MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 15 Biodiversity And Conversation
Biodiversity and Conversation NCERT Text Book Question and Answers
Name the three important components of biodiversity.
Three important components of biodiversity are :
- Genetic diversity.
- Species diversity.
- Ecosystem diversity.
How do ecologists estimate the total number of species present in the world?
A total number of species is estimated by:
- Rate of discovery of new species
- Determination of species richness is an area.
Give three hypotheses for explaining why tropics show the greatest levels of species richness.
There are three different hypotheses proposed by scientists for explaining species richness in the tropics :
- Tropical latitudes receive more solar energy than temperate regions, which leads to high productivity and high species diversity.
- Tropical regions have fewer seasonal variations and have a more or less constant environment. This promotes niche specialization and thus, high species richness.
- Temperate regions were subjected to glaciations during the ice age, while tropical regions remained undisturbed which led to an increase in the species diversity in this region.
What is the significance of the slope of regression in a species-area relationship?
The slope regression (z) has a great significance in order to find a species-area relationship, it has been found that in smallar areas (where the species-area relationship is analyzed), the value of slopes of regression is similar regardless of the taxonomic group or the region. However, when a similar analysis done in larger areas, then the slope of regression is much steeper.
What are the major causes of species losses in geographical regions?
The following are the major causes for the loss of biodiversity around the world:
1. Habitat loss and fragmentation: Habitats of various organisms are altered or destroyed by uncontrolled and unsustainable human activities such as deforestation, slash and burn agriculture, mining, and urbanization. This results in the breaking up of the habitat into small pieces, which affects the movement of migratory animals and also, decreases the genetic exchange between populations leading to a declination of species.
2. Over-exploitation: Due to the over-hunting and over-exploitation of various plants and animals by humans, many species have become endangered or extinct (such as the tiger and the passenger pigeon).
3. Alien species invasions: Accidental or intentional introduction of non-native species into a habitat has also led to the declination or extinction of indigenous species. For example, the Nile perch introduced in lake Victoria in Kenya led to the extinction of more than two hundred species of native fish in the lake.
4. Co-extinction: In a native habitat, one species is connected to the other in an intricate network. The extinction of one species causes the extinction of other species, which is associated with it in an obligatory way. For example, the extinction of the host will cause the extinction of its parasites.
How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?
- Biodiversity is important for the productivity, stability, resilience and health of ecosystems.
- Biodiversity is important not only for ecosystem function but also for very survival of the human race on earth.
What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?
Sacred groves are forest patches for worship in several parts of India. All the trees and wildlife in them are again treated and given total protection. They are found in khasi and jointia hills in Meghalaya. Westen Ghat regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra, etc. Tribals do not allow anyone to cut even a single branch of tree in these sacred groves thus sacred groves have been free form all types of exploitations.
Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion, how is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?
Ecosystem services regulate and protect ecosystems that is essential for maintaining the climate and ecology of the area.
Control of soil erosion:
- Plant roots hold soil particles firmly.
- Plant cover protects soil from erosion by wind and water.
- Plants increase the porosity and fertility of the soil.
Control of floods It is carried by retention of water and prevention of runoff. Litter and humus of plants acts as sponge to retain rainwater. Plants hold soil, so prevents soil erosion. Rainwater does not run – off, so prevents flood as they filter water into soil.
The species diversity of plants (22 %) is much less than that of animals (72 %). What could be the explanations to how animals achieved greater diversifications?
Animals have achieved greater diversification than plants due to following reasons:
1. They are mobile and thus can move away from their predators or unfavourable environments. On the other hand plants are fixed and have fewer adaptations to obtain optimum amount of raw materials and sunlight therefore, they show lesser diversity.
2. Animals have well developed nervous system to receive stimuli against external factors and thus can respond to them. On the other hand, plants do not exhibit any such mechanism, thus they show lesser diversity than animals.
Can you think of a situation where we deliberately want to make a species extinct? How would you justify it?
Some species are harmful to humans eg: HIV, Smallpox vires, etc. Such species are not part of any food chains or webs. So, their extinction will not affect the ecosystem. And also their extinction can be beneficial to humans. eg:- HIV, smallpox vires, Plasmodium species etc.
Biodiversity and Conversation Other Important Questions and Answers
Biodiversity And Conversation Objective Type Questions
Choose the Correct Answer:
Wildlife conservation act was enforced in India in:
Indian board of wildlife was established in:
NBPGR is situated at:
Number of biosphere in our country is :
National park related to white tiger is:
The first national park of Madhya Pradesh is :
Plant fossils national park is situated in :
Kanha national park is famous for:
Bandipur national park is the habitat of:
(a) Deer Project
(b) Peacock Project
(c) Elephant Project
(d) Tiger Project
(d) Tiger Project
Animal which is extinct in india:
(b) National Park
Which is the in-situ conservation method:
(a) Tissue culture’
(b) National park
(c) Botanical garden
(b) National park
Which of the following are not done in a wild sanctuary:
(a) Conservation of flora
(b) Conservation of fauna
(c) Use of soil and flora
(d) Prohibition of hunting.
(c) Use of soil and flora
In India maximum area covered by forest
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) All of the above
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(a) Destruction of natural sources
(b) Environmental Pollution
(c) Genetic disorder
(d) All of the above
(b) Environmental Pollution
Forest Research Institute (FRI) is situated in:
World environmental day is celebrated on :
(a) 15th March
(b) 15th April
(c) 4th May
(d) 5th June.
(d) 5th June.
Species which are continuously distinct:
(a) Long lasting animal
(b) Dangerous animal
(c) Simple animal
(d) None of these.
(c) Simple animal
Kaziranga national park is situated in:
(a) West Bengal
Bandhavgarh national park is situated in:
Kanha national park is located in :
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh.
(a) Uttar Pradesh
National wildlife (Protection) Act was formulated during:
Fill in the Blanks:
- Planting of trees and forests on waste land is called ……………………..
- Wildlife protection act comes in force in …………………….
- UNESCO has started Man and Biosphere programme in ……………………..
- ………………….. is the first Biosphere Reserve of India.
- Kajiranga wildlife sanctuary is famous for ………………………
- Red Data book is related with ……………………..
- World Environment Day is celebrated on ………………………… of every year.
- FRI is situated at ……………………..
- …………………….. is the main source of energy.
- National parks are made for the conservation of ……………………….
- ………………………….. is the main region of forest depletion.
- Indian Lion and Cheetah is ……………………….. animal.
- ………………………….. is called the development of forest on barren land.
- World environment day celebrated on ………………………
- Endangered species
- 5th June
- Threatened species
- Growing population
- 5th June.
Match the Following:
Answer in One Word/Sentence:
- In which place of India, lion is found?
- When does World Environment Day is celebrated?
- When does Wildlife Protection Act was formed in India?
- In which state Ghana bird Sanctuary is situated?
- Where is Tiger Project situated?
- Name any two National Parks of India.
- Where does Kanha National Park situated?
- Name any two threatened species.
- Name the state having maximum forest area.
- Name the National Animal and National Bird of India.
- Name any one book associated with the conservation of wildlife.
- Gir forest, Gujarat
- 5th June
- Bharatpur, Rajasthan,
- Kanha, M.P.
- Rajaji Park and Gir National Park
- Lion, Wild buffalo
- Chattisgarh (C.G.)
- Tiger and Peacock
- Red Data Book.
Biodiversity And Conversation Very Short Answer Type Questions
When does WLF-India was established?
The totality of genes, species, and ecosystem of a given region i.e. the combined diversity at all the levels of biological organization is called biodiversity.
Where does wild Ass is found?
Runn of Kutch.
Which are three important components of biodiversity?
The three components or levels of biodiversity are
- Genetic diversity
- Species diversity and
- Ecological diversity.
Ecological diversity has again 3 components – alpha diversity (within community diversity), beta diversity (between community diversity), and gamma diversity (regional diversity).
Write other name of biodiversity.
In the pie chart (A) and (B) drawn below to show the global animal diversity, which groups of animals would you name and write on the areas shaded black in (A) and (B). In which kind of habitat would you find these groups of animals
(A) Insects Habitat, Mostly terrestrial
(B) Fishes Habitat, Aquatic.
What is the basic concept of biodiversity of biosphere?
Name the two plants which are worshiped in any two states.
- Kadamba in Rajasthan.
- Mango in Odisha.
Which part of the world has more biodiversity?
Write the full form of IUCN.
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
Who performs an important role in nature balancing?
Name the branch of science in which do the study of forest animal conservation.
When, started the programme of social forestry?
Write the modern name of sanctuary.
Biodiversity And Conversation Short Answer Type Questions
Explain conservation of biodiversity.
Conservation of biodiversity: India is one of the richest (among the 12 mega centres of the world) countries in biological diversity. This rich biodiversity is due to a variety of climatic conditions prevailing on different ecological habits ranging from tropical, subtropical, temperate, alpine to the desert. These varied conditions harbour a plethora of organisms, which form an important natural wealth, responsible for the socio-economic development of life in our country. But the biodiversity of organisms is under serious threat and there is an urgent need for biodiversity conservation on a war foot level.
What does the term genetic diversity refer to? What is the significance of large genetic diversity in the population?
The term genetic diversity refers to the diversity of genes within a species.
It is important because
- Greater the genetic diversity among the organisms of a species, more sustenance, has against environmental perturbations.
- Genetically uniform populations are highly prone to diseases and harsh environments.
Write the importance of forests.
Importance of forests:
1. Forests play a vital role in the life and economy of all tribes living in forests, by providing food, medicines, and other products of commercial value.
2. Forests are large biotic communities. It provides shelter and sustenance to a larger number of diverse species of plants, animals and microorganisms.
3. Forests prevent soil erosion by wind and water. The trees provide shade which prevents the soil from drying during summer. Trees reduce the velocity of raindrops or wind striking the ground so that dislodging of the slil partiles is reduces. The root system of plants firmly binds the soil.
Name the following
- The group of animals that is maximum among vertebrates
- The scientist who coined the term biodiversity
- The lungs of the planet earth
- The region in India where a maximum number of amphibians are present.
- The most species-rich taxonomic group of animals.
- Edward Wilson
- Amazon forest
- Western ghat
Enumerate any five reasons for the destruction of wildlife (animals).
The main reason for the destruction of wildlife (animals) are:
- Entertainment, personal profit, earning money by wrong methods are the human illattitudes, unkindness toward wild animals has brought the animals at endanger level.
- Huge reduction in the natural habitat of the wild animal so.it has reduced their living area due to urbanization, industrialization, and deforestation.
- Exhorbitant extraction and consumption are harmful to wild animals like the skin of animals, the Teeth of elephants etc.
- Various types of pollution have forced the reduction of wild animals.
- Very loose and unpunishable, wildlife act which has increase poaching, huntidg of wild animals.
Biodiversity And Conversation Long Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by Threatened species? Explain its types.
Species that have been greatly reduced in their number or whose natural habitats have been disturbed due to which these are near extinction and may become extinct if the causative factors continue are called threatened species. It is estimated that about 25,000 plant species and 1,000 vertebrate species and subspecies and many invertebrate species are threatened with extinction. It is believed that at least 10% of the living species are in danger.
The organisms which are near extinction are of following types :
1. Endangered (E) species: The species which are facing danger of extinction and whose survival is unlikely if the causal factors continue to operate. These are the species whose number have been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats have been so drastically reduced that they are deemed to be in immediate danger of extinction. For example, Indian rhinoceros, Asiatic lion and the great Indian bustard, snow leopard, etc.
2. Vulnerable (V) species: These are the species having a sufficient number of individuals in their natural habitats. However, in the near future, they might represent the category of endangered species if unfavourable factors in the environment continue to operate. e.g„ Musk deer, black buck, golden langur, etc.
3. Rare (R) species: These are species with a small population in the world. At present these are not endangered and vulnerable but are at risk. These species are usually localized within geographical areas or habitats or are thinly scattered over a more extensive range. e.g., Indian elephant, Asiatic wildass, gharial, wild yak, etc.
4. Threatened (T) species: The species which do not fall under the endangered or vulnerable categories but indications are available that such species may come under any of these two categories if appropriate measures are not taken to protect them.
How is the sixth episode of extinction ‘of species on earth now currently in progress different from the five earlier episodes? Explain the various causes that have brought about this difference.
Five episodes of mass extinction have occurred during the past geological history of the earth due to natural phenomena like a continental draft, ice age, hitting of large asteroids, global warming, etc. But the sixth episode of mass extinction is due to human activities knowingly or unknowingly ie. it is anthropogenic in origin, eg:- Destruction of tropical forests leads to destroying 14000-40000 species every year, or 295% of species every hour.
The causes of this extinction may be.
- Habitat loss
- Habitat fragmentation
- Overexploitation of natural resources
- Introduction of alien species or exotic species which invade maximum space.
- Pollution due to human activity
- Commercial forestry.
Write in brief, the reasons necessary for the conservation of wild species.
Necessity for wildlife conservation : The conservation of wildlife is required . for the following reasons:
1. To maintain balance in nature: The wildlife helps us in maintaining the balance of nature. Once this equilibrium is disturbed it leads to many problems. The destruction of carnivores or insectivores often leads to an increase in the herbivores which in turn affects the forest vegetation or crop.
2. Economic value: The wildlife can be used commercially to earn money e.g., Animal products like hides, ivory, fur etc. are of tremendous economic value. The collection and supply of dead or living specimens of wildlife for museums and zoos fetches good amount of money. Wildlife can increase our earning of foreign exchange if tourism is promoted properly.
3. Scientific value: The preservation of wildlife helps many naturalists and behaviour biologists to study the morphology, anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviour biology of the wild animals under their natural surroundings.
4. Recreational value: The wildlife of any country provides best means of sports and recreation. Bird-watching is a hobby of many people all over the world. A visit to the parks and sanctuaries is an enjoyable proposition for children as well as for adults.
5. Cultural value: The wildlife of India is our cultural asset and has deep-rooted impact on Indian art, sculpture, literature andreligion. Indus valley civilization shows the use of animals symbols in their seals.
6. Preservation of human race: The destruction of wildlife in an area may eventually lead to the end of human civilization.
Describe different methods of Ex-situ conservation
In ex – situ conservation the threatened species of plants and animals are taken out of their natural habitat and placed in special settings where they can be protected and given special care.
- Zoological parks – The places where many animals that have become extinct in the wild, continue to be maintained.
- Botanical gardens – The place where many endangered and threatened species of plants are kept. It allows other plants which are used for reference or project purposes. In India, there are 35 botanical gardens.
- Cryopreservation – It is the storage of materials at an ultra-low temperature of -196°C either by rapid cooling or by gradual cooling and simultaneous dehydration at low temperature.
- Tissue culture and micropropagation – This method is used for preserving the germplasm and growing a number of plants from small parts of organs.
- Seed banks – Seeds of different genetic varieties of commercially important plants can be kept for long periods.
Write a short note on wild animals in India.
India as a country has a diverse range of wildlife. India is home for many species of wild animals. More than 25% land are dense forest in India and around 400 national parks. Some of the most important and popular wild animals in India are as follows :
(A) Animals: In Indian forest, below mentioned animals are found :
- Deer: Its many species are found in India-e.g. Musdeer, Sambhar deer, chital, etc.
- Antelope: These are the same as deer e.g.-Nilgai, Barasingha (Swamp Deer), four-homed antelope (chousingha) etc.
- Elephant: Elephants are large mammals of the family elephantidae. It is found in Kerela and North India.
- Rhinoceros: It is found in Himalayas region and in the forest of Bengal and Assam. Humans are the biggest threat to
- the Indian rhinoceros as having been hunted to the brink of extinction for their horns.
- Wild Ass: Wild asses are not found in any part of the world. Now in India, it is found in die little Rann of Kutch in the Gujrat state of India.
Carnivorous animals: Some India wild carnivores are:
- Indian lion (Asiatic lion): Now it is confined to forests in the fall.
- Cheetah: It is on the verge of extinction.
- Lion: Lion is a national animal, at present, its population in our country are more than 3,000.
- Leopard: It is similar in cheetah but smaller than cheetah.
(B) Birds: Peacock, wild fowl, many types of duck, stork, pigeons, partridge, quail, vulture, kite, piquant, owl, indian paradise flycatcher (dudhraj) are found in forests of our country.
(C) Reptiles: Crocodiles, alligators, tortoise, lizards, snakes and other reptilians are found in Indian forest.
Many vertebrates and invertebrates are also found in Indian forest.
What is the main rules of Indian forest act?
The Indian forest act, 1927 was largely based on previous Indian forest acts implemented under the British. Things which are included in this act are as follows :
- Forest arrangement: Due to this act give the protection and arrangement to forest and wildlife.
- Appropriate use of forest land: Uses of extra land for forest animals and grow some plant these are useful in wild animals.
- Act for protection of forest: This act, stop passion of deforestation and must be conservation of forest and wild animals.
- Increasing of forest product: Due to this act try to increasing of forest product and discovered new information which are better for wildlife.
Write an essay on measures of forest conservation.
Forest conservation: Forest conservation and management are essential to maintain the forests in their natural state and also to prevent the depletion of wildlife and forest wealth. For the success of conservation it is necessary to know the cause of depletion and destruction of forests. Forests are generally destroyed by fire, improper cutting of trees and by animals.
Essentiality of forest conservation: Forest is a complex system which is responsible for the ecological balance in nature. Deforestation causing natural imbalance and affects the biotic components of the environment resulting floods, drought, epidemics, environmental pollution. Many ecologically important species of plants and animals are lost due to which economically important substance like wood, medicines, resin, lac and various food materials will not be available for us.
Measures of forest conservation: The following measures or efforts are prescribed for reforestation:
- Establishment of conserved forests and their conservation in proper way.
- Reforestation on deforested land. Old and damaged plants would be replaced by new plants.
- Proper management of forests.
- By promoting public awareness about forests.
- Replacement of burnt off areas of the forests.
- Plantation of trees that increase forest productivity.
- Forestation of plants on hills and wastelands and prevention of grazing by cattle.
- Prevent forests from fire, diseases and insects.
- Providing basic protection for all forests by law.
- Regulating human activity in the forest such as grazing by cattle and collection of firewood and fodder etc.
- Provide special attention for the conservation of endangered plant and animal species under the inspection of specialists.
- Removal of undesirable trees and vegetation for the better growth of desirable species.
- Forestation of industrially useful plants.
- The government will arrange the management of useful forests.