MP Board Class 12th Biology Solutions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production NCERT Textbook Questions and Answers
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry provides a livelihood for a large number of persons with milk, egg, meat, etc., production.
- Milk-Only animal protein for vegetarians. It is complete food. Milk is obtained from cows, buffalo, goats, sheep, camel,s and yak.
- Egg- Chick and duck are major sources. It is also a complete food.
- Meat – Protein-rich diet obtained from goat, sheep, chicken, fish etc.,
- Honey – Sweet syrup from honey bees used for sweetening
- Fibres – wool, silk etc., for clothes etc.,
- Hides – For hides and leather from animals skin
- Work animals – To carry men and materials e.g.: Efuffalo, bullock, yak.
- Employment – For many persons by rearing and feeding camel etc.
- Waste production – Homs, feathers etc., all used for producing useful products.
If your family owned a diary farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Dairy farm management deals with processes which aim at improving the quality and quantity of milk production. Milk production is primarily dependent on choosing improved cattle breeds, provision of proper feed for cattle, maintaining proper shelter facilities and regular cleaning of cattle. Choosing improved cattle breeds is an important factor of cattle management. Hybrid cattle breeds are produced for improved productivity. Therefore, it is essential that hybrid cattle breeds should have a combination of various desirable genes such, as high milk production and high resistance to diseases, Cattle should also be given healthy and nutritious food consisting of roughage, fibre concentrates and high levels of proteins and other nutrients.
Cattle’s should be housed in proper cattle-houses and should be kept in well ventilated roofs to prevent them from harsh weather conditions such as heat, cold and rain. Regular baths and proper brushing should be ensured to control diseases. Also, time-to-time check-ups by a veterinary doctor for symptoms of various diseases should be undertaken.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objective of animal breeding?
Breed – Homogeneous group of animals within a species, subspecies or a variety which are related by descent and are similar in general appearance, size, configuration and other features. E.g.: Sahiwal, Brown swiss.
Objectives of Animal Breeding:
- Increase yield like that of milk, egg, meet and wool.
- Better quality of animal products
- Higher growth rate
- Resistance to diseases
- Longer productive life
- Better assimilation efficiency
- Higher reproductive rate.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?
The methods employed in animal breeding are :
- Natural methods: These can be carried out by inbreeding and outbreeding methods.
- Artificial methods: These are carried out by artificial insemination and multiple Ovulation embryo transfers (MOET).
The artificial method of animal-plant breeding is best as it ensures good quality of progeny. It is also economic and time saving process to obtain the desirable progeny.
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture (Bee-keeping) → Rearing, care, and management of honey bees.
- Natural aromatic sweet syrup
- Natural sweetener, laxative, blood purifier.
- Immediate source of energy
(b) Bee wax – Used in cosmetics, creams, ointment
(c) Bee venom – Venom from sting used in Rheumatoid arthritis
(d) Propolis – Derived from plants for antiseptic and antibiotics
(e) Pollination – Honey Bees act as major pollinators
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value. Some commercially important aquatic animals are Prawns, Crabs, Oysters, Lobsters and Octopus.
Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy. This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein. A fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
- Collection of variability – variability is recorded
- Evaluation and selection of parents – desirable traits are searched and parents are selected. They are selfed to obtain homozygosity.
- Cross hybridisation – single to multiple crosses is made between parents of desirable traits to produce a single variety.
They are protected from contamination
- Selection – seeds of desired characters are selected. Selection is made at every generation.
Back cross done if desired characters of one parent is not incorporated.
- Testing, release and commercialization – Tested by ICAR and released after giving a variety of name.
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Biofortification is a process of breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and fat content. This method is employed to improve public health. Breeding of crops with improved nutritional quality is undertaken to improve the content of proteins, oil, vitamins, minerals and micro-nutrients in crops. It is also undertaken to upgrade the quality of oil and proteins. An example of this is a wheat variety known as Atlas 66, which has high protein content in comparison to the existing wheat. In addition, there are several other improved varieties of crop plants such as rice, carrots, spinach etc. which have more nutrious value and more nutrients than the existing varieties.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making a virus-free plant and why?
Shoot tip culture – Apical meristem is always free of virus. So we can obtain virus-free plants.
What is the major advantages of producing plants by micropropagation ?
Major advantages of producing plants by micropropagation are :
- Large number of plants can be grown in short-time.
- Disease-free plants can be obtained.
- Plants that have lost the capacity to produce seeds can be grown.
- The plants where sexual reproduction is absent, may be hybridised by tissue culture.
- Plants produced are genetically similar to the parent and have all its characteristics.
Find out what the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
The medium should provide carbon sources such as sucrose, inorganic salts, vitamins, and growth regulators like auxins, cytokinins, etc. It evens give the required moisture.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.
- Cauliflower varieties — Pusa shubhra and Pusa snowball K-1
- Brassica varieties — Pusa swamim (Karan rai)
- Wheat varieties — Himgiri
- Rice varieties — Jaya and Ratna
- Chilli varieties — Pusa Sadabahar.
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Other Important Questions and Answers
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Objective Type Questions
1. Choose the Correct Answers:
In cattles anthrax disease is caused by:
The causal organism of haemorrhagic septicaemia as:
(a) Brucella avartus
(b) Bacillus sp.
(c) Pasterella boviseptica
(c) Pasterella boviseptica
Foot and Mouth disease of cattles is caused by :
The disease caused after rainy season is:
(a) Black fever
(b) Haemorrhagic septicaemia.
The vaccination for galghontu animal is:
(a) January and February
(b) March – April
(c) May – June
(d) October – November.
(c) May – June
The cause of plague disease of animals is:
Example of cereal plant is:
(d) All the above
(d) All the above
Botanical name of common wheat is :
(a) Triticum aestivum
(b) T. vulgare
(c) T. durum
(d) T. monococcum
(b) T. vulgare
Wheat and rice belongs to family :
Padma and Jaya are the improved varieties of:
Botanical name of Rataiyot is :
(a) Pongamia primate
(b) Ricinus communis
(c) Jatropha curcus
(d) None of these
(c) Jatropha curcus
Triticum aestivum wheat is :
Man-made cereal is :
Wheat grain is a:
Removal of stamens from the flower during hybridization is called:
New crop is :
(c) Winged bean
Wheat used in bread is:
(a) Triticum aestivum
(c) All species of Triticum
(a) Triticum aestivum
Sonera-64 and Lerma roja-64 A are the varieties of:
Haploid male plants can be produced by the culturing of:
(b) Pollen grains
(b) Pollen grains
2. Fill in the Blanks:
- The process of separating animals with desired characters for breeding purpose is called ………………………
- Breeding between two genetically different animals is called ………………………
- Anthrax fever of cattle is caused by bacterium ………………………
- Ranikhet disease of fowls was first observed in ……………………… district.
- Fowlpox disease is caused by ………………………
- Number of chromosomes in Triticum Vulgare is ………………………
- Groundnut belongs to family ………………………
- Botanical name of Karanj is ………………………
- ……………………… is the first genetically engineered food.
- Undifferentiated and unorganised mass of cells is called ………………………
- Removal of anthers or stamens from a diploid flower is called ………………………
- In tissue culture selected plants are called ………………………
- ……………………… discovered totipotency.
- Botanical name of Wheat is ………………………
- Regeneration capacity of cells is called ………………………
- Callus cells differentiate to other cells is called ………………………
- ……………………… is known as the rice bowl of India.
- ……………………… is the process of interbreeding between individuals of different species.
- The best biotechnique of disease-resistant is ………………………
- Harmful insects of plants are called ………………………
- Bacillus anthrax is
- Ranikhet (Kumau)
- Pongamia pinnata
- Flavr Savr Tomato
- Triticum vulgare
- Cell differentiation
- Disease resistance variety
Match the Following:
4. Answer in One Word/Sentence:
- When did green revolution start in India?
- Name the type of vegetative propagation in the plants having bulb.
- Give two examples of cereal
- Write the name of any man-made crop.
- Name the product of hybridization of two different species.
- What is the name of the method for the removal of anthers from flower before maturity?
- What we called rearing of bees?
- What we called rearing of fishes?
- What we called undifferentiated and unorganized mass of cells?
- What is operation flood?
- Artificial vegetative propagation
- Wheat, Rice
- Milk production.
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Very Short Answer Type Questions
Define animal husbandry.
It is the science of systematic breeding and raising of domesticated animals as per human requirements.
Name the species of honeybee is used in apiculture.
Define farm management.
It is the controlled and scientific handling of farm animals in their rearing, grooming, breeding, and caring so as to maximize their yield.
What is inbreeding?
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating of individuals that are closely related genetically.
Define inbreeding depression. (CBSE 2004)
Inbreeding depression refers to the reduced fertility and productivity associated with continued breeding.
Name the pathogens of bird flu.
The pathogens are the Influenza-A virus.
Mutations are sudden, stable, inheritable discontinuous variation which develop in the organism due to changes in their genetic system especially base sequence in genes. They produce alleles which were not present in parental type.
Name two plant which are produce by artificially.
- Kalyan Sona
- Shining mung.
The method of producing very large number of plants through tissue culture is known as micro-propagation.
Whose management is called dairy management?
What is SCP?
Single Cell Protein.
Name the varieties of rice from which semidwarf varieties have been developed.
IR-8 and Taichung Native-I
What is green revolution?
Green revolution is the movement launched Which was responsible for the increased food production not merely to meet the national requirement of food production but also to export it.
Name any two diseases which are caused by virus in plants.
- Tobacco mosaic
- Himip mosaic.
Name the varieties of rice from which semidwarf varieties have been developed in India.
- 1R – 8 (from the Philippines)
- TN – 1 (from Taiwan)
Name any two fishes found in freshwater.
Name the organism commercially used for the production of single-cell protein. (Delhi 2009)
Name the type of vegetative propagation in the plants having bulb.
Name the product of hybridization of two different species.
Name the first man-made crop.
Give one example of millet.
What is called breeding between two closely related animals ?
Name the causal organism of anthrax disease of cows:
What is the cause of piro plasmosis or chicbadi jwar in cattles ?
Write the name of two diseases of dogs.
Rabies and Dermatitis.
Name the causal organism of ranikhet disease of fowls.
In which animals ranikhet disease occur ?
What is the cause of bacillary white disease ?
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Short Answer Type Questions
What is meant by the term breed? What are the objectives of animal breeding?
The term “breed” refers to a group of animals which are related by descent and are similar in most of their features.
The objectives of animal breeding are
- Increasing the quantity of yield.
- Improving the quality of yield.
What is tissue culture ? What are its objectives?
“Tissue culture is an experimental process through which a mass of cells (callus) is produced from an explant tissue and the callus produced in this way can be used directly either to regenerate plantlets or to extract to some primary and secondary metabolites.
When appropriate culture conditions were provided, cell masses could then proceed along various developmental pathway, to regenerate shoot and root organs and eventually whole plants.
Aims of Plant Tissue Culture
- To develop new plants from the plant organ other than seeds.
- To produce hybrid varieties of plants.
- To produce disease-free plants from diseased plants.
- To reduce the period of reproductive cycle.
- Development of haploid plants.
- To develop stress resistance plants.
Expand MOET. Explain the procedure of this technology in cattle improvement. (Delhi CBSE 2008)
MOET – Multiple ovulation Embryo transfer technology. It is a method to improve the chances of a successful production of hybrids. A cow is administered hormone with FSH like activity to induce follicular maturation and superovulation, i.e. production of 6-8 ova instead of one per cycle
- The cow is either mated with the selected superior bull or artificially inseminated
- The fertilized eggs are recovered non surgically at the 8-32 celled stage
- They are often transferred to the uterus of the surrogate mother and allowed IP develop till birth
- The genetic mother is now available for another cycle of superior ovulation.
Why aeration is essential in the process of Tissue culture?
For any living being, respiration is a must. Through respiration only it can perform various activities. Oxygen is necessary for respiration. Tissue culture also needs oxygen, then only it can grow. Aeration provides oxygen to the plant parts, thus aeration is essential in the process of Tissue culture.
What is inbreeding? Give its advantages.
The mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generation is called inbreeding. It may lead to inbreeding depression i.e„ the loss of fertility, vigour and productivity of the hybrid.
How foot and mouth disease of cattle spread? Write symptoms and control measures of this disease.:
Foot and Mouth Disease: This disease is also known to be as paka, khongua, khaira, khura, roda and Athus fever. It is caused by virus A, O and C.
- High fever.
- Blue appearance of the mucosa of mouth and tongue.
- Severe depression.
- Erosions in mouth, on the lips, tongue, in the nostrils, etc.
- Diseased cattles should be kept in isolation.
- Vaccination before rainy season.
- The legs of cattles should be washed with copper sulphate or red medicine soultion.
The mouth of cattles should be washed with alum, potassium per magnet, boric acid or carbonic acid twice or thrice in a day.
List the components which are present in honey. Name the three species of honeybee and write the chemical compositions of honey.
There are three species of the honeybee:
- Apis indica
- Trigona species
- Malinopa species.
Uses of honey:
- In the form of medicine.
- In the form of nutritive food material.
Fructose – 41%
Glucose – 35%
Sucrose – 1-9%
Dextrine – 1-5%
Protein – 0-18%
Mineral salts – 3-3%
Water – 17-25%.
Some amount of vitamins B, B6, Coline, Vitamin C and D.
What precautions should be kept in the process of incubation?
Incubatary period is 21 days in fowl precautions of incubation of hens are as follows:
- The eggs chosen should be of good quality.
- Egg size should be medium.
- Colour of egg should be white.
- Eggs should be washed in water.
- Eggs should not be shaken.
- In summers eggs should not be kept for more than 30 days.
- At night, the fowl should be fed before incubation. Incubation of egg should be done by Indian fowl.
Give four significance of poultry farming.
- Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat, and feathers.
- Poultry rearing and poultry farming is a good source of income.
- It provides additional income and job opportunities.
Give the characteristics of meat-providing chickens and give two examples of these.
Characters of meat providing chickens are as follows :
- Size is big.
- They intake large quantity of nutrition.
- Their feathers are loose.
- Their growth rate is low.
Write the examples of three freshwater and three marine water fishes and give its significance.
Examples of three freshwater fishes :
Significance of Freshwater fishes:
- Rohu (Labio rohita): Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
- Catla (Catla-catla): Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
- Singhala (Mystus singhala) : It is rich in Iron and Copper which is good for circulatory system.
Examples of three marine water fishes :
Significance of Marine water fishes :
- Hilsa (Elisha species): It is rich in omega-3 fatty acid.
- Pomfret (Stromatus niger): High in vitamin D
- Bombay duck (Harpodon): It is the source of calcium.
Fish meat is better than other animals why?
- Fish meat is better because it is rich in protein.
- Iodine is found in it which protects against goiter disease.
- It has low fat so, it protects our heart.
- Fat-soluble vitamins A and D are found in much quantity.
- It is digestive so, it is better for children.
Name the developed breed of cow and buffalo. Explain why buffalo milk is better than cows milk. .
Developed varieties of Cow:
- Holstein friesian
- Ayer Shayer
- Brown swiss.
Developed varieties of Buffalo :
Nagpuri. Buffalo’s milk is better than Cows milk because :
- Buffalo gives a triple quantity of milk than a cow.
- Buffalo milk is rich in fat.
- It has much resistance power.
Write the steps in the production of a new variety of plants.
- Collection of variability or germplasm collection
- Evaluation and selection of parents
- Cross hybridisation among selected parents
- Selection of superior in fields
- Release and commercialization of new varieties.
Name the five species of chicks.
- Rhode Island Red
- New Hampshire
- Light Sussex
- White Leghorn.
What is single-cell culture? Explain paper raft technique and its application.
Single Cell Culture: The culturing of a single cell on suitable sterilized culture media under controlled and aseptic conditions is called single-cell culture. Establishment of a single cell culture provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the properties and potentialities of plant cells. Several workers have successfully isolated single-cell division and even raised complete plants from single-cell cultures.
Paper raft technique of single-cell culture:
- In this technique, the single cells are isolated with the help of micropipette and transferred on to the upper surface of filter paper resting on nurse callus. These active nurse callus and the culture medium provide growth factors to the single cells.
- The single cells then divides and as a result of proliferation in them, the colonies develop.
- Colonies formed in the nutrient medium are transferred to the subcultured fresh nutrient media. The callus developing from such single cells are called single-cell clones.
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Long Answer Type Questions
What is artificial insemination in animal breeding? What are its advantages?
Artificial insemination is the process in which the semen collected from superior male animals is injected into the reproductive tract of the selected females, using surgical instruments under aseptic conditions.
- A semen cart is used immediately or stored or frozen and used at a later date when the female animal is in the right phase of reproduction.
- Semen can be transported in the frozen form to where the selected/Superior female animal is present.
- Semen from a single selected male cow be used for insemination of a number of females.
- It helps us to overcome several problems associated with normal mating.
Write the method and advantages of artificial breeding in cattle.
What is artificial insemination? Write its importance.
Artificial Hybridization: It is a method in which sperms of males are injected into the reproductive tract of female ones. Where they fertilize eggs to produce individuals with new characters.
Artificial hybridization involves the following steps:
1. Selection of Parents: It is the first step of natural hybridization in which male and female individuals with desired characters are selected. Usually, healthy animals with desired characters are selected.
2. Collection of Semen: It is the second step of artificial hybridization. In this step male individuals are stimulated mechanically or electrically so, that they release semen. This semen is collected in vials.
3. Preservation of Semen : Collected semen is diluted with appropriate diluting liquid and is stored in refrigerators.
4. Introduction of Semen into vagina (= Insemination): In this step, the desired semen is injected into the vagina of female individuals when they are heated. This technique was used for the first time by Spallanzani in 1780 in dogs. In India, this technique was used for the first time by Animal Research Institute, Eta Nagar (U.P.). More than 10-70% of species of cattle are developed by this technique.
Precautions are taken during insemination:
- Insemination should be done in an appropriate period.
- Only high-quality semen should be used.
- The correct technique of insemination should be used.
- The animals should be healthy during insemination.
Advantages of Artificial Insemination:
- Few semen of healthy males are used for inseminating many female individuals.
- The transportation of semen in ampules is easier.
- The problem of the availability of suitable males is solved by the development of this technique.
- Cattles with desired characters should be used.
How can we provide high living standards for poultry farming?
The steps for providing high living standards are as follows:
(1) Protection, (2) Provide proper places, (3) Necessary facility, (4) Cheap and comfortable, (5) Clean, (6) Facility of water and light, (7) Nearness from market, (8) Protection from parasites and other insects.
While the construction of poultry farms see that they are made of low prices and keep in mind the following things:
- There is no moisture left on the farm.
- Farm should be in a place where there is proper sunlight because microorganism can not grow in this situation.
- There should be proper aeration facility because there are no sweat glands present in fowls as they release moisture by the process of breathing.
- There should be cleanliness on the farm.
- Fowl is a feasible bird who has lots of enemies this is the reason they should be defended.
How can crop varieties be made disease resistant to overcome the food crisis in India? Explain, Name some disease resistance varieties in India. Give the method of breeding for disease-resistant variety.
Crop varieties can be made disease-resistant by conventional breeding methods or by mutation breeding. The germplasm is screened for resistance source or mutations are introduced followed by hybridization of selected parents. The resulting hybrids are evaluated and tested finally, disease-resistant varieties are released.
Disease-resistant variety of:
- Wheat to leaf and stripe rust-Himgiri.
- Brassica to white rust-Pusa swamim.
Methods to breeding for disease resistance:
These steps are involved it:
- Selections of breed from the resistant source.
- Hybridization of the selected breed.
- Selection of Hybrid.
- Testing of the new variety and its production.
By hybridization and selection some fungi, bacteria, and viruses can be disease resistant. These varieties are given below:
How is plant breeding helpful to provide resistance forwards pastes ?
Plant breeding for developing resistance to Insect pests :
(1) The host crop plants may be resistant to insect pests due to the morphological,
biochemical or physiological characteristics.
(2) Some characteristics that lead to pest resistance are :
- Hairy leaves in plant e.g., resistance to Jassids in cotton and cereal leaf beetle in wheat.
- Solid stem in wheat exhibits non-preference by stem sawfly.
- In cotton, smooth leaf and absence of nectar repel bollworms.
- In maize, high aspartic acid, low nitrogen and sugar content protects them from stem borers.
(3) The steps of breeding method is same as for the other agronomic traits.
(4) Some varieties developed by hybridization and selection are as follows :