed to reach the goal. Therefore, the present need is to utilise all the resources and achieve the target set, so that an enlightened Indian enters into the 21st century.
India, as we know is not free from problem and has always come out victorious in tackling them. The biggest problem of the day is the population explosion which has failed all achievements and eaten up our success therefore, it has be very essential that the growth rate of population be checked, then only the fruits of success will come our way otherwise not.
An average Indian’s dream should be to enter the new century free from problems and that can be attained only through firm determination and sensible timely decision, the national wealth should be evenly distributed so that the true meaning of socialism is attained by the time we enter new era.
We all desire to see India as a well-developed and advanced nation, that is self- sufficient in her needs, therefore, the need is to leave parochial tendencies and do our share of work to make India a heaven of peace and prosperity, then only the India of our dream will come to life.
10. Places of Tourist Interest in M.P. (Imp)
Tourism is a flourishing industry these days. It is an important means of eaming valuable foreign exchange for every country. India, with her rich legacy, is a paradise for tourists on earth. People from America and Europe visit our country in great numbers and try to see the beauty of the country. Madhya Pradesh lies in the heart of India is also a tourists attraction.
The most important tourist centre of the state is Khajuraho. This town is situated near Chhatarpur. There is a regular air service to this town. Although it is not connected with rail, yet it is connected with almost every tourist town of the state through bus service. The town is famous for its temples built by the Chandel kings, nearby there is also a cluster of Jain temples. Every tourist who visits Agra also visits Khajuraho.
Sanchi is another tourist paradise. It boasts of the famous stupas which tell us about Buddhist culture. It was a flourishing town in the past. In 1952, on the occasion of the 2500th birth anniversary of Lord Buddha a new stupa arid temple were erected here. It is near Bhopal and is connected by direct train and bus services.
Bhopal, which is now the capital of the state boasts of some ancient monuments. The town was established in very ancient times by Raja Bhoj and hence, it is called Bhojpal or Bhopal. Here are heavy industries like, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL). Indore is also a place of historical interest. Near Indore is Dhar which has the famous forts of Bag Bahadur and Rani Roopmati. The town is a poem of stones. Gwalior is another famous centre of tourists attraction. The old fort of Gwalior is worth seeing. Now the fort has fa mous Scindhia School. It is a historical monument. Jabalpur situated on the banks of the Narmada, is famous for its marble rocks. Another important historical place is Ujjain. It was once the seat of Lord Vikramaditya, who is considered to be the wisest king ever born in India. The famous temple of Mahakal is also situated here. Today it is an important educa tional centre. It is one of the oldest town of the state and is famous for its Kumbha Fair, which is help once every twelve years…
Among other places of tourist interest may be mentioned is Pachmarhi, the only hill station of the state. Other towns of historical importance are Burhanpur, Vidisha, Rewa. Rewa is famous for its white tigers. Vidisha also boasts of some tourists attraction. Thus, we can say that Madhya Pradesh is a tourist paradise in India.
11. Unity is Strength (Imp)
India is a vast country and the Indian society is divided and subdivided into many castes and sub-castes speaking different languages. To bring all these on one platform is ..rather a difficult job, therefore efforts are being made to cultivate feeling of one nationality.
History reminds us of that from time to time. Our differences had breathed trouble for us and it was because of this disunity that we suffered 200 years of slavery. To a certain extent introduction of English and various means of transportation which were swifter, brought people closer and knitted them on common grounds. This closeness gave birth to common thoughts and outlook both on social and political ground. Yet the most essential aspect is yet to develop even today and that is, we all are Indians first and Indian last than only the differences and diversion will be shed and also stop communal riots.
India, has been from time to time threatened by many agitations. Some of these are still lingering in air like Assam problem, where non-Assamees are called foreigners, than — Punjab which burnt for many years under the fire of terrorism and such other problem in various parts of India pose a threat to India’s unity and integrity making people forget their nationality and the power of unity.
Unless Indians realize their role in democracy and look upon themselves as an Indian and not as Sikh, Punjabi, Marathi, etc., they cannot hope to present a united front before their enemies. The media can play an important role in developing this feeling of national unity.
It has been rightly said “External vigilance is the prize of liberty”. India’s present need is to be vigilant against the jeopardy of casteism, communalism if it wants to retain its freedom. We have to present a united front before our enemies like, China and Pakistan.
The bottom line is “United we stand, divided we fall.”
12. Position of Women in Ancient and Modern India
“Gods reside where women are respected” In the days of the epic age, women enjoyed a great respect among the people. They had an equal part in administration, warfare and education. It is a well known fact that kaikeyi the queen of Dashrath, joined hands with him in the battlefield and was therefore, granted two boons by him for her meritorius services. We are also not unaware of Lilawati in · who had been the pioneer for Indian astronomy. The wife of Madan Mishra defeated Shankaracharya in the vedic discussions.
During the Muslim rule, women were pushed into the background but there also the noble examples of Durgawati, Chand Bibi and Jijabai are exemplary. Many women poets like Mirabai adorned our Hindi literature. We can not forget the bravery of Lakshmi Bai, the Rani of Jhansi whose valour threatened great English generals in 1857.
It was Raja Ram Mohan Rai, who took up again the cause of Indian women during the early years of the 19th century, with whose efforts came the abolition of the ‘Sati system.’ It was due to his courageous work that Indian women dared to come out of purdah. The women of India played an important part in the freedom movement.
Now, the position of women in free India is very secure. ‘Child marriage’ and ‘Sati system are things of the past. Purdah has been cast aside by the Indian women and now every girl has to study. The Hindu law has given girls also a share in father’s property.
Indian women are marching shoulder to shoulder in every walk life, but despite all the advances made by them, Indian women are still ignorant and illiterate in great majority. It is the duty of the government to make education compulsory to infuse in women the value of self help. If India is to become truly prosperous, women should be paid special attention.
13. Menace of Terrorism in India – (Imp)
Terrorism is the bone of modern times. In general it is considered to be the use of violence of political ends. It is infact deliberate and systematic murder maining and menacing of the innocent to inspire fear for political end. Terrorism is the threat or use of violence by an individual of group whether acting for when such action is designed to create internal anxiety and public terror. It is not mindless as many people make us believe. It is deliberate and planned. It is a deliberate means to an end.
It the past terrorism was the strategy of the poor and down trodden against the ruthless tyrants. However today the moss, representing the terrorism, are not poor. Besides it, terrorism are getting modern weapons by which to achieve their arms. Some present-day terrorism groups have quite clearly acquired the characteristic once attributed to tyranny. This is the picture that emerges from the terrorist activities in Punjab.
Terrorism mainly springs from political frustration. Political parties and groups that are not able to annex from power by lawful and political means try to grab it by terrorist activities. They spare no pains to achieve their goals by whatever means they can. Unemployed frustrated youths easily become a prey to mechanisation of such disgruntled politicians.
Terrorism also takes the form hijacking of planes and kidnapping of diplomats other prominent citizens so that the demands of the terrorists could be conceded. Terrorism keep changing their ways of operation so that they are not easily caught.
In Punjab, we are witnessing the worst form terrorism today. Almost everyday news is brought about merciless killing of people. The events took an ugly turn after the assignation of Smt. Indira Gandhi. In the wake of her murder communal fury raged over the whole country. Pakistan, which has always wanted to find India in trouble was got a nice opportunity to send armed terrorists across the border to make Punjab unsteady. Although, the terrorism in Punjab have been isolated, yet the menace of terrorism in Punjab is far from over. Assam is also suffering greatly under terrorism.
Instances of state terrorism are also not tacking. In 1985 the Israel Govt. bombed a Tunisian territory so, that it could get rid of Vassar Arafat who was known to be living there. : Most governments are trying to fight this menace by setting up anti-terrorist squads consisting of specially, trained commandos who can spring to action at the slightest pretext. The remedy lies not in forming anti-terrorist squads, it lies in training in minds of the youths in constructive channels. Satisfied people will not take to the path of terrorism.
14. Science and Civilisation (M.P. 2012, 13)
Science has been the wonderful phenomena for mankind. It has considerably altered the world by its wonderful discoveries and invention. Revolutionary changes have been brought about which could not have taken place in the absence of science. It is science that produced and development of human civilisation. The process of science has been a potent factor to shape the history of man’s civilisation on earth. Our forefathers lived a primitive life, and we are now living in an atomic age. This long leap from the jungle to the atomic civilisation could be possible only through science. The concept of civilization is different from that of culture. Civilisation includes the physical development while culture signifies the inner growth. All the industrial, agriculture and technological developments are the essential parts of a developing civilisation. We are now living in a world of dazzling glitter. Machines have reduced much of the human labour and suffering. They are serving humanity like faithful servants. Ours is a push-button civilisation which depends upon tools, implements and machines.
. There are specific features that make a civilisation full. The entire structure of civilisation stands on some solid factors. The first condition for a true civilisation is that it must include the fulfilment of the primary human necessities just as food, clothing and housing. It is a matter of proud privilege that the present generation is enjoying better living conditions. We have better clothes to wear better and nourishing food to eat and a better house to live in than our ancestors. In this respect, we can assume an easy superiority over them. There is no denying the fact that it is science which has made our living conditions better. We must be grateful to science for its many benefits.
The other factor which makes a civilisation meaningful and useful is leisure. If a civilisation cannot provide leisure to the people, it is not a civilisation of human beings but of brutes. If a person is busy filling his belly from morning to evening, he does nothing different from what an animal does. The poor fellow struggles for survival throughout his whole life and this is what the people hunting and pastoral age did.
Science has bestowed numerous gifts on mankind. Means of transport and communications, medical facilities, electricity, culture machinery, recreational facilities etc. are such gifts of science to man. The blessings of science have made human life smooth and easy. Unfortunately the gifts of science have not been shared by all human beings equally. No civilisation is complete unless and the gifts of science are enjoyed by all. The gap between the rich and the poor has widened. This has hampered the uniform development of our civi lisation.
Science has invited lethal weapons which can destroy mankind in a twinkling of an eye. Thę atomic weapons have multiplied. Science can take away from us in a movement what it has given to us during the last several ages.
The terror of war is always hanging upon our heads like the sword of Democles. The survival of humanity is facing a horrible. The future of our civilisation is uncertain if the atomic weapons spark the Third World War. If science has made civilisation strong on one hand, it has made it weak on the other. If the gifts of science are not properly used, time is not far we shall see the end of human civilisation.
15. Democracy in India
India is said to be the largest democracy in the world in terms members. Democracy is the form of government in which people’s will is supreme. Since in the present-day big countries, it is not possible for the entire population of a country to gather at one place and deliberate and control the whole affairs. Government is therefore, carried by the elected representatives of the people. Of all the political forms of governments, democracy is considered to be all best. Democracy is therefore, the most cultured and civilised political institution.
Democracy is the temple in which there is only idol to be worshipped and that is the idol of the people. Democracy provides, to its people, freedom of thought, speech and action. Elections are held after a certain specified number of years. General Elections have been held in India for several times. It shows that the foundation of democracy here are stable. In comparison, in most of the neighbouring countries, like Pakistan, Bangladesh, sudden over throw of Governments have been witnessed. Army rule has been imposed in those countries and people enjoy less freedom as we do in India.
It is not mere holding of elections that is important, but people in India have developed mature judgements. When they found that a particular political party failed to represent their feelings, people of India have voted that party out. In 1977, the Congress (1) was defeated at the polls. Within two and half years, when the Indian people felt that the Janata Government was unable to deliver the good, they brought back Congress again. In the recent past, also many surprising political changes have been witness in the State elections. In Haryana and Punjab, the Congress was defeated at the elections. This is despite the fact that majority of the electorate is still not very highly educated. But by and large, people in India have developed mature judgement which is imperative for the success of democracy. The Indian electorate has once again votes the Congress out of power in the recent general elections. Very recently a new trend of governance has emerged in the sense that no political party could gain majority which resulted in the formation of coalition government continuously for two consecutive terms first by the NDA and second by of UPA.
It is a matter of serious concern that many drawbacks have crept into our democratic structure. Majority of the political leaders in our country have become corrupt and self-seeking. At times, one finds that democracy in our country is no longer the government of the people, for the people and by the people. It is only a handful self-secking leaders who are ruling the country without any regard to the public welfare which should be the important aspect of any democracy. Once elected, the ruling party forgets the voters and starts filling up their own coffers. This is certainly not healthy for the continuance of democracy. When we compare Indian democracy with that in England, we wonder at our public morality. The politicians here feel reluctant to leave their seats of power once voted by the people. For the success of democracy in our country what we require is clean public life of the politicians. The recent scandals about the Fairfax and Bofors have given a shock to the democratic setup in India. If the people of our country are vigilant only then there lies some hope for the future of democracy in India.
16. A Visit to a Historical Place (M.P. 2009)
“History makes a full man.”
There are many historical places in our country. Some of them are so important that people from foreign countries come to visit them. Mostly they are situated either in big cities. or near them. In almost all states of India, there are places of great historical importance. Such places have their value educationally also. Visits to such places give a novel angle of thinking apart from the pleasure of tour.
It was during Dashera holidays that our class decided to go on a visit to Agra where the most beautiful monument, the Tajmahal stands with all its grandeur and loveliness. Our teacher accompanied us in this tour. We made this long journey by train. At Agra, we hired a big hall for our stay.
After taking rest for a while, our teacher contacted a guide to lead us to the Taj. It was almost dusk, when we reached the spot. We saw the Tajmahal, an unequalled magnificent building situated on the bank of the sacred river ‘Yamuna’, surrounded by beautiful gardens and ponds. Its architecture was unique. The guide explained every historical detail to us.
The Tajmahal was built by the emperor Shahjahan in memory of his beloved empress Mumtaz Begum. It is so finely built with marble slabs that the joints are not visible. It appears as if everything is carved and engraved on an enormous marble stone. The beautiful scenes of the location enhance its magnificence. The guide showed us every corner of the building. We sat in the garden for a long time and enjoyed the glamour of the Taj.
Very soon night befell. It was a moonlight night. The silvery light of the moon spread all over and the whole environment was cool and soothing. The grandeur of the glorious monument was further enhanced by the moonlight. It actually demonstrated the soft and deep feelings of Shahjahan for Mumtaz Begum.
The next day we went to see some other places of historical importance situated nearby. The other day we went to Delhi and visited the Parliament House, India gate and Rastrapati Bhawan, In the end we went to Rajghat to pay our tribute to Late Rastrapita ‘Gandhiji’.
Finally we started on our return journey in a cheerful mood. All through out the journey we talked about ihe pleasant experiences that we bore in our minds. The splendour of the Taj had left a deep impression on our hearts. At last we reached home in a fresh and jolly mood.
I narrated the whole show to my parents and younger brothers and sisters who were equally happy to hear the same.
17. Communal Harmony
Amity between the commuities in the country and absence of any friction and tension among them is known as communal harmony. In countries like India, it is very important, being a precondition to internal peace, which is essential for progress and development of the country. As we know, India has got multiplicity of religions and very nature of the culture is composite. But religion has never been a source of conflict between the communities in Indian soceity. Mutual tolerance and high regards for other religions is an age-old tradition of the country. Still tha vested interest has always been active to create disharmony between them. There were, however not a single instance some years back where obstruction in religious performance has been a cause of communal riots. This phenomenon in the Indian context is politically motivated and has always been engineered by vested interests. It were there at the time of the foreign rule as well as in post-independence era.
Communal harinony as such is highly sensitive an issue and cannot be soft pedalled any more in view of our traditional values composite cultural heritage and secular character of out state. But the main problem is how to maintain communal harmony as administrative and social levels. There is lack of political consciousness among the common people due to literacy. Secondly antisocial and professional criminals have been playing a key role in communal riots and flare-ups as agents of vested interests and their hirelings. Finally, there is need of an effective mechanism to deal with it. Present mechanism is not so smooth. It lacks coordination and people’s involvement. The intelligence agencies reports in advance to the District and State authorities about the communal tension and the element actively associated with growing tension and potentials of disturbances etc. But generally no action is taken and authorities wait for the riots. It is only thereafter that police moves in for action and curfew is clamped to control the situation. During curfew arrests are made for violations.
For the last ten years Ram Janmbhoomi-Babari Masjid issue is a major root of commu al disharmony. Muslims and Hindus are face to face with each other on this issue. In the earlier the communal riots on this issue have taken many lives in Gujarat. Three bogies of a train in which Ramsevaks were returning from Ayodhya were burnt by a mob of 2000 Muslim fundamentalists at Godhara railway station. In which 58 persons were burnt alive. Suddenly in reaction of it, Hindus started burning the properties and men and women in different areas of Gujarat.
To begin with, therefore, the first things is to have a fresh look as it and amend our approach accordingly. Foremost in the process thus is resolute toil on the part of government to protect the foundation pillar of the Indian state. We must tackle the situation wisely.
With fresh approach to the problem fresh measures are also to taken to deal with it effectively. The measures would include suitable amendments in the existing applicable law, pertaining to apprehension of breach of peace and criminal conspiracy against the state and people of India. A new mechanism involving individuals and social organisation on different levels to watch vigil over the situation replacing existing local peace committees will have to be evolved to help the administrative machinery is taking preventive and follow-up action in cases of attempts and conspiracy of breach of communal harmony. This will lead our country to the path of glory.
18. Problem of Pollution in India
Science and industry have made human life easier, healthier and happier. But these have also brought about the problem of pollution. Today pollution has assumed so gigantic proportions that the very existence of human life is in jeopardy. If pollution continues to increse unchecked that day is not for when life would become difficult. Even beautiful buildings like Taj Mahal are facing the danger of losing their lustre because of the pollution in river Yamuna.
Pollution may be in water and air. The pollution of water is mainly caused by the flow of industrial, hospital waste and city sewage into the river and lakes. Surface water is full of all sorts of impurities. The discharge of industrial and other wastes into rivers and lakes has made water poisonous. It is causing incalculable harm to life on earth, Jaundice has become a very common disease today.
The pollution of air is no less dangerous. It is mainly caused by petrol and diesel that are used for driving vehicles, railway and other machines. Air pollution is also caused by the indiscriminate felling of trees. Overpopulation is another cause of air pollution. Big cities are especially prone to air pollution. The result of research, carried out in the United States of America, on air pollution are simply alarming. This research showed air pollution is imperceptibly causing changes in weather conditions and the earth is becoming cooler. The last ice age on the earth took place due to the fall in temperature by 4°C (Celsius). Who knows we are heading towards another ice age.
Another significant cause of pollution is nuclear fall out. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are burning examples of the danger of nuclear and atomic fall out. These cities are suffering from the cause of the fall out. Although atomic bombs were thrown over these cities more than forty five years back.
Although Govt. of India has taken measures to check air as well as water pollution, pollution can be checked if dependence on mechanization is lessened. Humanity and civilization can survive only if the problem of pollution is tackled successfully. Hence, no time must be lost in fighting pollution. Our Earth is the only inhabited planet. It is our duty to preserve it and its civilization.
19. Pollution : Need for Environmental Consciousness
The unsustainable life styles and consumption patterns of the industrialized countries have led to the worst environmental degradation. As far back as in 1992, Earth Summit at Rio de Janiero highlighting the fact adding that poverty is the main setback in controlling and reforming of the environmental pollution for the poor and developing countries. It called for a global partnership for environmental protection. Agenda 21 adopted Reo de Janiero addressed the pressing problems of the day with over 2500 recommendations for action in social and economic areas, such as combating povery, changing patterns of production and resumption conserving and managing natural resources, protecting our atmosphere, oceans and bio-diversity, preventing deforestation and protecting sustainable agriculture.
The major problems of the environment are recognised as global climatic change, ozone depletion, water and air pollutions deforestation, and resource, degradation. 23 billion tones of carbon dioxide is released in the air by burning fossil fuels causing greenhouse effect. The Greenhouse gases are mainly contributed industrialized nation. By the middle of 21st century, earth’s temperature at present level of heat emission would go up by one to three degree Celsius and the sea level would rise between 30 to 100 centimetres.
India has witnessed alarming environmental degradation in two decades. It is the sixth largest and the second fastest producers of Greenhouse gases. The key environmental pollutions related to industries in India are water pollution, soil erosion, ground contamina tion and deforestation. Indian rivers are also from high level pollution due to enormous municipal wastes, industrial effluents and agricultural run-off. According to expert findings, 70 per cent of India’s surface water is severely. As per government statement in 1992, 3/4 of the total waste water generation is due to the municipal waste which is one half of the total pollution load. Consequent to it, fresh water resources are depleting very fast and water-born diseases are on the increase that account for 2/3rd of the total illness in India.
Air pollution in India is the highest by vehicular sources to the extent of 64 per cent, by thermal power 16 per cent, by industry 13 per cent and by climatic sector 7 per cent. The average level of suspended particular matter, in Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi is very high and these are included in the list of 10 metropolitans of the world in respect thereof. These cities have reached critical level while Kanpur, Nagpur and Ahmedabad are hitting the same. Chennai is found moderate.
In respect of land pollution, it is disposal of solid and toxic municipal and industrial wastes. The, per capita solid waste generation average in India is to the order of 360 to 400 gms per day. This waste counts for affliction of respiratory diseases.
In case of pollution control of environmental reform it is very important to note that a partnership of highly industrialized nations with the poverty sticken and developing countries is a must for sustainable development. It implies the help of the farmer to the latter which includes transfer of latest non-pollution technology. This has been the main stress in the Rio de Janiero declaration in June 1997. Earth plus five summit was held in New York to review the programme adopted in ‘Agenda 21′. The conference concluded that the targets were not achieved-annual emission of carbon dioxide, blamed for global warming, continued to rise, fresh water scarcity remained and depletion of forest cover was not being checked. In another conference held in a Japanese resort, Kyoto in December 1997, to check global warming participants agreed to meet binding target between 2008 and 2012.
The steps to control pollution in India include environmental clearance for major industrial activities based to impact assessment before site selection. Introduction of unloaded petrol, low-sulphur diesel and higher emission norms throughout the country in a phased manner is the second significant step. Beside this, efforts are to be intensified further to control pollution in 22 industries in various towns and cities that are critically polluted. The industries are to comply with such emission and effluent standards as may be notified in a time-bound manner.
20. The Menace of Corruption In India
Corruption is a deep-rooted menace that has entered into the vital of our society. There is hardly any sphere of social, economic, political and religious activity that is free from corruption of some kind. Corruption has become so common that most of the people have came to accept it as part of their life.
Bribery and corruption has increased greatly after 1947. The growth of democracy, the system of licences and permits for setting up enterprises, securing quotas of law materials, imports and exports and expansion of trade and commerce is responsible for the increase in corruption. Stringent laws against corruption have proved to be effective in curbing this evil.
Corruption flourishes as long as the people who are prepared to give bribe and others who are prepared to accept it directly or indirectly. Each one of us have weakness for easy money, people are prepared to do anything or sloop any entent of taking graft in order to maintain there so called standard. On the one hand they accept bribe and on the other they urge people to be honest and pure. Such hypocrisy compounds the offence.
It is not different to locate the causes of corruption. Corruption generally breeds at the top and then gradually filters down to the lower levels. Gone all the days when people who joined politics were fired by the spirit of serving the nation. Those who suffered for the sake of getting their country freed from the foreigners, knew only how to make sacrifice. They had never expected their compensation for their sacrifices. Those were the days when selfless people joined politics but unfortunately present politicians are self centered. When people in power indulge in unser unscrupulous practices, a common man also indulges freely.
Government after government have made promises to root out corruption from our public life but this evil has persisted of course there are honest officials but they are in minority. Let us a nation, contemplate seriously as to what will happen when our public life is loaded with corruption. A certain amount of introspection by those who are in power can only initiate the process of minimising the evil of corruption in our country. If the public in general is different, corruption on would not continue to grow as like, cancer.
21. Dowry : A Social Evil
The definition of dowry is very simple and significant. It is the money or valuablo things that bride brings to her husband at the time of marriage or gifts given by the brides. parents at her marriage.
India is the only country in the world where the pernicious dowry system exists. It is the most-vicious system that is eating into the vitals of the nation and hampers the growth and development of the Indian womanhood on the right lines.
The evil of the dowry system with the ever-increasing demands by greedy parents of well-to-do young boys from the parents of the hapless young girls has assumed such meaning proportions that the government has taken a very serious view of the whole matter and has made dowry giving and dowry taking a cognizable offence punishable with imprisonment. Still day in and day out, we are horrified by the news of bride-burning. Young brides are burnt alive by mothers-in-law in connivance with other members of the family: sister-in-law, brother-in-law, even husbands for not bringing adequate dowry. These human sharks deserve the severest punishment, even extermination from society.
The evil of dowry system and bride-burning is a blot upon the Indian civilization and deserves the severest condemnation. Foreigners ridicule our callousness and inhuman cruelty towards women and fail to understand how we can call ourselves civilized when such an atrocious practice prevails in the Indian society.
How can the menace of dowry system be effectively checked? Social boycott and wide publicity of the offenders will go a long way in reducing the menace of dowry. Wom en’s organisations staging demonstrations against the guilty people shall be made more ef fective. Lastly, every dowry death must be properly probed and the offenders should be awarded exemplary punishment within six months of the occurrence of the death.