MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions

MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions

Solutions NCERT Intext Exercises

Question 1.
Calculate the mass percentage of benzene (C6H6) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) if 22 g of benzene is dissolved in 122 g of carbon tetrachloride.
Solution:
Mass of solution = Mass of benzene + Mass of CCl4
= 22g + 122g = 144g
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 1
Alternatively : Mass % of CC14 = 100 – 15.28 = 84.72%.

Question 2.
Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in solution containing 30% by mass in carbon tetrachloride.
Solution:
30% of benzene in carbon tetrachloride by mass means that
Mass of benzene in the solution = 30 g
Mass of solution = 100 g
∴ Mass of carbon tetrachloride = 100 – 30 g = 70 g
Molar mass of benzene (C6H6) = 78 g mol-1
Molar mass of CCl4 = 12 + 4 × 35.5 = 154 g mol-1
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 2

Question 3.
Calculate the molarity of each of the following solutions:
(a) 30 g of Co(NO3)2. 6H2O in 4.3 L of solution
(b) 30 ml of 0.5 M H2SO4 diluted to 500 ml.
Solution:
(a) Molar mass of Co(NO3)2.6H2O = MB = 291, WB of Co(NO3)2.6H2O = 30g, Vsol = 4.3L = 4300ml
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 3

(b) Molanty of solution after dilution may be calculated as.
M1V1 (Concentrated) M2,V2 (Diluted)
0.5 x 30 = M2 x 500
M2 = \(\frac{0 \cdot 5 \times 30}{500}\) = 0.03

Question 4.
Calculate the mass of urea (NH2CONH2) required in making 2.5 kg of 0.25 molal aqueous solution.
Solution:
WB = ?, MB = 60, WA = 2.5 kg, m = 0.25
m = \(\frac{W_{B}}{M_{B} \times W_{A} \text { in } k g}\)
WB = m × MB × WA in kg
= 0.25 × 60
= 37.5 kg

Question 5.
Calculate (a) molality (b) molarity and (c) mole fraction of KI if the density of 20% (mass/mass) aqueous KI is 1.202 g ml-1.
Solution:
Here, MB = 166, WB = 20, WA = 80
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 4

Question 6.
H2S, toxic gas with the rotten egg-like smell, is used for the qualitative analysis. If the solubility of H2S in the water at STP is 0.195 m, calculate Henry’s law constant
Solution:
0.195m solution means that 0.195 moles of H2S is dissolved in 1 kg of water.
Moles of H2S = 0.195
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 5

Question 7.
Henry’s law constant for CO2 in water is 1.67 × 108 Pa at 298 K. Calculate the quantity of CO2 in 500 ml of soda water when packed under 2.5 atm CO2 pressure at 298 K.
Solution:
According to Henry’s law
P = KHX …(1)
P = 2.5 atm = 2.5 × 101325 Pa, KH = 1.67 × 108 Pa
Putting these values in equation (1), we get
2.5 × 101325 = 1.67 × 108 × XCO2
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 6

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
The vapour pressure of pure liquids A and B are 450 and 700 mm Hg respectively, at 350 K. Find out the composition of the liquid mixture if total vapour pressure is 600 mm Hg. Also And the composition of the vapour phase.
Solution:
Here, P°A = 450 mm, P°B = 700 mm, PTotal = 600 mm
Applying Raoult’s law
PA = XAA, PB = XBB = (1 – XA)P°B
PTotal = PA + PB = XAA + (1 – XA)P°B =
B + (P°A – P°B) XA.
Substituting the value we get
600 = 700+ (450 – 700) XA
or 250 XA = 100
or XA = \(\frac { 100 }{ 250 } \) = 0.40
Thus, the composition of the liquid mixture will be
XA (mole fraction of A) = 0.40
XB (mole fraction of B) = 1 – 0.40 = 0.60
∴ PA = XAA = 0.40 × 450 = 180 mm
PB = XBB = 0.60 × 700 = 420 mm
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 7

Question 9.
Vapour pressure of pure water at 298 K is 23.8 mm Hg. 50 g of urea (NH2CONH2) is dissolved in 850 g of water. Calculate the vapour pressure of water for this solution and its relative lowering.
Solution:
We know that
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 8
Here, P° = 23-8mm, W2 = 50g, M2(urea) = 60 g mol-1, W1 = 850g, M1 (water) = 18 g mol-1
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 9.
Thus, vapour pressure of water in the solution = 23.4 mm.

Question 10.
Boiling point of water at 750 mm Hg is 99.63°C. How much sucrose is to be added to 500 g of water such that it boils at 100°C. Molal elevation constant for water is 0.52 K kg mol-1.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 10

Question 11.
Calculate the mass of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, C6H8O6) to be dissolved in 75 g of acetic acid to lower its melting point by 1.5°C. KF = 3.9 K kg mol-1.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 11

Question 12.
Calculate the osmotic pressure in pascals exerted by a solution prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of poly-mer of molar mass 1,85,000 in 450 ml of water at 37°C.
Solution:
π = CRT
\(=\frac{n}{\mathrm{V}} \mathrm{RT}\)
Here, number of moles of solute dissolved (n) =
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 12

MP Board Solutions

Solutions NCERT TextBook Exercises

Question 1.
Define the term solution. How many types of solutions are formed? Write briefly about each type with an example.
Answer:
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances which are chemically non-reacting. On the basis of physical component solutions are of the following types:
Solid Solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 13
Liquid Solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 14
Gaseous Solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 15

Question 2.
Suppose a solid solution is formed between two substances, one whose particles are very large and the other whose particles are very small. What kind of solid solution is this likely to be?
Answer:
Solid in the solid type. eg. Copper in gold. This type of solution is called alloys.

Converting grams to moles Calculator is as simple as multiplying the total mass by the moles per unit of mass.

Question 3.
Define the following terms :
(i) Mole fraction
(ii) Molality
(iii) Molarity
(iv) Mass percentage.
Answer:
(i) Mole fraction: Ratio of moles of a component (solute or solvent) to the total number of moles of all the components of solution is called mole fraction. If moles of solute is n and that of solvent is N, then
Mole fraction of solute = \(\frac { n }{ n+N } \)
and mole fraction of solvent = \(\frac { N }{ n+N } \)
(ii) Molality: Molality is defined as a number of moles of solute present in a kilogram (1000 gram) of solvent. It is denoted by m.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 16
(iii) Molarity: Molarity is defined as a number of gram moles of solute dissolved in a litre of solution. It is denoted by M.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 17
(iv) Mass percentage: The mass percentage of a component in a given solution is the mass of the component per 100 gm of the solution.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 18
This can be expressed as WAV. For example, 10% Na2CO3 WAV means 10g of Na2CO3 is dissolved in 100 g of the solution (It means 10 g Na2CO3 is dissolved in 90 g of H2O).

Question 4.
Concentrated nitric acid used in laboratory work is 68% nitric acid by mass in aqueous solution. What should be the molarity of such a sample of the acid if the density of the solution is 1-504 g ml-1 ?
Solution:
68% nitric acid by mass means that
Mass of nitric acid = 68 g
Mass of solution = 100 g
Molar mass of HNO3 = 63 g mol-1
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 19
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 20

Question 5.
A solution of glucose in water is labelled as 10% WAV, what would be the molality and mole fraction of each component in the solution ? If the density of solution is 1.2 g ml-1, then what shall be the molarity of the solution ?
Solution:
10% (W/W) glucose means 10g of glucose in 100g of solution i.e., 90 g of water = 0.090 kg of water
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 21

Question 6.
How many ml of 0.1M HCl are required to react completely with lg mixture of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 containing the equimolar amount of both?
Solution:
Let there, is x g Na2CO3 and (1 – x)g NaHCO3 in the mixture.
Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 106 g/mol
Molar mass of NaHCO3 = 84 g/mol
Number of moles of Na2CO3 = Number of moles of NaHCO3
\(\frac { x }{ 106 } \) = \(\frac { (1-x) }{ 84 } \)
On solving, x = 0.56.
Number of moles of Na2CO3 = Number of moles of NaHCO3 = 5.283 × 10-3
During the process of Neutralisation, following reactions takes place :
Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O + CO2
NaHCO3 + HC1 → NaCl + H2O + CO2
Number of moles of HCl required = 2 × Number of moles of Na2CO3 + Number of moles of NaHCO3
= 2 × 5.283 × 10-3 + 5.283 × 10-3 = 0.0158
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 22

Question 7.
A solution is obtained by mixing 300 g of 25% solution and 400g of 40% solution by mass. Calculate the mass percentage of the resulting solution.
Solution:
300 g of 25% solution contain solute = 75g
400g of 40% solution contain solute = 160g
Total solute = 160 + 75 = 235g
Total solution = 300 + 400 = 700g
∴ Mass % of solute = \(\frac { 235 }{ 700 } \) × 100 = 33.5%
and mass % of water = 100 – 33.5 = 66.5%.

Question 8.
An antifreeze solution is prepared from 222.6 g of ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) and 200 g of water. Calculate the molality of the solution. If the density of the solution is 1-072 g ml-1, then what shall be the molarity of the solution?
Solution:
Mass of solute, C2H4(OH)2 = 222.6g, Molar mass of solute = 62 g mol-1
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 23

Question 9.
A sample of drinking water was found to be severely contaminated with chloroform (CHCl3) supposed to be a carcinogen. The level of contamination was 15 ppm (by mass):
(i) express this in percent by mass
(ii) determine the molality of chloroform in the water sample.
Solution:
15 ppm (by mass) means 15 g of CHCl3 is present in 106 g of solution.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 24
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 25

Question 10.
What role does the molecular interaction play in a solution of alcohol and water?
Answer:
There is strong hydrogen bonding in alcohol molecules as well as water molecules. On mixing the molecular interactions are the weekend. Hence, they show positive deviations from ideal behaviour. AS a result, the solution will have higher vapour pressure and lower boiling point than that of water and alcohol.

Question 11.
Why do gases always tend to be less soluble in liquids as the temperature is raised?
Answer:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 26
The dissolution of a gas in a liquid is exothermic process. Therefore in accordance with Le-Chatilier’s principle with increase in temperature, the equilibrium shifts in back¬ward direction. Therefore, the solubility of gas in solution decreases with the rise in temperature.

Question 12.
State Henry’s law and mention some important applications.
Answer:
Henry’s law: According to this law, ‘The mass of a gas dissolved per unit volume of a solvent at constant temperature, is proportional to the pressure of the gas with which the solvent is in equilibrium’.

Let in unit volume of solvent, mass of the gas dissolved is m and equilibrium pressure be P, then m α P or m = KP, where K is a constant. We can understand Henry’s law by taking example of soda water bottle. Soda water contains carbon dioxide dissolved in water under pressure.

Applications of Henry’s law:

1. In the production of carbonated beverages : To increase the solubility of CO2 in soft drinks, soda water, bear etc. the bottles are sealed at high pressure.

2. In exchange of gases in the blood : The partial pressure of O2 is high inhaled air, in lungs it combines with haemoglobin to form oxyhaemoglobin. In tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen is comparatively low therefore oxyhaemoglobin releases oxygen in order to carry out cellular activities.

3. In deep sea diving : Deep sea divers depend upon compressed air for breathing at high pressure under water. The compressed air contains N2 in addition to O2, which are not very soluble in blood at normal pressure. However, at great depths when the diver breathes in compressed air from the supply tank, more N2 dissolve in the blood and in other body fluids because the pressure at that depth is far greater than the surface atmospheric pressure. When the divers come towards the surface at atmospheric pressure, this dissolve nitrogen bubbles out of the blood. These bubbles restrict blood flow, affect the transmission of nerve impulses. This causes a disease called bends or decompression sickness. To avoid bends, as well as toxic effects of high concentration of nitrogen in blood, the tanks used by scuba divers are filled with air diluted with helium (11.7% He, 56.2% N2 and 32.1% O2).

4. At high altitudes: At high altitudes the partial pressure of O2 is less than that at the ground level. This result in low concentration of oxygen in the blood and tissues of the people living at high altitudes or climbers. The low blood oxygen causes climbers to become weak and unable to think clearly known as anoxia.

5. Aquatic life : The dissolution of oxygen (from air) in water helps in the existence of aquatic life in various water bodies like : Lake, rivers and sea.

The partial pressure formula of an individual gas is equal to the total pressure multiplied by the mole fraction of that gas.

Question 13.
The partial pressure of ethane over a solution containing 6.56 x 10-3 g of ethane is 1 bar. If the solution contains 5.00 x 10-2 g of ethane, then what shall be the partial pressure of the gas ?
Solution:
According to Henry’s law m = KP, 6.56 × 10-3 g = K × 1 bar, K = 6.56 × 10-3 g bar-1
Now when m = 5 × 10-2 g, P = ?
Applying m’ = K × P
5.00 × 10-2g = 6.56 × 10-3 g bar-1 × P
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 27

Question 14.
What is meant by positive and negative deviations from Raoult’s law and how is the sign of ∆mix H related to positive and negative deviations from Raoult’s law ?
Answer:
Positive deviation: When vapour pressure of the solution is greater than as expected on the basis of Raoult’s Law, it is known as positive deviation. For a solution formed by components A and B, if the A-B interactions in the solutions are weaker than the solute A-A and solvent B-B interactions in the two components, then the escaping tendency of A and B types of molecules from the solution becomes more than from pure liquids. As a result, each component of the solution has a partial vapour pressure greater than expected on the basis of Raoult’s Law.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 28
Characteristics of solution representing positive deviation if:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 29
Example:

  • Ethyl alcohol and water
  • Acetone and benzene.

Negative deviation: When vapour pressure of the solution is less than expected on the basis of Raoult’s Law, it is known as negative deviation. In this type of solution, A-B (solute-solvent) interaction is stronger than the interaction between A-A (solute-solute) and B-B (solvent-solvent). Thus, the escaping tendency of A and B types of molecules from the solution becomes less than from pure liquids. As a result, each component of the solution has a partial vapour pressure lesser than expected on the basis of Raoult’s Law.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 30
Characteristics of solution representing negative deviation.if:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 31
Example : (1) HNO2 and water and
(2) Chloroform and Acetone.

MP Board Solutions

Question 15.
An aqueous solution of 2% non-volatile solute exerts a pressure of 1-004 bar at the normal boiling point of the solvent. What is the molar mass of the solute?
Solution:
Vapour pressure of pure water at the boiling point
P° = 1 atm = 1.013 bar
Vapour pressure of solution Ps = 1.004 bar
M1 = 18 g mol-1
M2 = ?
Mass of solute = W2 = 2 g
Mass of solution = 100 g
Mass of solvent W1 = 98 g
Applying Raoult’s law for dilute solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 32

Question 16.
Heptane and octane form an ideal solution. At 373K, the vapour pressures of the two liquid components are 105.2 kPa and 46.8 kPa respectively. What will be the vapour pressure of a mixture of 26.0 g of heptane and 35 g of octane?
Solution:
Heptane (C7H16) Octane (C8 H18)
Mass = 26g Mass = 35g
Molar mass = 100 Molar mass =114
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 33
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 34

Question 17.
The vapour pressure of water is 12.3 kPa at 300K. Calculate vapour pressure of 1 molal solution of a non-volatile solute in it.
Solution:
1 molal solution means 1 mol of the solute in 1 kg of the solvent (water)
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 35

Question 18.
Calculate the mass of a non-volatile solute (molar mass 40 g mol-1) which should be dissolved in 114 g octane to reduce its vapour pressure to 80%.
Solution:
According to Raoult’s law, P = P°A XA …(1)
P° = 100 then P = 80
∴ From equation (1), XA = 0.80
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 36

Question 19.
A solution containing 30 g of non-volatile solute exactly in 90 g of water has a vapour pressure of 2-8 kPa at 298 K. Further, 18 g of water is then added to the solution and the new vapour pressure becomes 2.9 kPa at 298 K.
Calculate:
(i) molar mass of the solute
(ii) vapour pressure of water at 298 K.
Solution:
Applying Raoult’s law
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 37
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 38
IInd experiment:
Given, WB = 30g, WA = 90 + 18 = 108g, Ps = 2.9 kPa, MA = 18 g mol2-1
Substituting the value in equation (1)
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 39

Question 20.
A 5% solution (by mass) of cane sugar in water has freezing point of 271 K. Calculate the freezing point of 5% glucose in water if freezing point of pure water is 273.15 K.
Solution:
For cane sugar, ∆Tf = 273.15 – 271.0 = 2.15°C
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 40

MP Board Solutions

Question 21.
Two elements A and B form compounds having formula AB2 and AB4. When dissolved in 20g of benzene (C6H6), lg of AB2 lowers the freezing point by 2-3 Kwhereas 1.0g of AB4 lowers it by 1.3 K. The molar depression constant for benzene is 5.1 K kg mol-1. Calculate atomic masses of A and B.
Solution:
Applying the formula
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 41
Suppose atomic masses of A and B are ‘a’ and ‘b’ respectively.
Then, Molar mass of AB2 = a + 2b = 110.87 g mol-1 …(1)
Molar mass of AB4 = a + 4b = 196.15 g mol-1 …(2)
Equation (2) – (1) gives
2b = 85.28 or b = 42.64
Substituting in equation (1), we get
a + 2 × 42.64 = 110.87
or a = 25.59
Thus, atomic mass of A = 25.59 u
Atomic mass of B = 42.64u.

Question 22.
At 300 K, 36g of glucose present in a litre of its solution has an osmotic pressure of 4.98 bar. If the osmotic pressure of the solution is 1.52 bars at the same temperature, what would be its concentration?
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 42
Dividing equation (1) by equation (2), we get
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 43
Here, the volume of the solution is 1L. So, the conc, of the solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 44

Question 23.
Suggest the most important type of intermolecular attractive interaction in the following pairs :
(i) n-hexane and n-octane
(ii) I2 and CCl4
(iii) NaClO4 and water
(iv) methanol and acetone
(v) acetonitrile (CH3CN) and acetone (C3H6O).
Answer:
(i) n-hexane and n-octane: Dispersion or London force.
(ii) I2 and CCl4 (Both non-polar): London or Dispersion forces.
(iii) NaClO4 (Ionic) and water (Polar): Ion-dipole interaction also called hydration of ion.
(iv) Methanol (Polar) and acetone (Polar): Dipole-dipole interaction.
(v) Acetonitrile (Polar) and acetone (Polar): Dipole-dipole.

Question 24.
Based on solute-solvent interactions, arrange the following in order of increasing solubility in n-octane and explain :
Cyclohexane, KCl, CH3OH, CH3CN.
Answer:
For solubility we know ‘like dissolves like’, n-octane is a non-polar solvent, hence non-polar compounds will be more soluble.
KCl < CH3OH < CH3CN < Cyclohexane.

Question 25.
Amongst the following compounds, identify which are insoluble, partially soluble and highly soluble in water :
(i) phenol
(ii) toluene
(iii) formic acid
(iv) ethylene glycol
(v) chloroform and
(vi) pentanol.
Answer:
Highly soluble: Formic acid and ethylene glycol. They are able to form H- bonding with a water molecules.
Insoluble: Chloroform and toluene being non-polar are insoluble in a polar medium like water.
Partially soluble: Phenol and pentanol from weaker H-bonding with water hence, they are partially soluble.

Question 26.
If the density of some lake water is T25 g ml-1 and contains 92 g of Na+ ions per kg of water, calculate the molality of Na+ ions in the lake.
Solution:
Given WB = 92g, MB = 23, WA = 1000g
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 45

Question 27.
If the solubility product of CuS is 6 × 10-16, calculate the maximum molarity of CuS in an aqueous solution.
Solution:
Given Ksp of CuS = 6 × 10-16
If ‘s’ is the solubility, then
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 46

Question 28.
Calculate the mass percentage of aspirin (C9H8O4) in acetonitrile (CH3CN) when 6.5g of C9H8O4 is dissolved in 450g of CH3CN.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 47

Question 29.
Nalorphine (C19H21NO3), similar to morphine, is used to combat withdrawal symptoms in narcotic users. Dose of nalorphine generally given is 1.5 mg. Calculate the mass of 1.5 × 10-3 m aqueous solution required for the above dose.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 48
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 49

MP Board Solutions

Question 30.
Calculate the amount of benzoic acid (C6H5CO-OH) required for preparing 250 ml of 0.15 M solution in methanol.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 50

Question 31.
The depression in the freezing point of water observed for the same amount of acetic acid, trichloroacetic acid and trifluoroacetic acid increases in the order given above. Explain briefly.
Answer:
Acetic acid < Trichloroacetic acid < Trifluoroacetic acid
Degree of ionisation, increases with the increase in the electron-withdrawing effect of the groups attached to the carboxylic group.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 51
Increasing electron-withdrawing effect
Depression in freezing point is a colligative property. As more ions are produced by ionisation of trifluoroacetic acid, so depression in the freezing point is maximum.

Question 32.
Calculate the depression in the freezing point of water when 10 g of CH2CH2CHClCOOH is added to 250g of water. Ka = 1.4 × 10-3, Kf = 1.86 K kg mol-1.
Solution:
Molar mass of solute CH3CH2CHClCOOH (MB) = 122.5 g mol-1
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 52
If α is the degree of dissociation of CH3CH2 CHCl-COOH.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 53
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 54

Question 33.
19-5g of CH2FCOOH is dissolved in 500g of water. The depression in the freezing point of water observed is 1-0°C. Calculate the van’t Hoff factor and dissociation constant of fluoro acetic acid.
Solution:
Molecular mass of CH2FCOOH (MB) = 78, WB = 19.5g, WA = 500g
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 55
CH2FCOOH dissociates as CH2FCOO and H+ if α is the degree of dissociation.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 56

Question 34.
Vapour pressure of water at 293 K is 17.535 mm Hg. Calculate the vapour pressure of water at 293K when 25g of glucose is dissolved in 450g of water.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 57
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 58

Question 35.
Henry’s law constant for the molality of methane in benzene at 298 K is 4.27 × 105 mm Hg. Calculate the solubility of methane in benzene at 298K under 760 mm Hg.
Solution:
Here KH = 4.27 × 105 mm, P = 760 mm
Applying Henry’s law, P = KHX
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 59
∴ Mole fraction of methane in benzene = 1.78 × 10-3.

Question 36.
100 g of liquid A (molar mass 140 g mol-1) was dissolved in 1000 g of liquid B (molar mass 180 g mol-1). The vapour pressure of pure liquid B was found to be 500 torr. Calculate the vapour pressure of pure liquid A and its vapour pressure in the solution if the total vapour pressure of the solution is 475 torr.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 60
Vapour pressure of a solution of two liquids A and B may be calculated as

MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 61

Question 37.
Vapour pressures of pure acetone and chloroform at 328K are 741.8 mm Hg and 632.8 mm Hg respectively. Assuming that they form ideal solution over the entire range of composition, plot Ptotal,Pchioroform and Pacetonc as a function of Xacetonc. The experimental data observed for different compositions of mixture is :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 62
Plot this data also on the same graph paper. Indicate whether it has positive deviation or negative deviation from the ideal solution.
Answer:
From the question, we have the following data
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 63
It can be observed from the graph that the plot for the Ptotal of the solution curves downwards. Therefore, the solution shows negative deviation from the ideal behaviour.

Question 38.
Benzene and toluene form ideal solution over the entire range of composition. The vapour pressure of pure benzene and toluene at 300K are 50.71 mm Hg and 32.06 mm Hg respectively. Calculate the mole fraction of benzene in vapour phase if 80 g of benzene is mixed with 100 g of toluene.
Solution:
A → Benzene (C6H6); B → Toluene (C7Hg)
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 64
Mole fraction of components in vapour phase may be calculated by using Dalton’s law,
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 65

Question 39.
The air is a mixture of a number of gases. The major components are oxygen and nitrogen with the approximate proportion of 20% is to 79% by volume at 298 K. The water is in equilibrium with air at a pressure of 10 atm. At 298 K if Henry’s law constants for oxygen and nitrogen are 3.30 × 107 mm and 6.51 × 107 mm respectively, calculate the composition of these gases in water.
Solution:
The vapour pressure of air over water = 10 atm
The partial pressure of N2 and O2 are :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 66

Question 40.
Determine the amount of CaCl2 (i = 2.47) dissolved in 2.5 litres of water such that its osmotic pressure is 0.75 atm at 27°C.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 67

Question 41.
Determine the osmotic pressure of a solution prepared by dissolving 25 mg of K2SO4 in 2 litre of water at 25° C, assuming that it is completely dissociated.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 68

MP Board Solutions

Solutions Other Important Questions and Answers

Solutions Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
The elevation in boiling point of a solution of molal concentration of solute will be maximum if the solvent is :
(a) Ethyl alcohol
(b) Acetone
(c) Benzene
(d) Chloroform.

Question 2.
Solutions of similar osmotic pressure are known as :
(a) Hypotonic
(b) Hypertonic
(c) Isotonic
(d) Normal.

Question 3.
How many ml of 1 M H2SO4 is required to neutralize 10 ml of 1 N NaOH :
(a) 20 ml
(b) 2.5 ml
(c) 5 ml
(d) 10ml.

Question 4.
Which of the following solution does not show positive deviation from Raoult’s law:
(a) Benzene – chloroform
(b) Benzene – acetone
(c) Benzene – ethanol
(d) Benzene – CCl4.

Question 5.
Molarity of solution of H2SO4 containing 9.8 gm H2SO4 dissolved in 2 litre water is:
(a) 0.1 M
(b) 0.05 M
(c) 0.01 M
(d) 0.2 M.

Question 6.
On dissolving common salt in water boiling point of water :
(a) Decreases
(b) Increases
(c) Does not change
(d) Cannot be said.

Question 7.
When blood cells are kept in high osmotic pressure solution than cellsap then:
(a) They contract
(b) They swell up
(c) Not affected
(d) First contract then swell.

Question 8.
All of the following form ideal solution, except one :
(a) C2H5Br and C2H5Cl
(b) C6H5Cl and C6H5Br
(c) C6H6 and C6H5CH3
(d) C2H5I and C2H5OH

Question 9.
According to Raoult’s law relative lowering of vapour pressure of solution of non-volatile solute is equal to :
(a) Mole fraction of solvent
(b) Mole fraction of solute
(c) Mass percent of solvent
(d) Mass percent of solute.

Question 10.
For osmotic pressure (P), volume (V) and temperature (T) which of the follow¬ing statement is false:
(a) P α \(\frac { 1 }{ V } \) T’s constant
(b) P α T if T is constant
(c) p α V if T is constant
(d) PV is constant if T is constant.

Question 11.
Whose boiling point is highest at 1 atm. pressure :
(a) 0.1M glucose
(b) 0.1M BaCl2
(c) 0.1M NaCl
(d) 0.1M urea.

Question 12.
Semipermeable membrane is chemically :
(a) Copper ferrocyanide
(b) Copper ferricyanide
(c) Copper sulphate
(d) Pottassium ferrocyanide.

Question 13.
Which among the following is a colligative property :
(a) Surface tension
(b) Viscosity
(c) Osmotic pressure
(d) Optical solution.

Question 14.
Experimental molecular mass of an electrolyte will ‘always be less than’ its calculated value because value of van’t Hoff factor i is :
(a) Less than 1
(b) More than 1
(c) Equal to 1
(d) Zero.

Question 15.
In molal solution, 1 mole of solute substance is dissolved in :
(a) In 1000 gm. solvent
(b) In 1 litre solution
(c) In 1 litre solvent
(d) In 224 litre solution.

Question 16.
If boiling point of solution is T1 and boiling point of solvent is T2, then elevation in boiling point will be :
(a) T1 + T2
(b) T1 – T2
(c) T2 – T1
(d) T1T2.

Question 17.
Colligative property is :
(a) Change in free energy
(b) Change in pressure
(c) Heat of vapourisation
(d) Osmotic pressure.

Question 18.
Gram molality of a solution is :
(a) Number of molecules of solute per 1000 ml solvent
(b) Number of molecules of solute per 1000 gm solvent
(c) Number of molecules of solute per 1000 ml solvent
(d) Number of gm equivalent of solute per 1000 ml solvent.

Question 19.
An Ideal solution is that:
(a) Which represents negative deviation towards Raoult’s law
(b) Which represents positive deviation towards Raoult’s law
(c) Is not related to Raoult’s law
(d) Obey’s Raoult’s law.

Question 20.
Order of osmotic pressure of BaCl2, NaCl and glucose solutions of same molarity will be:
(a) BaCl2 > NaCl > Glucose
(b) NaCl > BaCl2 > Glucose
(c) Glucose > BaCl2 > NaCl
(c) Glucose > NaCl > BaCl2.

Question 21.
A solution contains 20 mole solute and total number of moles is 80. Mole frac-tion of solute will be :
(a) 2.5
(b) 0.25
(c) 1
(d) 0.75.

Question 22.
A solution contain 1 mole of water and 4 moles of ethanol. The mole fraction of water and ethanol in solution will be :
(a) 0.2 water + 0.8 ethanol
(b) 0.4 water + 0.6 ethanol
(c) 0.6 water + 0.8 ethanol
(d) 0.8 water + 0.2 ethanol.

Question 23.
Colligative properties of solution depends upon :
(a) Nature of solvent
(b) Nature of solute
(c) Number of solute particles present in solution
(d) None of these.

Question 24.
Molality of pure water is :
(a) 55.6
(b) 50
(c) 100
(d) 18.

Question 25.
Is not a colligative property :
(a) Osmotic pressure
(b) Vapour pressure depression
(c) Freezing point depression
(d) Boiling point elevation.

Question 26.
Formula for determining osmotic pressure :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 69

Question 27.
Ratio of observed value of colligative property to that of theoritical value is known as:
(a) Colligative property
(b) van’t Hoff factor
(c) Solution constant
(d) Specific constant.

Question 28.
Which of the following does not show positive deviation from Raoult’s law :
(a) Benzene-chloroform
(b) Benzene-acetone
(c) Benzene-ethanol
(d) Benzene-CCl4.

Question 29.
6 gm urea (mol. wt 60) dissolved in 180 gm of water. The mole fraction of urea will be:
(a) \(\frac { 10 }{ 10.1 } \)
(b) \(\frac { 10.1 }{ 10 } \)
(c) \(\frac { 0.1 }{ 10.1 } \)
(d) \(\frac { 10.1 }{ 0.1 } \)

Answers:
1. (c), 2. (c), 3. (c), 4. (a), 5. (b), 6. (b), 7. (a), 8. (d), 9. (b), 10. (c), 11. (b), 12. (a), 13. (c), 14. (b), 15. (a), 16. (b), 17. (d), 18. (b), 19. (d), 20. (a), 21. (b), 22. (a), 23. (c), 24. (a), 25. (b), 26. (c), 27. (b), 28. (d), 29 (c).

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks :

1. Value of van’t Hoff factor for a solute showing normal state in the solution will be …………………. one.
2. The mathematical expresssion for relative lowering in vapour pressure is ………………….
3. Number of moles of solute in 1000 gm solvent is known as ………………….
4. Liquid mixture which boil without any change in its composition is called ………………….
5. Through semipermeable membrane only …………………. molecules can pass through.
6. At high altitudes boiling point of water decreases because at high attitudes atmospheric pressure is ………………….
7. Molality of water is ………………….
8. Soda water is a solution of ………………….
9. Number of moles of solute present in one litre solution is known as ………………….
10. Non-ideal solution of 95.4% of H2O + C2H5OH represents …………………. deviation
Answer:
1. Equal
2. \(\frac{P_{A}^{\circ}-P_{A}}{P_{A}^{\circ}}\)
3. Molality
4. Azeotropic liquid mixture
5. Solvent
6. Less
7. 55.6 m
8. Gas in liquid
9. Molality
10. Positive.

Question 3.
Match the following:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 70
Answers:

  1. (c)
  2. (a)
  3. (b)
  4. (h)
  5. (f)
  6. (g)
  7. (d)
  8. (e).

Question 4.
Answer in one word / sentence :

1. Write the formula to determine normality.
2. What is the unit of molality ?
3. Write the formula which states the relation between relative lowering in vapour pres¬sure and mass of solute.
4. What is the property of a dilute solution which depend on the number of solute present in it ?
5. What is Raoult’s law ?
6. Give an example of non-ideal solution showing positive deviation.
7. Give an example of non-ideal solution showing negative deviation.
8. Give an example of antifreeze compound.
9. Write the unit of representing pollution.
10. Write the example of minimum boiling constant solution.
Answers:
1.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 71
2. Mole per kilogram,
3. \(\frac{P_{A}^{0}-P_{A}}{P_{A}^{\circ}}=\frac{W_{B}}{M_{B}} \times \frac{M_{A}}{W_{A}}\)
4. Colligative properties
5. At a definite tempearture for a solution of a non-volatile solute relative lowering in vapour pressure is equal to the mole fraction of solute
6. CH3COCH3 + C6H6
7. CHCl3 + CH3COCH3
8. Ethylene glycol
9. ppm
10. 96.4% C2H5OH + 4.5% H2O.

Solutions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write formula of van’t Hoff factor T.
Answer:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 72

Question 2.
Write down van’t Hoff equation. Give formula used for calculating molecular mass with its help.
Answer:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 73
Where, W is mass of solute, R is solution constant, T is temperature, n is osmotic pressure and V is volume of solution.

Question 3.
6.3 gm oxalic acid (Eqv. wt 63) is dissolved in 500 ml of solution. Find out the normality of solution.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 74

Question 4.
Define formality and write its formula.
Answer:
Formality is defined as number of gram formula mass of substance dissolved in a litre of solvent. It is denoted by F. It is used for solutions in which solute associates.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 75

Question 5.
Determine the molarity of a solution of 4#0 gram per litre concentration of NaOH.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 76

Question 6.
Give two-two example of solution showing negative deviation.
Answer:
(i) CHCl3 + CH3COCH3
(ii) CHCl3 + C2H5OC2H5.

Question 7.
Give two examples of non-ideal solutions showing positive deviation.
Answer:
Examples of non-ideal solutions showing positive deviation are :
(i) CCl4 and CHCl3
(ii) CCl4 and C6H5CH3 (Toluene).

Question 8.
Define Normality.
Answer:
Number of gram equivalent of solute present in one litre of solution is called normality. It is represented by N.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 77
Normality of a solution changes with temperature as it is based on mass-volume relationship and volume changes with change in temperature.

Question 9.
If 2 gm NaOH is present in 250 ml solution, then determine the normality of the solution.
Solution:
Equivalent mass of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) = 40
Amount dissolved in 250 ml NaOH solution = 2 gm
∴ 1000 ml solution of NaOH contains
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 78

Question 10.
Differentiate between Molarity and Molality.
Answer:
Differences between Molarity and Molality :

Molarity (M)

  1. Molarity involves the total volume of solution.
  2. In molarity, gram moles of solute are dissolved in 1 litre of solution.
  3. Molarity changes with temperature because volume changes with tempe-rature.

Molality (m)

  1. Molality involves the mass of solvent.
  2. In molality, gram moles of solute are dissolved in 1 kg of solvent. Here volume of solution is not considered.
  3. Molality is independent of temperature as it takes mass into consideration.

Question 11.
Explain the following term : Parts per million.
Answer:
(i) Parts per million : When a solute is present in very minute amounts (in traces), the concentration is expressed in parts per million abbreviated as ppm. The parts may be of mass or volume. It is the parts of a component per million parts of the solution.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 79
Where, ppm. is the concentration of component A in parts per million.

Question 12.
Write two examples of non-ideal solution showing negative deviation.
Answer:

  1. Chloroform and acetone
  2. Water and hydrochloric acid.

Question 13.
On which factor colligative properties of a solution depend ?
Answer:
Number of solute particles.

Question 14.
What is transition temperature ?
Answer:
The temperature at which the nature of solubility changes (i. e„ first it increases, then decreases) is known as transition temperature. Solubility of sodium sulphate in water , increases upto 324, then it starts decreasing. Thus, 324°C is the transition temperature of sodium sulphate.

Question 15.
Give an example of such a solid solution in which solute is a gas.
Answer:
Hydrogen (solute) in Palladium (solvent).

Question 16.
Sprinkling of salt help in clearing the snow covered roads in hilly areas. Why?
Answer:
On sprinkling salts like CaCl2 or NaCl over snow covered roads, the freezing point of water lowers to such an extent that water does not freeze to form ice and as a result the snow starts melting from the surface and therefore it helps in clearing the roads.

MP Board Solutions

Solutions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write down Raoult’s law.
Answer:
The vapour pressure of a solution containing non-volatile solute is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solute,
Mathematically,
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 80
Where, P°A = Vapour pressure of pure solvent, PA = Vapour pressure of solvent in solution, XB = Mole fraction of solute.

Question 2.
What is Azeotropic mixture ? They are of how many types ?
Ans.
Azeotropic mixture is the mixture of liquids which boil at one temperature with- out any change in composition. For example, at the composition of 95-6% alcohol and 4 4% water. It form an azeotropic mixture which boils at 78.13°C. Components of this mixture cannot be separated fully by fractional distillation.

They are of two types :
(1) Low boiling azeotropic mixture: Such solutions which represent positive deviation towards Raoult’s law i.e. their vapour pressure is high thus their boiling point is low are known as low boiling azeotropic mixture.
Example : (i) CS2 + Acetone, (ii) C2H5OH + n-hexane.

(2) High boiling azeotropic mixture : Such solutions which represent negative deviation towards Raoult’s law i.e. their vapour pressure is low thus their boiling point is high are known as high boiling azeotropic mixture,
Example : (i) Acetone + Chloroform, (ii) Ether + Chloroform.

Question. 3.
Give relation between elevation in boiling point and molecular mass of solute.
Answer:
Relation between elevation in boiling point and molecular mass of solute :
Suppose, WB gram of non-volatile solute dissolve in WA gram of solvent and the mollecular mass of non-volatile solute is MB gram. Then, molality, m will be
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 81
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 82

Question 4.
Derive the expression for molecular mass of solute by relative lowering in vapour pressure.
Answer:
Determination of molecular mass of solute by relative lowering in vapour pressure : Suppose a known mass(WB)of solute is dissolved in known mass (WA) of solvent to give a dilute solution and the relative lowering of vapour pressure of the solution is equal to mole fraction of solute.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 83
It is determined by experiment, when the molecular mass of solvent (MA) is known, the molecular mass of the solute (MB) can be calculated as given below :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 84
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 85
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 86
If relative lowering of vapour pressure \(\left[\frac{P_{A}^{0}-P_{A}}{P_{A}^{0}}\right]\) is known and WA,WB,MA are also known then molecular mass of solute MB can be calculated from the eqn. (5).

Question 5.
What are ideal and non-ideal solutions ? Explain with example.
Answer:
Ideal solutions: Ideal solutions are those solutions in which Raoult’s law can be applied completely for all concentrations of the solutions and at all temperatures.
Condition for ideal solutions are following :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 87
Non-ideal solutions: Solutions in which Raoult’s law cannot be applied completely for all concentrations and temperatures are called non-ideal solutions.
For these solutions:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 88

Question 6.
Differentiate between Diffusion and Osmosis.
Answer:
Differences between Diffusion and Osmosis :

Diffusion:

  1. Molecules move from a region of high concentration to lower concentration.
  2. Semipermeable membrane is not required.
  3. This process takes place in gases and in liquids.
  4. Molecule of both solute and solvent move.
  5. It cannot be stopped by applying pressure from opposite direction.

Osmosis:

  1. Molecules of solvent move from solution of low concentration to solution of high concentration.
  2. Semipermeable membrane is required.
  3. This process takes place only in solution.
  4. Only molecules of solvent move.
  5. It can be stopped by applying pressure from opposite direction.

Question 7.
Write four examples of colligative properties of solutions.
Answer:
Physical properties of solution which depends upon number of solute particles dissolved in solution, are called colligative properties.

Colligative properties are:

  1. Lowering of vapour pressure
  2. Elevation in boiling point
  3. Depression in freezing point
  4. Osmotic pressure.

Value of ail colligative properties increases with increase in concentration of solute and decreases with decrease in concentration.

Question 8.
Establish van’t Hoff solution equation.
Answer:
Osmotic pressure of dilute solution of a non-volatile solute is proportional to absolute temperature of the solution at constant concentration. This is known as van’t Hoff law.
π α T
Derivation : Osmotic pressure n of a solution is directly proportional to a molar concentration.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 89

Question 9.
Define the following :
(i) Molal elevation boiling point constant
(ii) Molal freezing point depression constant.
Answer:
(i) Molal elevation boiling point constant: Molal elevation constant can be defined as ‘The elevation in boiling point of the solution in which 1 gm of solute is dissolved in 1000 gm of solvent.”
∴ Elevation in boiling point
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 90
Where Kb = Molal boiling point elevation constant

(ii) Molal freezing point depression constant: Molal depression constant may be defined as “The depression in freezing point for 1 molal solution i. e., solution in which 1 gm mole of solute is dissolved in 1000 gm of solvent.”
∴ Depression in freezing point
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 91

Question 10.
(a) What is osmotic pressure ?
(b) Solution of urea is prepared by dissolving 6 gm urea in 1 litre. Determine the osmotic pressure of that urea solution at 300 K. (R = 0.0821 L atom K-1 mol-1) (Mo-lecular mass of urea = 60)
Answer:
(a) Osmotic Pressure: Osmotic pressure is the excess hydrostatic pressure that builds up when the solution is separated from the solvent by a semipermeable membrane. It is denoted by π.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 92

Solutions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are constant boiling mixture ? Write three differences in Ideal solution and Non-ideal solution.
Answer:
Constant boiling mixtures or azeotropic mixture. A solution which distils without change in composition is called azeotropic mixture.
Differences between Ideal and Non-ideal solution
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 93

Question 2.
(a) What is meant by depression in freezing point ?
(b) Solution is prepared by dissolving 1 gm NaCl in 100 gm water. If molal de-pression constant for water is 1-85 K kg mol-1 then determine the extent of dissociation of NaCl. Depression in freezing point for NaCl solution is 0-604 K.
Answer:
(a) Freezing point of a substance is the temperature at which its solid and liquid phases have the same vapour pressure. If non-volatile solute is dissolved in pure liquid to constitute a solution its freezing point decreases, this decrease in freezing point is called depression of freezing point and it is denoted by ∆Tf.
(b) Observed molecular mass of NaCl can be calculated by the following formula:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 94
Thus, observed molecular mass = 30.6 and normal molecular mass of sodium chloride = 58.5.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 95
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 96

Question 3.
Write five differences in solution having Positive deviation and Negative deviation.
Answer:
Differences between Positive deviation and Negative deviation :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 97

Question 4.
Explain in brief Berkeley and Hartley’s method of osmotic pressure measurement and state its uses.
Answer:
Berkeley and Hartley’s method : In this method, pressure is applied over the solution to stop the flow of solvent. This pressure is equivalent to osmotic pressure.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 98
In this method, the apparatus consists of a strong vessel made up of steel in which porous pot is fitted. In the porous pot, copper ferro-cyanide semipermeable membrane is deposited. The porous pot is fitted with a capillary tube on one side and a water reservoir on the other side. A piston and pressure gauge are fitted to the steel vessel.

The porous pot and steel vessel are filled with water and solution respectively. Osmosis takes place and water moves into the steel vessel from the porous pot through the semipermeable membrane. This is shown by fall in water level in the capillary tube. This flow of water is stopped by applying external pressure on the solution with the help of piston.

This method has the following advantages :

  1. It takes comparatively lesser time to determine osmotic pressure.
  2. Concentration of solution does not change, hence better results are obtained.
  3. As high pressure is not exerted over semipermeable membrane, it does not break.
  4. High osmotic pressure can be measured.

Question 5.
(a) What is molal elevation boiling point constant ?
(b) On dissolving phenol in benzene, two of its molecule associate to form a bigger molecules. When Z gm phenol is dissolved in 100 gm benzene, then its freezing point decreases by 0.69°C. Determine the extent of association of phenol. (Kf = 512 K kg mol-1).
Answer:
(a) Molal boiling elevation constant: It is defined as the elevation in boiling point when 1 gm of non-volatile solute is dissolved in 1000 gm of the solvent.
We know that, ∆Tb α m or ∆Tb = Kbm
Where, Kb is a molal elevation boiling point constant.
Elevation in boiling point is directly proportional to molality of the solution.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 99
Normal molecular mass of phenol = 6 × 12 + 1 × 5 + 16 + 1 = 94
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 100

Question 6.
What do you understand by van’t Hoff’s factor ? Write its importance.
Answer:
van’t Hoff’s factor (i) : This factor expresses the extent of association or dissociation of solutes in solution. It is defined as the ratio of the observed value of colligative property to the theoretical value of colligative property, i.e
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 101
If association of solute in solution takes place, number of particles decreases. Whereas, in case of dissociation number of particles increases. Since, colligative property depends upon the actual number of particles in solution and is inversely proportional to molecular mass, thus, observed value may be more or less due to association or dissociation.

After introducing the van’t Hoff’s factor (i), the modified equations for colligative properties may be written as :
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 102
From the value of ‘i’ degree of dissociation or degree of association of a solute can be calculated.
Value of i : (i) If it is l, then it represents neither association nor dissociation.
(ii) If value of i is less than l, then it expresses association, e.g., solution of benzoic acid in benzene.
(iii) If it is more than 1, then dissociation takes place, e.g., solution of NaCl in water.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 103
Assuming no association or dissociation.

Question 7.
Molecular weight obtained on the basis of colligative property is sometimes different from the actual molecular weight Explain.
Answer:
When value of observed molar mass for a solution is more or less than values of normal molar mass.Then they are known as abnormal molar mass. Abnormal molar mass primarily due to :
(1) Association of solute molecule and (2) Dissociation of solute molecule.
(1) Association of solute molecule: This leads to decrease in the number of molecular particles on dissolving in a solvent. Due to association, there is decrease in the values of colligative properties. Hence, higher values are obtained for the molecular mass of solutes compound to the normal values.
Example : When acetic acid is dissolved in benzene it shows a molecular mass of 120. While the normal molecular mass is 60, these are due to dimer formation as a result of hydrogen bonding.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 104

(2) Dissociation of solute molecules : In electrolytic solution molecules of electro-lytes dissociate to give two or more particles. Since the number of solute particles in solution of such substance is more than the expected value, these solution give higher value of colligative properties. The value of colligative properties are inversely proportional to mo-lecular masses, so the calculated values of molecular mass will be less than normal values.
Example: KCl dissociates into K+ and Cl ions when dissolved in water so the number of solute particles in solution would be double, the number of particle if no dissociation had been take place. So on the basis of colligative properties the expected value of molecular
mass is half of its normal molecular mass i.e. = \(\frac { 74.5 }{ 2 } \) = 37.25

Question 8.
An aqueous solution freezes at – 0.385°C
if Kf= 3.85 K kg/mol, Kb = 0.712 K kg/mol
Then, determine the elevation in its boiling point.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 105

Question 9.
What is elevation in boiling points ? How addition of a non-volatile solute elevates the boiling point of a solvent ? Explain it with the help of graph diagram.
Answer:
The vapour pressure of the solution containing a non-volatile solute is always less than that of pure solvent. Therefore, the solution has to be heated to higher temperature so that its vapour pressure become equal to the atmospheric pressure. Thus, the boiling point of solution (Tb) is always higher than the boiling point of solvent (Tb°). The difference Tb – Tb° is called elevation in boiling point.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 106
If we plot graph between temperature and vapour pressure of a pure solvent and its solution, then following curve is obtained. Curve AB gives the vapour pressure for the pure solvent and the curve CD gives the vapour pressure of the solution at different temperature.

At temperature Tb° the vapour pressure of the solvent becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure hence it boils at Tb°. Now, by the addition of non-volatile solute, lowering of vapour pressure of the solution takes place. And to increase the vapour pressure of the solution to become equal to atmospheric pressure, the temperature rises. Hence, at Tb the solution boils. Thus, the boiling point is now elevated from Tb° to Tb. The rise in temperature that results by the addition of a non-volatile solute in a solvent is termed as elevation in boiling point. It is represented by ∆Tb.

So, elevation in boiling point (∆Tb) = Tb – Tb°.

Question 10.
Prove that the relative lowering in vapour pressure of a solution is equal to mole fraction of solute present in the solution.
Or, What is Raoult’s law ? Establish its mathematical expression.
Or, What is Raoult’s law ? How can molar mass of a non-volatile solute be deter-mined with its help ?
Answer:
Raoult’s law : For a solution in which solute is non-volatile, the Raoult’s law- may be stated as following :

“At any constant temperature, vapour pressure of solvent collected above the solution of non-volatile solute, is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solute.”

If a non-volatile solute is added to a volatile solvent, the vapour pressure of the solvent decreases. The vapour pressure of the solvent is directly proportional to its mole fraction. As the solute is non-volatile, the vapour pressure of the solution (P) will be equal to the vapour pressure of the solvent (PA).
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 107

A – PA is lowering in vapour pressure and \(\frac{\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{A}}^{\mathrm{o}}-\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{A}}}{\mathrm{P}_{\mathrm{A}}^{\mathrm{o}}}\) is relative lowering in vapour pressure.

On the basis of equation (5) Raoult’s law can be defined as “The relative lowering in vapour pressure of a solution containing non-volatile solute is equal to mole fraction of solute”.

Question 11.
What is molal freezing point depression constant ? Derive the formula to establish relation between molal freezing point depression constant and molecular mass of solute.
Or,
What is molal freezing point depression constant ? Show that depression in freezing point is a colligative property. How can molecular mass of solute be deter-mined from depression in freezing point ?
Answer:
Molal freezing point depression constant is equal to depression in freezing point of the solution when 1 gm mole is dissolved in 1000 gm of solvent. It is represented by Ky i.e.,
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 108
Thus, depression in freezing point is proportional to molality of solution. Molality is directly proportional to number or molecules of solute substrance. Therefore, depression in freezing point is a colligative property.
Calculation of molecular mass of solute : By determination of depression in freez-ing point, the Molecular mass of non-volatile solute can be determined.
For a solution of non-volatile solute,
∆Tf = Kf × m ….(1)
Let WB gram non-volatile solute is dissolved in WA gram solvent and molecular mass of solute is MB.
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 109
From eqn. (3), molecular mass of solute (MB) can be calculated.

MP Board Solutions

Solutions Numerical Questions

Question 1.
1.325 gram sodium carbonate is dissolved in 250 ml solution. Determine the concentration of solution in gram/litre.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 110
Mass of Na2CO3 = 1.325 gram
Volume of solution = 250 gram
Concentration of sodium carbonate in gram per litre \(\frac { 1.325 }{ 250 } \) × 1000 = 5.3.

Question 2.
4 gm caustic soda (NaOH) is dissolved in 500 ml aqueous solution. Deter-mine the normality of the solution.
Solution:
∵ In 500 ml. solution 4 gm NaOH is dissolved
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 111

Question 3.
Determine the osmotic pressure of 5% glucose solution at 25°C. Molecular mass of glucose = 180, R = 0-0821 litre atmosphere.
Solution:
∵ 5 gm glucose is dissolved in 100 ml.
∴ 180 gm glucose will be dissolved in \(\frac { 100 }{ 5 } \) × 180
= 3600 ml = 3.6 litre
We know that,
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 112

Question 4.
12.5 gm of urea dissolved in 170 gm of water. The elevation in boiling point was found to be 0.63 K. If Kb for water = 0.52 Km-1, calculate the molecular mass of urea.
Solution:
MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions Chapter 2 Solutions 113

MP Board Class 12th Chemistry Solutions

MP Board Class 8th General English Solutions Chapter 6 Measure for Measure

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 8th General English Solutions Chapter 6 Measure for Measure Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 8th General English Solutions Chapter 6 Measure for Measure

Measure for Measure Textual Exercise

Read and Learn
(पढ़ो और याद करो):
Answer:
Do Yourself.

Word Power
(शब्द सामर्थ्य):

Replace the underlined words / phrases with correct ones from the text:
(रेखांकित शब्दों / शब्द समूहों को उद्धरण में दिए सही शब्दों से बदलें।)
Answer:

  • When they put the first morsel of food in their mouth, the people began to pant and rasp asking water again and again.
  • We dined in sumptuous surroundings.
  • Raja Varma drew images of prominent characters of men and women from the Purana’s.
  • He played a majestic part in the campaign.
  • I phoned him up on the spur of the moment.
  • Patronage of the art comes mostly from business and private individuals.
  • The king was pleased with the artist when his portrait was ready.

MP Board Solutions

Comprehension
(बोध प्रश्न):

Answer the following questions:
(निम्न प्रश्नों के उत्तर दें:)

Question 1.
Who was invited to the court to draw the portrait of the King ?
(हू वॉज़ इनवाइटिड टु द कोर्ट टु ड्रौ द पोरट्रेट ऑफ द किंग ?)
राजसभा में राजा का चित्र बनाने के लिए किसे आमन्त्रित किया गया ?
Answer:
Raja Varma, a fine artist was invited to the court to draw the portrait of the King.
(राजा वर्मा, अ फाइन आर्टिस्ट वॉज़ इनवाइटिड टू द कोर्ट टू ड्रॉ द पोरट्रेट ऑफ द किंग।)
एक कलाकार जिसका नाम राजा वर्मा था, को राजा का चित्र बनाने के लिए राजसभा में बुलाया गया।

Question 2.
Why did Raja Varma become – close and dear to the King?
(व्हाय डिड राजा वर्मा बिकम क्लोज़ एण्ड डीयर टू द किंग ?)
राजा वर्मा राजा के निकट और प्रिय क्यों हो गया ?
Answer:
Raja Varma made very live portraits of the King and prominent characters from the Puranas. So he became close and dear to the King.
(राजा वर्मा मेड व्हेरी लाइव पोरट्रेट्स ऑफ द किंग एण्ड प्रॉमिनेन्ट कैरेक्टर्स फ्रॉम द पुरानाज़। सो ही बिकेम क्लोज़ एण्ड डिअर टू द किंग।)
राजा वर्मा ने राजा और पुरानों के महत्वपूर्ण पात्रों के सजीव चित्र बनाए। इसलिए वह राजा के इतने नजदीक और प्रिय बन गया।

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Why were the people unhappy with the administration of the chief minister ?
(व्हाय वर द पीपल अनहैप्पी विद द एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन ऑफ द चीफ मिनिस्टर ?)
लोग मुख्यमंत्री के प्रबन्धों से नाखुश क्यों थे ?
Answer:
Everything in the state was thrown into disorder and chaos because of Raja Varma’s hasty decisions and bad-management. So the people were unhappy.
(एवरीथिंग इन द स्टेट वॉज़ थ्रोन इनटू डिसऑर्डर एण्ड केऔस बिकॉज़ ऑफ राजा वर्मास हैस्टी डिसीज़न्स एण्ड बैड मैनेजमेन्ट। सो द पीपल वर अनहैप्पी।)
राज्य में राजा वर्मा के जल्दी निर्णय व गलत तरीकों से सब अस्त-व्यस्त हो गया। इसलिए लोग नाराज थे।

Question 4.
Who wanted Tenali Raman’s help?
(हू वॉन्टेड तेनाली रामन्स हैल्प ?)
तेनाली रामन की मदद कौन चाहता था ?
Answer:
The elders of the town wanted the help of Tenali Raman.
(द एलडर्स ऑफ द टाउन वॉन्टेड द हेल्प ऑफ तेनाली रामन।)
शहर के बुजुर्ग तेनाली रामन की मदद चाहते थे।

Question 5.
Who was given the job of preparing the food in Tenali raman’s house?
(हू वॉज़ गिवन द जॉब ऑफ प्रिपेयरिंग द फूड इन तेनाली समस?)
सिवानी रोमनके घर में खाना बनाने का काम निको दिया गया ?
Answer:
A Very good  carpenter given the job of preparing the food in Tenali raman’s house.
(अ व्हेरी गुड कारपेन्टर वॉज़ गिवन द जॉब ऑफ प्रिपेयरिंग द फूड इन तेनाली रामन्स हाउस।)
एक बहुत अच्छे बढ़ई को तेनाली रामन के घर खाना बनाने का काम दिया गया।

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Did the cook prepare very tasty food ? If not, why?
(डिड द कुक प्रिपेयर व्हेरी टेस्टी फूड ? इफ नॉट व्हाय?)
क्या रसोईदार ने बहुत स्वादिष्ट भोजन बनाया ? यदि नहीं, क्यों?
Answer:
No, the cook did not prepare very tasty food because it is not a carpenter’s job to cook.
(नो द कुक डिड नॉट प्रिपेअर व्हेरी टेस्टी फूड बिकॉज़ इट इज नॉट अ कारपेन्टर्स जॉब टू कुक।)
नहीं, रसोईदार ने खाना ज्यादा स्वादिष्ट नहीं बनाया क्योंकि बढ़ई का काम खाना बनाना नहीं होता।

Question 7.
Why did Tenali Raman invite the king, queen and some courtiers to his house ?
(व्हॉय डिड तेनाली रामन इनवाइट द किंग, क्वीन एण्ड सम कोर्टियर्स टू हिज़ हाउस ?)
तेनाली रामन ने राजा, रानी और कुछ दरबारियों को अपने घर क्यों बुलाया ?
Answer:
Tenali Raman invited the king, the queen and some courtiers to his house for lunch as: he wanted to execute the plan which he had thought to make the King realise that the artist is not eligible to be a Chief Minister.
(तेनाली रामन इनवाइटिड द किंग, द क्वीन ऐण्ड सम कोर्टियर्स टू हिज़ हाउस फॉर लंच ऐज़ ही वॉन्टिड टू ऐक्सिक्यूट द प्लान विच ही हैड थॉट, टु मेक, द किंग रीयलाइज दैट द आर्टिस्ट इज नॉट इलिजिबल टु बी अ चीफ मिनिस्टर।)
तेनाली रामन ने राजा, रानी और दरबारियों को अपने घर खाने पर बुलाया। क्योंकि वह अपनी योजना के अनुसार राजा को अहसास दिलाना चाहता था कि कलाकार मुख्यमंत्री बनने लायक नहीं है।

Question 8.
How did the King realize his mistake ?
(हाउ डिड द किंग रियलाइज़ हिज़ मिस्टेक ?)
राजा को अपनी गलती का अहसास कैसे हुआ ?
Answer:
When Tenali Raman put a good carpenter to prepare food for the king, then the king realized his mistake.
(व्हेन तेनाली रामन पुट अ गुड कारपेन्टर टू प्रिपेअर फूड फॉर द किंग, देन द किंग रियलाइज्ड हिज मिस्टेक।)
जब तेनाली रामन ने एक बढ़ई को राजा के लिए खाना बनाने का काम दिया तो राजा को अपनी गलती का अहसास हुआ।

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
When did Raja Varma resign from his post ?
(व्हेन डिड राजा वर्मा रिजाइन फ्रॉम हिज पोस्ट ?)
राजा वर्मा ने अपने पद से कब त्यागपत्र दिया ?
Answer:
When Raja Varma came to know about the awkward incident at Raman’s house, he immediately resigned from his post. (व्हेन राजा वर्मा केम टु नो अबाउट द ऑकवर्ड इन्सीडेन्ट ऐट रामन्स हाउस, ही इमीडिएटली रिज़ाइन्ड फ्रॉम हिज , पोस्ट।)
जब राजा वर्मा को रामन के घर में हुए भद्दे किस्से के बारे में पता चला तो राजा वर्मा ने तुरन्त त्यागपत्र दे दिया।

Question 10.
Was Raja Varma happy when he was the Chief Minister of the state ? If not, why ?
(वॉज राजा वर्मा हैप्पी व्हेन ही वॉज द चीफ मिनिस्टर ऑफ द स्टेट ? इफ नॉट, व्हाय ?)
क्या राजा वर्मा खुश था.जब वह राज्य का मुख्यमंत्री था? यदि नहीं. क्यों ?
Answer:
No, Raja Varma was not happy when he was the Chief Minister of the state because he told Tenali in the end that he was happy to remain an artist.
(नो, राजा वर्मा वॉज़ नॉट हैप्पी व्हेन ही वॉज द चीफ मिनिस्टर ऑफ द स्टेट बिकॉज़ ही टोल्ड तेनाली इन द एण्ड दैट ही वॉज हैप्पी टू रिमेन एन आर्टिस्ट।)
राजा वर्मा मुख्यमंत्री के पद पर खुश नहीं था क्योंकि उसने तेनाली को अन्त में कहा कि वह कलाकार रहकर ही खुश था।

Question 11.
Select the appropriate words and fill in the blanks:
(a) The King invited ………… to the court and asked him to draw his portrait.
(i) Tenali Raman
(ii) One of the courtiers
(iii) Raja Varma
(iv) One of his Ministers.

(b) Tenali Raman did not invite ………..
(i) The king
(ii) The queen
(iii) The courtiers
(iv) Raja Varma.

Let’s Learn
(आओ याद करें):

(A) Frame Yes/No questions for the following situations:
(निम्नलिखित स्थितियों के लिए yes/no प्रश्न बनाइए:)
Answer:

  • Sunita, has Raju ever been to Bhopal ?
  • Sunita and Raju, are you going to Mahesh war ?
  • Suresh, does Mohan play tennis ?
  • Did you enjoy your holiday ?
  • Rakesh shall we both go for a walk ?
  • Ashok, will you be at the zoo today?
  • Is the train on time?
  • Sunita, can I borrow your pen ?
  • Vijay, do you have a motor bike ?

MP Board Solutions

(B) What would you say in these situations:
(इन स्थितियों में आप क्या कहौंगो:)
You are talking to a boy at a party. Ask him:

(1) Name of his school.
Answer:
What is the name of your school ?

(2) His residence.
Answer:
Where do you live?

(3) His age.
Answer:
How old are you?

(4) When the course finishes.
Answer:
When will your course finish?

(5) What the date is today.
Answer:
What is the date today?

(C) Complete the conversation, put in the negative forms of the following words:
(नीचे दिये नकारात्मक शब्दों से वार्तालाप पूरा करें:)
Answer:

  1. → doesn’t
  2. → didn’t
  3. → weren’t
  4. → wasn’t
  5. → isn’t
  6. → don’t
  7. → haven’t.

MP Board Solutions

(D) Change the following sentences into Negative and Interrogative sentence:
(निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को नकारात्मक एवं प्रश्नवाचक वाक्यों में बदलें:).

(1) There is a park in-front of my house.
(2) All birds fly in the sky.
(3) They will help her.
(4) We should keep our promises.
(5) The postman was delivering the letters.
(6) Ashok has written this letter.
(7) Meera is cooking the dinner.
(8) Lightning had struck the house.
(9) He has bought a new car.
(10) The farmer has sown the seeds.

Answer:
(1) Negative – There is not a park in front of my house.
Interrogative – Is there a park in front of my house?

(2) Negative – All birds do not fly in the sky.
Interrogative – Do all birds fly in the sky ?

(3) Negative – They will not help her.
Interrogative – Will they help her ?

(4) Negative – We should not keep our promises.
Interrogative – Should we keep our promises?

(5) Negative – The postman was delivering the letters.
Interrogative – Was the postman delivering the letters ?

(6) Negative – Ashok has not written this letter.
Interrogative – Has Ashok written this letter ?

(7) Negative – Meera is not cooking the dinner.
Interrogative – Is Meera cooking the dinner ?

(8) Negative – Lightning had not struck the house.
Interrogative – Had lightning struck the house?

(9) Negative – “He has not bought a new car.
Interrogative – Has he bought a new car?

(10) Negative.- The farmer has not sown the seeds.
Interrogative – Has the farmer sown the seeds ?

MP Board Solutions

Let’s Talk
(आओ बात करें):
Answer:
Do Yourself.

Let’s Read
(आओ पढ़ें):

(A) Read the flow chart and answer the questions given below:

Question 1.
What do you do if there is a fault in the valve ?
Answer:
If there is a fault in the valve, we replace it.

Question 2.
What do you do after removing the wheel ?
Answer:
After removing the wheel, we remove the tube from the type.

Question 3.
How do you check the tube for leakage ?
Answer:
We pump air from the pressure machine and put the tube in water to check the leakage.

Question 4.
What do you do after you have found the leakage.
Answer:
We mark the place of leakage and take it out.

Question 5.
How do you repair the puncture ?
Answer:
We repair the tube with puncture solution and a piece of rubber.

MP Board Solutions

(B) Read the passage given in the text book and answer the questions given below:

Question 1.
Who is the father of the Green Revolution of India ?
Answer:
Dr. M. S. Swaminathan.

Question 2.
How did Dr. Swaminathan bring the Green Revolution ?
Answer:
He developed seeds of high yielding varieties and brought a revolution in farming 1966.

Question 3.
What is the result of the Green Revolution ?
Answer:
Due to this, our country is now self – sufficient in food grain production especially cereals i.e., wheat, rice and maize.

Question 4.
What two things give us food grain safety ?
Answer:
We have better food grain collection and distribution network that gives us food grain safety.

Question 5.
How do we help other countries fight famine ?
Answer:
We are exporting surplus food grains to other countries and meet and their food needs.

MP Board Solutions

Let’s Write
(आओ लिखो):

Use the clues in the correct form and complete the description.
(संकेतों का सही रूप में प्रयोग कर वर्णन को पूरा करें।)
Answer:
A train is coming, now. Don’t worry. This isn’t our train. The engine is making a thunderous noise. People are running here and there. The driver is peeping out. The guard is waving a red flag. The train has stopped now. All the passengers are rushing towards the compartments. They are trying to get on, while those inside the compartment are trying to get off. Some of them are shouting “Coolie ! Coolie”! Some are buying fruits. There’s so much confusion.

Let’s do it
(आओ इसे करें):
Answer:
Do Yourself.

Measure for Measure Word Meanings

Patronage (पेट्रोनेज) – संरक्षण; Portrait (पोरट्रेट) – चित्र; Majestic (मेजस्टिंक) – तेजस्वी, आकर्षक; Overwhelm (ओवरद्वैल्म) – ओत – प्रोत होना; Impulse (इमपल्स) – मनोवेग Sumptuous (सम्पच्युअस) – शानदार, वैभवशाली, भव्यः Morsel (मॉर्सल) – ग्रास, कौर, निवाला; Courteously (कर्टिअसली) – विनम्रतापूर्वक
Embarrassment ( एमबैरेसमेन्ट) – उलझन; Livid (लिविड) – क्रोधित; Pant (पैन्ट) – हाँफना; Rasp ( रैस्प) – हाँफते हुए आवाज निकालना; Inept (इनैप्ट) – अयोग्य; Error (ऐरर) – गलती; Awkward (ऑकवर्ड) – भद्दा, अकुशल। Spur (स्पर) – उसी क्षण; Chaos (केऑस) – उपद्रव; Courtiers (कोटियस) – दरबारी।

MP Board Solutions

Measure for Measure Summary, Pronunciation & Translation

1. King Krishna Devaraya was known for his patronage of poets and scholars and he was equally fond of fine arts. Once he came to know about a brilliant artist named Raja Varma. He invited Raja Varma to the court and asked him to draw his portrait.

(किंग कृष्ण देवराय वॉज़ नोन फॉर हिज़ पेट्रोनेज़ ऑफ पोइट्स एण्ड स्कॉलर्स एण्ड ही वॉज़ ईक्वली फॉण्ड ऑफ फाइन आर्ट्स. वन्स ही केम टु नो अबाउट अ ब्रिलिएण्ट आर्टिस्ट नेम्ड राजा वर्मा. ही इनवाइटिड राजा वर्मा टु द कोर्ट एण्ड आस्क्ड हिम टु ड्रॉ हिज़ पोरट्रेट.)

अनुवाद:
राजा कृष्ण देवराय कवियों और विद्वानों के संरक्षक के रूप में जाने जाते थे और वह ललित कलाओं के भी बराबर प्रशंसक थे। एक बार उन्हें राजा वर्मा नामक प्रतिभाशाली चित्रकार के बारे में ज्ञात हुआ। उन्होंने राजा वर्मा को दरबार में आमन्त्रित किया और उसे अपना एक चित्र बनाने को कहा।

The king was very pleased with the artist when his portrait was ready. In the portrait the majestic and handsome king seemed to have come alive within the frame.

(द किंग वॉज़ वैरी प्लीज्ड विद द आर्टिस्ट व्हैन हिज पोरट्रेट वाज रैडी. इन द पोरट्रेट द मेजस्टिक एण्ड हैण्डसम किंग सीम्ड टु हैव कम अलाइव विदिन द फ्रेम.)

अनुवाद:
राजा कलाकार से बहुत प्रसन्न हुआ जब उसका चित्र तैयार हुआ। चित्र में प्रतापी तथा सुन्दर राजा फ्रेम में सजीव दिखाई पड़ता था।

2. This portrait apart, Raja Varma drew images of prominent characters of men and women, from the ‘Puranas’, and so on. He became well-known for his genius, and close and dear to the king. Overwhelmed with joy, Krishna Devaraya called the artist and asked him what he wanted. When Raja Varma did not reply, the king, on the spur of generous impulse, rewarded him with the chief ministership.

(दिस पोरट्रेट अपार्ट, राजा वर्मा ड्रयू इमेजेज ऑफ प्रॉमिनेंट कैरेक्टर्स ऑफ मैन एण्ड वुमैन फ्रॉम द ‘पुरानाज’ एण्ड सो ऑन. ही बिकेम वैल-नोन फॉर हिज जीनियस, एण्ड क्लोज। एण्ड डीयर टु द किंग. ओवरव्हेल्म्ड विद जॉय, कृष्ण देवराय कॉल्ड द आर्टिस्ट एण्ड आस्क्ड हिम व्हॉट ही वान्टेड. व्हेन राजा वर्मा डिड नॉट रिप्लाइ, द किंग, ऑन द स्पर ऑफ जनरस इम्पल्स, रिवार्डेड हिम विद द चीफ मिनिस्टरशिप.)

अनुवाद:
इस चित्र के अलावा राजा वर्मा ने और भी पुराणों के प्रमुख स्त्री एवं पुरुष पात्रों के चित्र बनाए। वह अपनी प्रतिभा के कारण राजा का प्रिय व नजदीकी बन गया। अत्यधिक प्रसन्नता के साथ कृष्ण देवराय ने कलाकार को बुलाया और उससे पूछा कि वह क्या चाहता है। जब राजा वर्मा ने उत्तर नहीं दिया तो राजा ने तुरन्त उदारतावश उसे मुख्यमंत्री के पद से पुरस्कृत किया।

3. Though Raja Varma was a good man and a brilliant artist, he had no experience whatsoever of administration. Soon everything was thrown into disorder and chaos because of his hasty decisions and bad management of the state affairs. Though people were unhappy with his administration, they did not dare complain to the king because the king was very fond of him. The elders of the town finally approached and sought Tenali Raman’s help in getting rid of the new and inept Chief Minister. Tenali Raman assured them, “I shall soon find a harmless way to remove the artist from the Chief ministership.”

(दो राजा वर्मा वॉज़ अ गुड मैन एण्ड अ ब्रिलिएण्ट आर्टिस्ट, ही हैड नो एक्सपीरिएन्स व्हाटसोएवर ऑफ एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन. सून ऐवरीथिंग वॉज थ्रोन इनटु डिसआर्डर एण्ड केओज बिकॉज ऑफ हिज़ हेस्टी डिसीज़न्स एण्ड बैड मैनेजमेंट ऑफ द स्टेट अफेयर्स दो पीपुल वर अनहैपी विद हिज़ एडमिनिस्ट्रेशन, दे डिड नॉट डेअर कम्पलेन टु द किंग बिकॉज़ द किंग वाज़ वैरी फॉण्ड ऑफ हिम. द ऐल्डर्स ऑफ द टाउन फाइनली अप्रोच्ड एण्ड सॉट तेनाली रामन्स हैल्प इन गैटिंग रिड ऑफ द न्यू एण्ड इनेप्ट चीफ मिनिस्टर. तेनाली रामन एश्योर्ड दैम, “आइशैल सून फाइण्ड अ हार्मलैस वे टु रिमूव द आर्टिस्ट फ्रॉम द चीफ मिनिस्टरशिप.”)

अनुवाद:
यद्यपि राजा वर्मा एक अच्छा व्यक्ति और कुशल कलाकार था, उसको प्रशासन का कोई अनुभव नहीं था। जल्दी ही, उसके जल्दबाजी में लिए गये निर्णयों और राज-काज के गलत प्रशासन के कारण सब कुछ अस्त-व्यस्त हो गया। यद्यपि लोग उसके प्रशासन से अप्रसन्न थे, वे राजा से शिकायत करने का साहस नहीं जुटा सके क्योंकि राजा उससे अधिक प्यार करता था। अन्त में शहर के बुजुर्ग तेनाली रामन के पास गये और नये व अयोग्य मुख्यमन्त्री से छुटकारा पाने में उसकी सहायता माँगी। 1 तेनाली रामन ने उन्हें आश्वासन दिया, “मैं मुख्यमंत्री पद से कलाकार को हटाने का एक हानिरहित तरीका जल्दी ही निकाल लूँगा।”.

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4. After a few weeks Tenali Raman invited the king, the queen and some courtiers to his house for lunch. Meanwhile, he found a very good carpenter and put him on the job of preparing a sumptuous feast for the king. · The king and others sat for lunch and at Tenali Raman’s order, the carpenter began serving them. As soon as they put the first morsel of food in their mouths, the people began to pant and rasp, asking for water again and again.

(आफ्टर अ फ्यू वीक्स तेनाली रामन इनवाइटिड द किंग, द क्वीन एण्ड सम कोर्टियर्स टु हिज हाउस फॉर लंच. मीनव्हाइल, ही फाउण्ड अ वैरी गुड कारपेन्टर एण्ड पुट हिम ऑन द जॉब ऑफ प्रिपेयरिंग अ सम्पटस फीस्ट फॉर द किंग. द किंग एण्ड अदर्स सैट फॉर लंच एण्ड ऐट तेनाली रामन्स ऑर्डर, द कारपेन्टर बिगेन सर्विंग दैम. ऐज़ सून ऐज़ दे पुट द फर्स्ट मॉर्सल ऑफ फूड इन देअर माउथ्स, द पीपुल बिगेन टु पैंट एण्ड रैस्प, आस्किंग फॉर वाटर अगेन एण्ड अगेन.)

अनुवाद:
कुछ सप्ताह बाद तेनाली रामन ने राजा, रानी और कुछ दरबारियों को भोजन के लिए अपने घर पर आमन्त्रित किया। इस अवधि में उसने एक बहुत अच्छा बढ़ई ढूँढ़ा और राजा के लिये एक शानदार भोज की तैयारी का काम उसे सौंप दिया। राजा और अन्य लोग भोजन के लिए बैठ गए और तेनाली रामन के आदेश पर बढ़ई उन्हें खाना परोसने लगा। जैसे ही उन्होंने भोजन का पहला कौर अपने मुँह में डाला लोग बार-बार पानी माँगते हुए हाँफने और अजीब सी आवाजें निकालने लगे।

5. Soon after tasting the food, the king realized that the food was badly cooked and was unbearably hot. He was livid.

(सून आफ्टर टेस्टिंग द फूड, द किंग रियलाइज्ड दैट द फूड वॉज़ बैडली कुक्ड एण्ड वॉज़ अनबीयरेब्ली हॉट. ही वॉज़ लिविड.)

अनुवाद:
जल्दी ही भोजन का स्वाद लेने के बाद राजा को एहसास हुआ कि खाना बेहद खराब था और उसमें अत्यधिक मिर्च थी। वह अत्यधिक नाराज हो गया।

6. “Raman, who has cooked this food ? Do you want us all to suffer and die by eating this horrible food ?” In his usual humble way Tenali Raman said, “I I beg your Majesty’s forgiveness.” Then he showed the In carpenter to the king. “I have never come across such at excellent carpenter and I have put him on the job of cooking the lunch for today’s feast.”

(रामन, हू हैज कुक्ड दिस फूड ? डू यू वॉन्ट अस ऑल टु सफर एण्ड डाइ बाइ ईटिंग दिस हॉरिबल फूड ?” इन हिज़ यूजुअल हम्बल वे तेनाली रामन सैड, “आइ बैग योर मैजस्टीज़ फॉरगिवनैस.” दैन ही शोड द कारपेन्टर टु द किंग. “आइ हैव नैवर कम अक्रॉस सच एन एक्सीलेंट कारपेन्टर एण्ड आइ हैव पुट हिम ऑन द जॉब ऑफ कुकिंग द लन्च फॉर टुडेज़ फीस्ट.”)

अनुवाद:
“रामन, किसने यह भोजन पकाया है ?” क्या तुम हम सभी को इस भयंकर खराब भोजन को खिलाकर बीमार करना या मारना चाहते हो ?”
सदैव की तरह नम्रता के साथ तेनाली रामन ने कहा, “मैं हुजूर से क्षमा चाहता हूँ”. तब उसने राजा को बढ़ई को दिखाया। “मैंने इससे अच्छा बढ़ई आज तक नहीं देखा है और आज के भोज के लिए खाना पकाने का काम मैंने इसे ही सौंपा था।”

MP Board Solutions

7. The king began laughing loudly. “Have you lost all sense, Raman ? A good carpenter should be employed to work on wood but not on food. How did you get this funny idea ?” Tenali Raman asked the king courteously, “Lord! If an artist can become a chief minister, can’t a carpenter become a cook ?” The king at once understood that Tenali Raman got a carpenter to make him realize his error in making Raja Varma the chief minister.

(द किंग बिगैन लाफिंग लाउडली. हैव यू लॉस्ट ऑल सैन्स, रामन ? अ गुड कारपेन्टर शुड बी एम्पलॉयड टु वर्क ऑन वुड बट नॉट ऑन फूड. हाउ डिड यू गैट दिस फनी आइडिया ?” तेनाली रामन आस्क्ड द किंग कर्टियसली, “लॉर्ड ! इफ एन आर्टिस्ट कैन बिकम अ चीफ मिनिस्टर, कॉन्ट अ कारपेन्टर बिकम अ कुक ?” द किंग ऐट वन्स अन्डरस्टुड दैट तेनाली रामन गॉट अ कार्पेन्टर टु मेक हिम रियलाइज़ हिज एरर इन मेकिंग राजा वर्मा द चीफ मिनिस्टर.)

अनुवाद:
राजा जोर से हँसने लगा। “रामन, क्या तुम्हारा विवेक चला गया है ? एक अच्छे बढ़ई को लकड़ी का काम करने के लिए रखना चाहिए न कि भोजन के लिए। तुम्हें यह हास्यास्पद विचार कैसे सूझा ?” तेनाली रामन ने राजा से विनम्रता से पूछा, “महाराज, यदि एक कलाकार मुख्यमंत्री बन सकता है तो एक बढ़ई रसोइया क्यों नहीं बन सकता है ?” राजा तुरन्त समझ गया कि तेनाली रामन राजा वर्मा को मुख्यमंत्री बनाने की उसकी गल्ती का एहसास कराने के लिए ही एक बढ़ई को लायें।

8. The king was saved the embarrassment of removing Raja Varma from the post, because, when Raja Varma came to know about the awkward incident at Raman’s house, he immediately resigned from his post. Later Raja Varma told Tenali Raman that he was happy to remain an artist.

(द किंग वॉज़ सेव्ड द एम्बैरेसमेंट ऑफ रिमूविंग राजा वर्मा। फ्रॉम द पोस्ट, बिकॉज, व्हेन राजा वर्मा केम टु नो अबाउट द ऑकवर्ड इन्सीडेंट ऐट रामन्स हाउस, ही इमीडिएटली रिज़ाइन्ड फ्रॉम हिज पोस्ट. लेटर राजा वर्मा टोल्ड तेनाली रामन दैट ही वॉज हैपी टु रिमेन एन आर्टिस्ट.)

अनुवाद:
राजा वर्मा को पद से हटाने की परेशानी से राजा। कृष्ण देव राय बच गये क्योंकि जब राजा वर्मा को रामन के घर में घटित अप्रिय घटना के बारे में मालूम हुआ तो उसने तुरन्त अपने पद से त्याग-पत्र दे दिया। बाद में राजा वर्मा ने तेनाली रामन से कहा कि वह कलाकार बने रहने में ही प्रसन्न है।

MP Board Class 8th English Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 The Sources of Knowing History

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 6th Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 The Sources of Knowing History Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 6th Social Science Solutions Chapter 1 The Sources of Knowing History

MP Board Class 6th Social Science Chapter 1 Text Book Exercise

MP Board Class 6th Social Science Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Question (a)
What are the different ways of knowing History?
Answer:
The different ways of knowing History are through

  1. oral information
  2. written information
  3. evidences

1. Oral information:
The old proverbs, stories and ancedotes come under oral informations.

2. Written information:
These are the writings which can be read.

3. Evidences:
These are the things which were used by the people at that time.

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Question (b)
What are the main sources of knowing History?
Answer:
Our ancestors have left behind the following clues which help us in knowing the History :

1. Records:
Records have been found on dried palm leaves, the bark of the birch tree, plates of copper, hand written papers.

2. Inscriptions:
The writings of the past have also been engraved on large rocks, stone walls, stones, pillars and clay tablets.

3. Manuscripts:
Manuscripts are ancient books written either on dried palm leaves or the thick bark of the tree or on papers. They serve ready evidence of the past.

4. Objects of the Past:
Weapons, tools and pottery of the ancient people have been
found out in many excavations. They have been dug out of earth and can be seen and touched.

5. Skin and Bones:
Man used the skin of the animals as clothes and bones to make the weapons, tools and even ornaments.

Question (c)
What are the rock paintings and where are they found in Madhya Pradesh?
Answer:
When human being did not have the knowledge of scripts, they expressed themselves through pictures and figures drawn on rocks. These pictures are called rock paintings.

The rock paintings at Bhimbetka near Bhopal is a living example of ancient rock painting.
The most of the rock-paintings in India have been found in the Vindhyachal and Satpura ranges in Madhya Pradesh.

Question (d)
What is Bhojpatra?
Answer:
The bark of birch tree on which ancient books were written, is called as Bhojpatra.

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Question (e)
Why is the study of History important?
Answer:
It is necessary to study History in order to understand the present. History is very interesting and exciting. History is the story of our development. We can know about our civilisation and culture only by studying History. From our History we can learn lessons that will help us in advancing continuously.

Question (f)
What are records?
Answer:
Records are the old historic information. These are found on dried palm leaves, the bark of the brich tree, plates of copper and hand written papers.

Question (g)
Why should we protect our historical heritage?
Answer:
We should protect our Historical heritage to study the past of our History

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Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Huen-Sang and Fa-Hien were ……………..
  2. The tope of Sanchi is related to …………….. religion.
  3. The person who discovers ancient things/places and finds facts about them are called ……………

Answer:

  1. Chinese travellers
  2. Jain
  3. Archaeologists

Choose the correct alternative

Question 1.
Tamrapatras were written on:
(a) stones
(b) sheets of copper
(c) barks of trees
Answer:
(c) barks of trees

Question 2.
Petrographs are:
(a) information engraved on stones
(b) information written in books
(c) information written bn Bhojpatra
Answer:
(a) information engraved on stones

Question 3.
Architecture gives us knowledge about:
(a) buildings
(b) paintings
(c) tools.
Answer:
(a) buildings.

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Project work

Question 1.
Observe a museum/your town/your villages. List out the things of historical importance?
Answer:
Please do with the help of your subject teacher.

Question 2.
What are the sources of knowing History ? Make a list of them.
Answer:
Our ancestors have left behind the following clues which help us in knowing the History:

1. Records:
Records have been found on dried palm leaves, the bark of the birch tree, plates of copper, hand written papers.

2. Inscriptions:
The writings of the past have also been engraved on large rocks, stone walls, stones, pillars and clay tablets.

3. Manuscripts:
Manuscripts are ancient books written either on dried palm leaves or the thick bark of the tree or on papers. They serve ready evidence of the past.

4. Objects of the Past:
Weapons, tools and pottery of the ancient people have been found out in many excavations. They have been dug out of earth and can be seen and touched.

5. Skin and Bones:
Man used the skin of the animals as clothes and bones to make the weapons, tools and even ornaments.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Go around your village/school. Talk to the people and gather information about the History of your village?
Answer:
Please do with the help of your subject teacher.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Chapter 10 Our Society

In this article, we will share MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Chapter 10 Our Society Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Chapter 10 Our Society

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 10 Text Book Exercise

Choose the correct option of the following.

Question 1.
How society can be made advanced?
(a) Awaring the people
(b) By economics help
(c) By industries
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(a) Awaring the people

Question 2.
This has been incorporated in Fundamental Rights:
(a) Rights to settle aboard
(b) Rights to travel aboard
(c) Free and mandatory education for the children between 6 to 14 years age group
(d) To follow the Constitution
Answer:
(c) Free and mandatory education for the children between 6 to 14 years age group

Question 3.
Work – oriented literacy is:
(a) Self-reliant
(b) To know their own weaknesses
(c) To remove weaknesses
(d) All the above
Answer:
(d) All the above

Fill up the blanks:

  1. The literacy rate in our country at the time …………. of independence was
  2. The intoxicants leave bad effect on …………….. our
  3. Untouchability has been declared
  4. The attitude of Society towards SC, ST …………….. should be
  5. Education make a person & citizen.
  6. It is legally to employ children ……………… below 14 in factories and hotels.

Answer:

  1. 18%
  2. health
  3. crime
  4. supportive
  5. progressive, rich
  6. banned.

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MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 10 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Which Is responsible for social virtue in the man?
Answer:
The virtue of man being social is all due to mutual dependence.

Question 2.
How was ancient Indian society?
Answer:
In ancient India, society was progressive and rich.

Question 3.
How good citizens are helpful in democratic government.
Answer:
They know their rights and are conscious of their duties.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 10 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What equal rights are given to all citizens in a democratic country?
Answer:
For all round development of each section of the society. The society should not have underprivileged sections.

Question 2.
Mention any social problem?
Answer:
Child labor is one of the social problem. Now government has banned employ child below 14 years.

Question 3.
What changes have taken place in the present society?
Answer:
The people of SC / ST community are in higher government posts. Women status has also improved. People are aware and responsible.

MP Board Solutions

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 10 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the bad effects of smoking and drinking on the people and society?
Answer:
It is necessary to make the society free of drinking and drug addiction because they are all social evils. They have bad effects on the society in the following ways:

  • Drinking of liquor tells upon man’s health, and affects his lungs and brain adversely.
  • It weakens man’s character. As a result, he takes to evil ways and cannot understand what is right and what is wrong. Thus, he becomes a nuisance to his friends and neighbors.
  • It checks the well being of the family-and the progress of the nation.

Question 2.
What measures have been taken by the State government for the welfare of SC and ST?
Answer:
Following measures have been taken for the uplift of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribes:

  • The Constitution has abolished untouchability.
  • The educational and economic interests are promoted against any kind of social justice or exploitation.
  • Some seats are reserved for scheduled caste and Scheduled Tribes in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.
  • Certain constituencies are declared reserved for them where only the candidates belonging to the scheduled castes can contest elections.
  • Certain percentage of jobs in government are reserved for this category.
  • Special courts and mobile courts have been set up in certain districts of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamilnadu for quick disposal of cases relating to untouchability.

MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions

MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण पर्यायवाची शब्द

MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण पर्यायवाची शब्द

प्रश्न 1.
पर्यायवाची शब्द की परिभाषा सोदाहरण दीजिए।
उत्तर –
पर्यायवाची शब्दों को समानार्थक या प्रतिशब्द भी कहते हैं। जिन शब्दों के अर्थों में समानता हो, उन्हें पर्यायवाची शब्द कहते हैं।

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जैसे –
अग्नि – आग, पावक, दहन, अनल, हुताशन, कृशानु।
असुर – दानव, दनुज, दैत्य, राक्षस, तमीचर, रजनीचर।

महत्त्वपूर्ण पर्यायवाची शब्द
1. आकाश – व्योम, गगन, नभ, अम्बर, अन्तरिक्ष, आसमान, अनन्त।
2. कमल – पंकज, सरोज, अरविन्द, शतदल, राजीव, जलज, पद्म, कंज, अम्बुज।
3. चन्द्रमा – हिमांशु, शशि, चन्द्र, सोम, सुधाकर, सुंधाशु, इन्दु, राकापति, राकेश।
4. सूर्य – रवि, दिनकर, भास्कर, पतंग, सविता, आदित्य, भानु।
5. समुद्र – उदधि, सागर, सिन्धु, तोयनिधि, रत्नाकर, पारावार।
6. हवा – वायु, समीर, पवन, प्रभंजन, बयार।
7. तालाब – सर, ताल, सरसी, पुष्कर, जलाशय।
8. अग्नि – पावक, हुताशन, दहन, अनल।
9. जल – नीर, पानी, सलिल, वारि, पय।
10. हाथी – गज, कुंजर, द्विरद, करी, द्वीप, हस्ती।।
11. पर्वत – भूधर, गिरि, नग, तुंग, पहाड़, महीधर।
12. पक्षी – विहग, खग, विहंग, पखेरू, अंडज।
13. घोड़ा – अश्व, हय, बाजि, तुरंग, घोटक।
14. रात – रैन, निशि, रात्रि, यामिनी, तमी।
15. आँख – लोचन, नेत्र, नयन, दृग, चक्षु।
16. सर्प – भुजंग, व्याल, साँप, नाग, फणी, अहि, पन्नग, विषधर।
17. राजा – नृप, भूप, महीप, नरेश, सम्राट, भूपति।
18. फूल – सुमन, पुष्प, कुसुम, प्रसून।
19. अमृत – सुधा, अमी, अभिय, पीयूष।
20. स्त्री – नारी, अबला, बनिता, रमणी, अगना।

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21. सोना – स्वर्ण, हेम, कंचन, कनक, कलधौत।
22. विष – गरल, हलाहल, कालकूट।
23. माता – जननी, अम्बिका, अम्बा, धात्री।
24. मयूर – केकी, शिखण्डी, कलापी, मोर, शिखी।
25. पृथ्वी – भू, धरा, भूमि, वसुंधरा, साडी, वसुमती।
26. बिजली – विद्युत, तड़ित, सौदामिनी, शम्पा, चंचला।
27. घर – गृह, गेह, निकेतन, सदन, धाम, मंदिर।
28. सिंह – शेर, नाहर, व्याघ्र, मृगेन्द, मृगराज।
29. भौंरा – भ्रमर, मधुप, मधुकर, अलि, भृग, मलिन्द।
30. जंगल – वन, विपिन, कानन, अरण्य।
31. बन्दर – कपि, मर्कट, शाखामृग, बानर।
32. नदी – सरिता, तरंगिनी, तटनी।
33. पाँव – पद, पैर, चरण, पग।
34. पेड़ – विटप, वृक्ष, पादप, तरु।
35. महादेव – पशुपति, शिव, शंकर, त्रिलोचन, गिरीश, कैलाशपति।
36. आनंद – हर्ष, मोद, प्रमोद, उल्लास।
37. फूल – सुमन, पुष्प, कुसुम, प्रसून।
38. मनुष्य – मानव, नर, मनुज, आदमी।
39. रास्ता – पथ, राह, मार्ग, पन्थ।
40. असुर – दनुज, दानव, राक्षस, दैत्य, निशाचर।
41. गंगा – भागीरथी, सुरसरि, जाह्नवी, मन्दाकिनी।
42. शत्रु – रिपु, बैरी, प्रतिपक्षी।
43. तलवार – कृपाण, करवाल, आलि, खड्ग।
44. गणेश – विनायक, गजानन, गिरजानन्दन।
45. इन्द्र – सुरेश, पुरन्दर, शचीपति।
46. पुत्र – सुत, वत्स, तात, आत्मज, तनय।
47. दुःख – पीड़ा, व्यथा, वेदना, कष्ट, क्लेश।
48. देवता – देव, सुर, अमर, अमर्त्य।
49. कपड़ा – वस्त्र, पट, अम्बर, वसन, चीर, दुकूल।
50. पुत्री – तनया, बेटी, सुता, आत्मजा, दुहिता, नन्दिनी, तनुजा।
51. संसार – जग, जगत, दुनिया, विश्व, लोक।
52. सखा – मित्र, मीत, प्रिय, स्नेही।

MP Board Solutions

अति महत्त्वपूर्ण परीक्षोपयोगी पर्यायवाची शब्द
1. पत्थर – पाषाण, प्रस्तर, पाहन।
2. सेना – कटक, दल, फौज, सैन्य।
3. समूह – वृन्द, गण, पुंज, मण्डी, समुदाय।
4. रक्त – लहू, खून, शोणित, रुधिर।
5. सुन्दर – चारू, रम्य, रुचिर, मनोहर।
6. मछली – मीन, झख, मत्स्य, शफरी।
7. पत्नी – भार्या, बधू, बहू, गृहिणी, तिय।
8. बेल – लता, बल्लरी, बेलि।
9. नौका – नाव, तरिणी, तरी, जलयान।
10. धनुष – चाप, शरासन, कोदण्ड, पिनाक।

MP Board Class 11th Hindi Solutions

MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग

MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग

वे शब्दांश जो किसी शब्द में जुड़कर उसका अर्थ परिवर्तित कर देते हैं। उपसर्गों का कोई स्वतंत्र अस्तित्व नहीं होता; फिर भी वे अन्य शब्दों के साथ मिलकर एक विशेष अर्थ का बोध कराते हैं। उपसर्ग सदैव शब्द के पहले आता है, जैसे-‘परा’ उपसर्ग को ‘जय’ के पहले रखने से एक नया शब्द ‘पराजय’ बन जाता है। जिसका अर्थ होता है-हार।

उपसर्ग के शब्द में तीन प्रकार की स्थितियाँ उत्पन्न होती हैं।

MP Board Solutions

जैसे-
1. शब्द के अर्थ में विपरीतता आ जाती है।
2. शब्द के अर्थ में नूतनता आ जाती है।
3. शब्द के अर्थ में कोई नया परिवर्तन नहीं होता।
उत्तर-
हिन्दी भाषा में उपसर्ग तीन भाषाओं के हैं
(a) संस्कृत उपसर्ग
(b) हिन्दी उपसर्ग
(c) उर्दू उपसर्ग।

(a) संस्कृत उपसर्ग
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-1
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-2
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-3
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-4

उपसर्ग के समान प्रयुक्त होने वाले कुछ अन्य शब्द
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-5
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-6

MP Board Solutions

(b) हिन्दी उपसर्ग
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-7

(c) उर्दू उपसर्ग
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-8
MP Board Class 11th General Hindi व्याकरण उपसर्ग img-9

MP Board Class 11th Hindi Solutions

MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व

MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व

गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व NCERT पाठ्यपुस्तक के अध्याय में पाठ्यनिहित प्रश्न एवं उनके उत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
तार की एक वृत्ताकार कुंडली में 100 फेरे हैं, प्रत्येक की त्रिज्या 8.0 सेमी है और इनमें 0.40 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। कुंडली के केन्द्र पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का परिमाण क्या है?
हल :
दिया है :
फेरों की संख्या N = 100,
कुंडली में धारा i = 0.40 ऐम्पियर
कुंडली की त्रिज्या r = 8.0 × 10-2 मीटर,
केन्द्र पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= ?
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 1
= 3.14 × 10-4 टेस्ला ।

प्रश्न 2.
एक लम्बे,सीधे तार में 35 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। तार से 20 सेमी दूरी पर स्थित किसी बिन्दु पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का परिमाण क्या है?
हल :
दिया है : सीधे तार में धारा i = 35 ऐम्पियर,
बिन्दु की तार से दूरी r = 0.20 मीटर
∴ लम्बे सीधे तार के कारण चम्बकीय क्षेत्र \(B=\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{i}{r}=\frac{4 \pi \times 10^{-7}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{35}{0.20}\)
= 3.5 × 10-5 टेस्ला ।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 3.
क्षैतिज तल में रखे एक लम्बे सीधे तार में 50 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा उत्तर से दक्षिण की ओर प्रवाहित हो रही है। तार के पूर्व में 2.5 मीटर दूरी पर स्थित किसी बिन्दु पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B का परिमाण और उसकी दिशा ज्ञात कीजिए।
हल :
दिया है :
तार में धारा i = 50 ऐम्पियर (उत्तर से दक्षिण),
तार से दूरी = 2.5 मीटर (पूर्व में)
तार के कारण चम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= \(\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{i}{r}=\frac{4 \pi \times 10^{-7}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{50}{2.5}\)
= 4 × 10-6 टेस्ला ।
चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा ऊर्ध्वाधरतः ऊपर की ओर होगी।

प्रश्न 4.
व्योमस्थ खिंचे क्षैतिज बिजली के तार में 90 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा पूर्व से पश्चिम की ओर प्रवाहित हो रही है। तार के 1.5 मीटर नीचे विद्युत धारा के कारण उत्पन्न चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का परिमाण और दिशा क्या है?
हल :
तार में धारा i = 90 ऐम्पियर (पूर्व से पश्चिम), ..
तार से दूरी = 1.5 मीटर
तार के कारण चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= \(\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{i}{r}=\frac{4 \pi \times 10^{-7}}{2 \pi} \times \frac{90}{1.5}\)
= 1.2 × 10-5 टेस्ला ।
चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा क्षैतिजत: उत्तर से दक्षिण की ओर होगी।

प्रश्न 5.
एक तार जिसमें 8 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है, 0.15 टेस्ला के एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में, क्षेत्र से 30° का कोण बनाते हुए रखा है। इसकी एकांक लम्बाई पर लगने वाले बल का परिमाण और इसकी दिशा क्या है?
हल :
दिया है :
तार में धारा i = 8 ऐम्पियर,
चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B = 0.15 टेस्ला,
तार व क्षेत्र के बीच कोण θ = 30°
∴ तार की एकांक लम्बाई पर बल F = ilB sin 30°
= 8 × 1 × 0.15 × \(\frac{1}{2}\)
= 0.6 न्यूटन-मीटर-1
बल की दिशा तार की लम्बाई तथा चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा दोनों के लम्बवत होगी।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 6.
एक 3.0 सेमी लम्बा तार जिसमें 10 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है, एक परिनालिका के भीतर उसके अक्ष के लम्बवत् रखा है। परिनालिका के भीतर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का मान 0.27 टेस्ला है। तार पर लगने वाला चुम्बकीय बल क्या है?
हल :
तार की लम्बाई 1 = 3.0 × 10-2 मीटर,
तार में धारा i = 10 ऐम्पियर
परिनालिका के भीतर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= 0.27 टेस्ला
∵ परिनालिका के भीतर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र उसकी अक्ष के अनुदिश होता है, अत: चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र तार की लम्बाई के लम्बवत् है।
∴ तार पर लाने वाला चुम्बकीय बल F = ilB sin 90°
= 10 × 3.0 × 10-2 × 0.27
= 8.1 × 10-2 न्यूटन।

प्रश्न 7.
एक-दूसरे से 4.0 सेमी की दूरी पर रखे दो लम्बे, सीधे, समान्तर तारों A एवं B से क्रमशः 8.0 ऐम्पियर एवं 5.0 ऐम्पियर की विद्युत धाराएँ एक ही दिशा में प्रवाहित हो रही हैं। तार A के 10 सेमी खण्ड पर बल का आकलन कीजिए।
हल :
तारों के बीच दूरी r= 4.0 × 10-2 मीटर,
धाराएँ i1 = 8.0 ऐम्पियर,
i2 = 5.0 ऐम्पियर,
तार A की लम्बाई l = 0.10 मीटर
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 2
यह बल आकर्षण का होगा।

प्रश्न 8.
पास-पास फेरों वाली एक परिनालिका 80 सेमी लम्बी है और इसमें 5 परतें हैं जिनमें से प्रत्येक में 400 फेरे हैं। परिनालिका का व्यास 1.8 सेमी है। यदि इसमें 8.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है तो परिनालिका के भीतर केन्द्र के पास चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र \(\overrightarrow{\mathbf{B}}\) का परिमाण परिकलित कीजिए।
हल:
परिनालिका की लम्बाई l = 0.80 मीटर,
त्रिज्या r = 0.9 × 10-2 मीटर
प्रवाहित धारा i = 8.0 ऐम्पियर,
कुल फेरे N = 5 × 400 = 2000
∴ एकांक लम्बाई में फेरों की संख्या \(n=\frac{N}{l}=\frac{2000}{0.8}\) = 2500 प्रति मीटर
∴ अक्ष पर केन्द्र के समीप चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= μoni = 4π × 10-7 × 2500 × 8.0
= 8π × 10-3 टेस्ला
= 2.5 × 10-2 टेस्ला।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 9.
एक वर्गाकार कुंडली जिसकी प्रत्येक भुजा 10 सेमी है, में 20 फेरे हैं और उसमें 12 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। कुंडली ऊर्ध्वाधरतः लटकी हुई है और इसके तल पर खींचा गया अभिलम्ब 0.80 टेस्ला के एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा से 30°का एक कोण बनाता है। कुंडली पर लगने वाले बलयुग्म आघूर्ण का परिमाण क्या है?
हल :
कुंडली में फेरे N = 20, धारा i = 12 ऐम्पियर, कुंडली की भुजा a = 0.1 मीटर .
B= 0.80 टेस्ला ,
θ = 30° बल-युग्म का आघूर्ण, t = ?
t = NiAB sin 30°
= Ni (a2) B sin 30°
= 20 × 12 x (0.1)2 × 0.8 × \(\frac { 1 }{ 2 }\)
= 0.96 न्यूटन-मीटर।

प्रश्न 10.
दो चल कुंडली गैल्वेनोमीटर M1 एवं M2 के विवरण नीचे दिए गए हैं :
R1 = 10Ω,
N1 = 30,
A1 = 3.6 × 10-3 मीटर2
B1 = 0.25 टेस्ला ,
R2 = 14Ω,
N2 = 42,
A = 1.8 × 10-3 मीटर2
B2 = 0.50 टेस्ला ।
(दोनों मीटरों के लिए स्प्रिंग नियतांक समान है)।
(a) M2 एवं M1 की धारा सुग्राहिताओं
(b) M2 एवं M1 की वोल्टता सुग्राहिताओं का अनुपात ज्ञात कीजिए।
हल :
(a)
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 3
(b)
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 4

प्रश्न 11.
एक प्रकोष्ठ में 6.5 गाउस (1 गाउस= 10-4 टेस्ला) का एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र बनाए रखा गया है। इस चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में एक इलेक्ट्रॉन 4.8 x 106 मीटर-सेकण्ड-1 के वेग से क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् भेजा गया है। व्याख्या कीजिए कि इस इलेक्ट्रॉन का पथ वृत्ताकार क्यों होगा? वृत्ताकार कक्षा की त्रिज्या ज्ञात कीजिए।
(e = 1.6 × 10-19 कूलॉम, me = 9.1 × 10-31 किग्रा)
हल :
दिया है :
B= 6.5 गाउस = 6.5 × 10-4 टेस्ला,
इलेक्ट्रॉन का वेग υ = 4.8 × 106 मीटर-सेकण्ड-1
चूँकि इलेक्ट्रॉन चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् गतिमान है, अत: इलेक्ट्रॉन पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण बल सदैव इलेक्ट्रॉन के वेग के लम्बवत् दिशा में लगता है जो केवल इलेक्ट्रॉन की गति की दिशा में परिवर्तन करता है परन्तु वेग के परिणाम में कोई परिवर्तन उत्पन्न नहीं करता। इस कारण इलेक्ट्रॉन वृत्तीय पथ पर गति करता है।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 5

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 12.
प्रश्न 11 में, वृत्ताकार कक्षा में इलेक्ट्रॉन की परिक्रमण आवृत्ति प्राप्त कीजिए। क्या यह उत्तर इलेक्ट्रॉन के वेग पर निर्भर करता है? व्याख्या कीजिए।
हल :
∵ इलेक्ट्रॉन का वेग υ = 4.8 × 106 मीटर-सेकण्ड-1
तथा . कक्षा की त्रिज्या r = 4.2 × 10-2 मीटर
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 6
∵ आवृत्ति का सूत्र इलेक्ट्रॉन की चाल से मुक्त है, अत: यह उत्तर इलेक्ट्रॉन के वेग पर निर्भर नहीं करता।

प्रश्न 13.
(a) 30 फेरों वाली एक वृत्ताकार कुंडली जिसकी त्रिज्या 8.0 सेमी है और जिसमें 6.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है, 1.0 टेस्ला के एकसमान क्षैतिज चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में ऊर्ध्वाधरतः लटकी है। क्षेत्र रेखाएँ कुंडली के अभिलम्ब से 60° का कोण बनाती हैं। कुंडली को घूमने से रोकने के लिए जो प्रति आघूर्ण लगाया जाना चाहिए उसके परिमाण परिकलित कीजिए।
(b) यदि (a) में बतायी गई वृत्ताकार कुंडली को उसी क्षेत्रफल की अनियमित आकृति की समतलीय कुंडली से प्रतिस्थापित कर दिया जाए (शेष सभी विवरण अपरिवर्तित रहें.) तो क्या आपका उत्तर परिवर्तित हो जाएगा?
हल :
(a) कुंडली में फेरे N = 30, त्रिज्या r = 8.0 × 10-2 मीटर, i = 6.0 ऐम्पियर
चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= 1.0 टेस्ला, θ = 60°
∴ कुंडली पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण बल-युग्म का आघूर्ण
t = NiAB sin 60°
= Ni (πr2) B sin 60°
= 30 × 6.0 × (3.14 × 64.0 x 10-4) × 1.0 × \(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{2}\)
= 3.13 न्यूटन-मीटर।

स्पष्ट है कि कुंडली को घूमने से रोकने के लिए 3.13 न्यूटन-मीटर का बल-आघूर्ण विपरीत दिशा में लगाना होगा।

(b) नहीं, उत्तर में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होगा। इसका कारण यह है कि बल-आघूर्ण (t = NiAB sin θ ) कुंडली के क्षेत्रफल A पर निर्भर करता है न कि उसके आकार पर।

प्रश्न 14.
दो समकेन्द्रिक वृत्ताकार कुंडलियाँ x और Y जिनकी त्रिज्याएँ क्रमशः 16 सेमी एवं 10 सेमी हैं, उत्तर-दक्षिण दिशा में समान ऊर्ध्वाधर तल में अवस्थित हैं। कुंडली X में 20 फेरे हैं और इसमें 16 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है, कुंडली Y में 25 फेरे हैं और इसमें 18 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। पश्चिम की ओर मुख करके खड़ा एक प्रेक्षक देखता है कि X में धारा प्रवाह वामावर्त है जबकि Y में दक्षिणावर्त है। कुंडलियों के केन्द्र पर, उनमें प्रवाहित विद्युत धाराओं के कारण उत्पन्न कुल चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का परिमाण एवं दिशा ज्ञात कीजिए।
हल :
दिया है : कुंडली X के लिए, rX = 0.16 मीटर, NX = 20, iX = 16 ऐम्पियर
कुंडली Y के लिए, rY = 0.10 मीटर, NY = 25, iY = 18 ऐम्पियर
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 7
∵ BX तथा BY परस्पर विपरीत हैं। अत: केन्द्र पर नेट चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= By – BX
__= 9π × 10-4 – 4π × 10-4
= 5π × 10-4 टेस्ला
= 1.5 × 10-3 टेस्ला पश्चिम दिशा में। .

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 15.
10 सेमी लम्बाई और 10-3 मीटर2 अनुप्रस्थ काट के एक क्षेत्र में 100 गाउस (1 गाउस= 10-4 टेस्ला) का एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र चाहिए, जिस तार से परिनालिका का निर्माण करना है उसमें अधिकतम 15A विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो सकती है और क्रोड पर अधिकतम 1000 फेरे प्रति मीटर लपेटे जा सकते हैं। इस उद्देश्य के लिए परिनालिका के निर्माण का विवरण सुझाइए। यह मान लीजिए कि क्रोड लोहचुम्बकीय नहीं है।
हल :
माना परिनालिका की एकांक लम्बाई में फेरों की संख्या n तथा उसमें प्रवाहित धारा i है तब उसकी अक्ष पर केन्द्रीय भाग में
चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= μoni ⇒ ni = \(\frac{B}{\mu_{0}}\)
∵ B= 100 × 10-4 टेस्ला नियत है
तथा μo भी नियतांक है।
∴ दी गई परिनालिका के लिए ni = नियतांक
∵ इस प्रतिबन्ध में दो चर राशियाँ हैं, अतः हम किसी एक राशि को दी गई सीमाओं के अनुरूप स्वेच्छ मान देकर दूसरी राशि का चुनाव कर सकते हैं।
इससे स्पष्ट है कि अभीष्ट परिनालिका के बहुत से भिन्न-भिन्न विवरण सम्भव हैं।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 8
हम जानते हैं कि परिनालिका की अक्ष पर उसके केन्द्रीय भाग में चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र लगभग एकसमान होता है। अत: दिया गया स्थान (10 सेमी लम्बा व 10-3 मीटर2 अनुप्रस्थ क्षेत्रफल वाला) परिनालिका की अक्ष के अनुदिश तथा केन्द्रीय भाग में होना चाहिए।
अतः परिनालिका की लम्बाई लगभग 50 सेमी से 100 सेमी के बीच (10 सेमी से काफी अधिक) होनी चाहिए तथा परिनालिका का अनुप्रस्थ क्षेत्रफल 10-3 मीटर2 से अधिक होना चाहिए।
माना परिनालिका की त्रिज्या r है, तब πr2 > 10-3
⇒ r2 > \(\frac{10^{-3}}{3.14}\) = 3.18 x 10-4
⇒ r > 1.78 × 10-2 मीटर
या r > 1.78 सेमी
अत: हम परिनालिका की त्रिज्या 2 सेमी से अधिक (माना 3 सेमी) ले सकते हैं।
अतः परिनालिका का विवरण निम्नलिखित है :
लम्बाई l = 50 सेमी (लगभग),
फेरों की संख्या N = nl = 800 × 0.5 = 400 (लगभग),
त्रिज्या r = 3 सेमी (लगभग),
धारा i = 10 ऐम्पियर।

प्रश्न 16.
I धारावाही, N फेरों और R त्रिज्या वाली वृत्ताकार कुंडली के लिए, इसके अक्ष पर, केन्द्र से दूरी पर स्थित किसी बिन्दु पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लिए निम्नलिखित व्यंजक है –
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 9
(a) स्पष्ट कीजिए, इससे कुंडली के केन्द्र पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लिए सुपरिचित परिणाम कैसे प्राप्त किया जा . सकता है?
(b) बराबर त्रिज्या R एवं फेरों की संख्या N, वाली दो वृत्ताकार कुंडलियाँ एक-दूसरे से R दूरी पर एक-दूसरे के समान्तर, अक्ष मिलाकर रखी गई हैं। दोनों में समान विद्युत धारा एक ही दिशा में प्रवाहित हो रही है। दर्शाइए कि कुण्डलियों के अक्ष के लगभग मध्य-बिन्दु पर क्षेत्र, एक बहुत छोटी दूरी के लिए जो कि Rसे कम है, एकसमान है और इस क्षेत्र का लगभग मान निम्नलिखित है –
B = 0.70\(\frac{\mu_{0} N I}{R}\)
हल :
(a) दिए गए सूत्र में x = 0 रखने पर,
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 10
जो कि स्पष्टतया कुंडली के केन्द्र पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का सूत्र है।
अतः दिए गए सूत्र से कुंडली के केन्द्र पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र ज्ञात करने के लिए x के स्थान पर शून्य रखना होगा।
(b) माना इस प्रकार की दो कुंडलियों के केन्द्रों को मिलाने वाली रेखा C1C2 का मध्य-बिन्दु C है तथा इससे d दूरी (दूरी d बहुत छोटी है) पर एक बिन्दु P स्थित है।
तब प्रथम कुंडली के लिए, x1 = \(\frac { R }{ 2 }\) + d
तथा दूसरी कुंडली के लिए, x2 =\(\frac { R }{ 2 }\) – d
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 11
∵ दोनों कुंडली पूर्णतः एक जैसी हैं तथा दोनों में धाराएँ भी एक ही दिशा में हैं, अत: बिन्दु P पर दोनों के कारण चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र एक ही दिशा में होंगे।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 12

प्रश्न 17.
एक टोरॉइड के (अलौह चुम्बकीय) क्रोड की आन्तरिक त्रिज्या 25 सेमी और बाह्य त्रिज्या 26 सेमी है। इसके ऊपर किसी तार के 3500 फेरे लपेटे गए हैं। यदि तार में प्रवाहित विद्युत धारा 11 ऐम्पियर हो तो चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र का मान क्या होगा? (i) टोरॉइड के बाहर, (ii) टोरॉइड के क्रोड में, (iii) टोरॉइड द्वारा घिरी हुई खाली जगह में। हल :
दिया है : आन्तरिक त्रज्या r1 = 0.25 मीटर,
बाह्य त्रिज्या r2 = 0.26 मीटर
फेरों की संख्या N = 3500, धारा i = 11 ऐम्पियर
(i) टोरॉइड के बाहर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= 0
(ii)
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 13
(iii) टोरॉइड द्वारा घेरे गए रिक्त स्थान में चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र B= 0.

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 18.
निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों के उत्तर दीजिए-
(a) किसी प्रकोष्ठ में एक ऐसा चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र स्थापित किया गया है जिसका परिमाण तो एक बिन्दु पर बदलता है, पर दिशा निश्चित है ( पूर्व से पश्चिम)। इस प्रकोष्ठ में एक आवेशित कण प्रवेश करता है और अविचलित एक सरल रेखा में अचर वेग से चलता रहता है। आप कण के प्रारम्भिक वेग के बारे में क्या कह सकते हैं?
(b) एक आवेशित कण, एक ऐसे शक्तिशाली असमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में प्रवेश करता है जिसका परिमाण एवं दिशा दोनों एक बिन्दु से दूसरे बिन्दु पर बदलते जाते हैं, एक जटिल पथ पर चलते हुए इसके बाहर आ जाता है। यदि यह मान लें कि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में इसका किसी भी दूसरे कण से कोई संघट्ट नहीं होता तो क्या इसकी अन्तिम चाल, प्रारम्भिक चाल के बराबर होगी?
(c) पश्चिम से पूर्व की ओर चलता हुआ एक इलेक्ट्रॉन एक ऐसे प्रकोष्ठ में प्रवेश करता है जिसमें उत्तर से दक्षिण दिशा की ओर एकसमान एक विद्युत क्षेत्र है। वह दिशा बताइए जिसमें एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र स्थापित किया जाए ताकि इलेक्ट्रॉन को अपने सरल रेखीय पथ से विचलित होने से रोका जा सके।
हल :
(a) ∵ आवेशित कण अविचलित सरल रेखीय गति करता है, इसका यह अर्थ है कि कण पर चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण कोई बल नहीं लगा है। इससे प्रदर्शित होता है कि कण का प्रारम्भिक वेग या तो चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा में है अथवा उसके विपरीत है।

(b) हाँ, कण की अन्तिम चाल उसकी प्रारम्भिक चाल के बराबर होगी। इसका कारण यह है कि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण गतिमान आवेश पर कार्यरत बल सदैव कण के वेग के लम्बवत् दिशा में लगता है जो केवल गति की दिशा को बदल सकता है परन्तु कण की चाल को नहीं।

(c) ∵ विद्युत क्षेत्र के कारण इलेक्ट्रॉन पर दक्षिण से उत्तर की ओर विद्युत बल Fe कार्य करेगा, जिसके कारण इलेक्ट्रॉन उत्तर दिशा की ओर विक्षेपित होने की प्रवृत्ति रखेगा। इलेक्ट्रॉन बिना विचलित हुए सरल रेखीय गति करे इसके लिए आवश्यक है कि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र ऐसी दिशा में लगाया जाए कि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण इलेक्ट्रॉन पर उत्तर से दक्षिण दिशा की ओर चुम्बकीय बल कार्य करे। इसके लिए फ्लेमिंग के बाएँ हाथ के नियम से चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र ऊर्ध्वाधरत: नीचे की ओर लगाना चाहिए।

प्रश्न 19.
ऊष्मित कैथोड से उत्सर्जित और 2.0 किलोवोल्ट के विभवान्तर पर त्वरित एक इलेक्ट्रॉन 0.15 टेस्ला के एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में प्रवेश करता है। इलेक्ट्रॉन का गमन पथ ज्ञात कीजिए यदि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र (a) प्रारम्भिक वेग के लम्बवत् है, (b) प्रारम्भिक वेग की दिशा से 30° का कोण बनाता है।
हल :
माना इलेक्ट्रॉन का वेग υ है, तब
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 14
(a) ∵ इलेक्ट्रॉन का वेग चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् है, अतः इस दशा में इलेक्ट्रॉन का पथ वृत्ताकार होगा।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 15

(b) ∵ इलेक्ट्रॉन का वेग चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् नहीं है। अतः इस दशा में इलेक्ट्रॉन का पथ कुंडलिनीय (सर्पिलाकार) होगा। चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्ब दिशा में इलेक्ट्रॉन के वेग का वियोजित घटक
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 16

प्रश्न 20.
प्रश्न 16 में वर्णित हेल्महोल्ट्ज कुंडलियों का उपयोग करके किसी लघुक्षेत्र में 0.75 टेस्ला का एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र स्थापित किया है। इसी क्षेत्र में कोई एकसमान स्थिर विद्युत क्षेत्र कुंडलियों के उभयनिष्ठ अक्ष के लम्बवत् लगाया जाता है। (एक ही प्रकार के) आवेशित कणों का 15 किलोवोल्ट विभवान्तर पर त्वरित एक संकीर्ण किरण पुंज इस क्षेत्र में दोनों कुंडलियों के अक्ष तथा स्थिर विद्युत क्षेत्र की लम्बवत् दिशा के अनुदिश प्रवेश करता है। यदि यह किरण पुंज 9.0 x 10-5 वोल्ट मीटर-1, स्थिर विद्युत क्षेत्र में अविक्षेपित रहता है तो यह अनुमान लगाइए कि किरण पुंज में कौन-से कण हैं। यह स्पष्ट कीजिए कि यह उत्तर एकमात्र उत्तर क्यों नहीं है?
हल :
दिया है : B = 0.75 टेस्ला; E = 9.0 × 10-5 वोल्ट/मीटर-1, V = 15 × 103 वोल्ट
माना कण का द्रव्यमान m, वेग v तथा आवेश q है तब कण की
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 17
विद्युत क्षेत्र के कारण कण पर बल Fe = qE
तथा कण पर चुम्बकीय बल Fm = qυB sin 90° = qυ B
∵ दोनों क्षेत्रों से कण अविचलित गुजरता है, अतः कण पर कार्यरत दोनों बल परिमाण में बराबर व दिशा में विपरीत होंगे।
∴ qυB=qE
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 18
हम जानते हैं कि प्रोटॉन के लिए \(\frac{q}{m}\) का मान 9.6 x 107 कूलॉम/किग्रा होता है जबकि दिए गए कणों के लिए \(\frac{q}{m}\) के मान का आधा है। इससे ज्ञात होता है कि इस कण का द्रव्यमान प्रोटॉन के द्रव्यमान का दोगुना होना चाहिए। अत: किरण पुंज में ड्यूटीरियम के आयन उपस्थित हो सकते हैं।

परन्तु ड्यूटीरियम ही एकमात्र ऐसा कण नहीं है जिसके लिए \(\frac{q}{m}\) का मान 4.8 x 10-13 कूलॉम/किग्रा है। द्विआयनित हीलियम परमाणु (x-कण या हीलियम नाभिक He2+) के लिए \(\frac{2e}{2m}\) तथा त्रिआयनित लीथियम परमाणु (Li3+ ) के लिए \(\frac{3e}{3m}\) के लिए भी \(\frac{2e}{2m}\) का मान यही रहता है।

प्रश्न 21.
एक सीधी, क्षैतिज चालक छड़ जिसकी लम्बाई 0.45 मीटर एवं द्रव्यमान 60 ग्राम है इसके सिरों पर जुड़े दो ऊर्ध्वाधर तारों पर लटकी हुई है। तारों से होकर छड़ में 5.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है।
(a) चालक के लम्बवत् कितना चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र लगाया जाए कि तारों में तनाव शून्य हो जाए।
(b) चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा यथावत् रखते हुए यदि विद्युत धारा की दिशा उत्क्रमित कर दी जाए तो तारों में कुल आवेश कितना होगा? (तारों के द्रव्यमान की उपेक्षा कीजिए।) (g = 9.8 मीटर सेकण्ड-2)
हल :
छड़ की लम्बाई l = 0.45 मीटर व द्रव्यमान m = 0.06 किग्रा, तार में धारा i = 5.0 ऐम्पियर
(a) तारों में तनाव शून्य करने के लिए आवश्यक है कि चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण छड़ पर बल उसके भार के बराबर व विपरीत हो।
अतः ilB sin 90° = mg
⇒ \(B=\frac{m g}{i l}=\frac{0.06 \times 9.8}{5.0 \times 0.45}\) = 0.26 टेस्ला ।

(b) यदि धारा की दिशा बदल दी जाए तो चुम्बकीय बल तथा छड़ का भार दोनों एक ही दिशा में हो जाएँगे।
इस स्थिति में, तारों का तनाव = mg + ilB sin 90°
= mg + mg = 2mg (∵ प्रथम दशा से, ilB sin 90° = mg)
= 2 × 0.06 × 9.8= 1.176
= 1.18 न्यूटन।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 22.
एक स्वचालित वाहन की बैटरी से इसकी चालन मोटर को जोड़ने वाले तारों में 300 ऐम्पियर विद्यत धारा (अल्प काल के लिए) प्रवाहित होती है। तारों के बीच प्रति एकांक लम्बाई पर कितना बल लगता है यदि इनकी लम्बाई 70 सेमी एवं बीच की दूरी 1.5 सेमी हो। यह बल आकर्षण बल है या प्रतिकर्षण बल?
हल :
दिया है : तारों में धारा i1 = i2 = 300 ऐम्पियर,
बीच की दूरी r = 1.5 × 10-2 मीटर
तारों की लम्बाई = 70 सेमी
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 19
= 1.2 न्यूटन-मीटर-1
चूँकि तारों में धारा विपरीत दिशा में प्रवाहित होती है, अतः यह बल प्रतिकर्षण का होगा।

प्रश्न 23.
1.5 टेस्ला का एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र, 10.0 सेमी त्रिज्या के बेलनाकार क्षेत्र में विद्यमान है। इसकी दिशा अक्ष के समान्तर पूर्व से पश्चिम की ओर है। एक तार जिसमें 7.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। इस क्षेत्र में होकर उत्तर से दक्षिण की ओर गुजरती है। तार पर लगने वाले बल का परिमाण और दिशा क्या है, यदि
(a) तार अक्ष को काटता हो
(b) तार N-S दिशा से घुमाकर उत्तर-पूर्व, उत्तर-पश्चिम दिशा में कर दिए जाए,
(c) N-S दिशा में रखते हुए ही तार को अक्ष से 6.0 सेमी नीचे उतार दिया जाए।
हल :
दिया है : B= 1.5 टेस्ला ,
क्षेत्र की त्रिज्या = 10.0 सेमी,
तार में धारा i = 7.0 ऐम्पियर

(a) इस दशा में तार की l = 2r = 0.20 मीटर लम्बाई चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र से गुजरेगी।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 20
चूँकि क्षेत्र तार की लम्बाई के लम्बवत् है,
∴ तार पर बल F = ilB sin 90°
= 7.0 × 0.20 × 1.5 × 1
= 2.1न्यूटन।
बल की दिशा ऊर्ध्वाधरतः नीचे की ओर होगी।

(b) इस दशा में तार की लम्बाई चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र की दिशा से 45° का कोण बनाएगी।
माना,इस दशा में तार की l1 लम्बाई चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में गुजरती है, तब
sin 45° =\(\frac{2 r}{l_{1}}\) ⇒ l1 =\(\frac{2 r}{\sin 45^{\circ}}=l \sqrt{2}\)
∴ तार पर बल F = il1B sin 45°
\(=i l \sqrt{2} B \times \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}\) = iBl
= 2.1न्यूटन (ऊर्ध्वाधर नीचे की ओर )।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 21

(c) माना इस दशा में तार की l2 (लम्बाई) (l2 = AB) चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र से गुजरती है।
ΔOAC में, ∠OCA = 90°
∴ AC2 = OA2 – OC2
= 102 -62 = 64 ⇒ AC = 8 सेमी
∴ l2 = AB = 2 AC = 16 सेमी
= 0.16 मीटर
∴ तार पर बल F = il2B sin 90°
= 7.0 × 0.16 × 1.5 = 1.68 न्यूटन (ऊर्ध्वाधर नीचे की ओर)।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 24.
धनात्मक z-दिशा में 3000 गॉस का एक एकसमान चुम्बकीय-क्षेत्र लगाया गया है। एक आयताकार लूप जिसकी भुजाएँ 10 सेमी एवं 5 सेमी और जिसमें 12 ऐम्पियर धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है, इस क्षेत्र में रखा है। चित्र-4.5 में दिखायी गई लूप की विभिन्न स्थितियों में इस पर लगने वाला बल-युग्म आघूर्ण क्या है? हर स्थिति में बल क्या है? स्थायी सन्तुलन वाली स्थिति कौन-सी है?
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 22
हल :
दिया है : B= 3000 गाउस = 0.3 टेस्ला, a = 0.1 मीटर, b = 0.05 मीटर, i = 12 ऐम्पियर
कुंडली का क्षेत्रफल A = ab = 0.1 मीटर × 0.05 मीटर = 5 × 10-3 मीटर2
(a), (b), (c), (d) प्रत्येक दशा में कुंडली के तल पर अभिलम्ब, चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् है। अत: प्रत्येक दशा में बल-युग्म का आघूर्ण t = iAB sin 90° .
= 12 × 5 × 10-3 × 0.3 × 1
= 1.8 × 10-2 न्यूटन-मीटर।
प्रत्येक दशा में बल शून्य है क्योंकि एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में रखे धारा लूप पर बल-युग्म कार्य करता है परन्तु बल नहीं।
(a) t = 1.8 × 10-2 न्यूटन-मीटर ऋण Y-अक्ष की दिशा में तथा बल शून्य है।
(b) t = 1.8 × 10-2 न्यूटन-मीटर ऋण Y-अक्ष की दिशा में तथा बल शून्य है।
(c) t = 1.8 × 10-2 न्यूटन-मीटर ऋण X-अक्ष की दिशा में तथा बल शून्य है।
(d) t= 1.8 × 10-2 न्यूटन-मीटर तथा बल शून्य है।
(e) तथा (f) दोनों स्थितियों में कुंडली के तल पर अभिलम्ब चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के अनुदिश है अतः
t = iAB sin 0° = 0 .
अत: इन दोनों दशाओं में बल-आघूर्ण व बल दोनों शून्य हैं। यह स्थितियाँ सन्तुलन की स्थायी अवस्था को दर्शाती हैं।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 25.
एक वृत्ताकार कुंडली जिसमें 20 फेरे हैं और जिसकी त्रिज्या 10 सेमी है, एकसमान चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में रखी है जिसका परिमाण 0.10 टेस्ला है और जो कुंडली के तल के लम्बवत् है। यदि कुंडली में 5.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित हो रही हो, तो
(a) कुंडली पर लगने वाला कुल बलयुग्म आघूर्ण क्या है?
(b) कुंडली पर लगने वाला कुल परिणामी बल क्या है?
(c) चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण कुंडली के प्रत्येक इलेक्ट्रॉन पर लगने वाला कुल औसत बल क्या है?
(कुंडली 10-5 मीटर2 अनुप्रस्थ क्षेत्र वाले ताँबे के तार से बनी है, और ताँबे में मुक्त इलेक्ट्रॉन घनत्व 1029 मीटर-3 दिया गया है।)
हल:
फेरे N = 20, i = 5.0 ऐम्पियर, r = 0.10 मीटर, B= 0.10 टेस्ला
इलेक्ट्रॉन घनत्व n = 1029 मीटर-3 ,
तार का अनुप्रस्थ क्षेत्रफल A = 10-5 मीटर2

(a) ∵ कुंडली का तल चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् है, अत: कुंडली के तल पर अभिलम्ब व चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के बीच का कोण शून्य है (θ = 0°)
बल आधूर्ण t = NiAB sin 0° = 0
(b) कुंडली पर नेट बल भी शून्य है।
(c) यदि इलेक्ट्रॉनों का अपवाह वेग υd है तो
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 23

प्रश्न 26.
एक परिनालिका जो 60 सेमी लम्बी है, जिसकी त्रिज्या 4.0 सेमी है और जिसमें 300 फेरों वाली 3 परतें लपेटी गई हैं। इसके भीतर एक 2.0 सेमी लम्बा, 2.5 ग्राम द्रव्यमान का तार इसके ( केन्द्र के निकट) अक्ष के लम्बवत् रखा है। तार एवं परिनालिका का अक्ष दोनों क्षैतिज तल में हैं। तार को परिनालिका के समान्तर दो वाही संयोजकों द्वारा एक बाह्य बैटरी से जोड़ा गया है जो इसमें 6.0 ऐम्पियर विद्युत धारा प्रदान करती है। किस मान की विद्युत धारा (परिवहन की उचित दिशा के साथ) इस परिनालिका के फेरों में प्रवाहित होने वाले तार का भार संभाल सकेगी? (g = 9.8 मीटर सेकण्ड-2)
हल :
परिनालिका की लम्बाई l = 0.6 मीटर,
त्रिज्या = 4.0 सेमी,
फेरे N = 300 × 3,
तार की लम्बाई L = 2.0 × 10-2 मीटर,
द्रव्यमान m = 2.5 × 10-3 किग्रा,
धारा I = 6.0 ऐम्पियर
माना परिनालिका में प्रवाहित धारा =i
तब परिनालिका के अक्ष पर केन्द्रीय भाग में चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 24
∵ तार में धारा की दिशा ज्ञात नहीं है, अत: परिनालिका में धारा की दिशा बता पाना सम्भव नहीं है।

प्रश्न 27.
किसी गैल्वेनोमीटर की कुंडली का प्रतिरोध 12Ω है। 4 मिलीऐम्पियर की विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित होने पर यह पूर्ण स्केल विक्षेप दर्शाता है। आप इस गैल्वेनोमीटर को 0 से 18 वोल्ट परास वाले वोल्टमीटर में कैसे रूपान्तरित करेंगे?
हल :
दिया है : G = 12Ω, ig= 4 मिलीऐम्पियर = 4 × 10-3 ऐम्पियर
0 से V (V = 18 वोल्ट) वोल्ट परास के वोल्टमीटर में बदलने के लिए गैल्वेनोमीटर के श्रेणीक्रम में एक उच्च प्रतिरोध R जोड़ना होगा, जहाँ
\(\frac{V}{R+G}=i_{g} R+G = \frac{V}{i_{g}}\)
\(R=\frac{V}{i_{g}}-G=\frac{18}{4 \times 10^{-3}}-12=4488 \Omega\)
अत: गैल्वेनोमीटर के श्रेणीक्रम में 44882 का प्रतिरोध जोड़ना होगा।

प्रश्न 28.
किसी गैल्वेनोमीटर की कुंडली का प्रतिरोध 15 2 है। 4 मिली ऐम्पियर की विद्युत धारा प्रवाहित होने पर यह पूर्णस्केल विक्षेप दर्शाता है। आप इस गैल्वेनोमीटर को 0 से 6 ऐम्पियर परास वाले अमीटर में कैसे रूपान्तरित करेंगे?
हल : दिया है : G = 15Ω, ig = 4 मिलीऐम्पियर = 4.0 × 10-3 ऐम्पियर, i = 6 ऐम्पियर
गैल्वेनोमीटर को 0 से i ऐम्पियर धारा परास वाले अमीटर में बदलने के लिए इसके पार्श्वक्रम में एक सूक्ष्म प्रतिरोध S (शण्ट) जोड़ना होगा, जहाँ .
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 25
अत: इसके समान्तर क्रम में 10 m2 का प्रतिरोध जोड़ना होगा।

MP Board Solutions

गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व NCERT भौतिक विज्ञान प्रश्न प्रदर्शिका (Physics Exemplar Q Problems) पुस्तक से चयनित महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रश्नों के हल

गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व बहुविकल्पीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
बायो-सेवर्ट नियम इंगित करता है कि । वेग से गतिमान इलेक्ट्रॉनों द्वारा चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र Bइस प्रकार होता है कि –
(a) \(\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}} \perp \vec{v}\)
(b) \(\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}} \| \vec{v}\)
(c) यह व्युत्क्रम घन नियम का पालन करता है
(d) यह प्रेक्षण बिन्दु और इलेक्ट्रॉनों को मिलाने वाली रेखा के अनुदिश होता है।
उत्तर :
(a) \(\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}} \perp \vec{v}\)

प्रश्न 2.
R त्रिज्या का कोई धारावाही वृत्ताकार लूप x-y तल में इस प्रकार रखा है कि उसका केन्द्र मूलबिन्दु पर हो। इसका वह अर्द्धभाग जिसके लिए x> 0 है, अब इस प्रकार मोड़ दिया गया है कि यह y-2 तल में रहे –
(a) अब चुम्बकीय-आघूर्ण का परिमाण घट जाता है
(b) चुम्बकीय-आघूर्ण परिवर्तित नहीं होता
(c) (0, 0, Z); Z>> R पर B का परिमाण बढ़ जाता है
(d) (0, 0, Z); Z >> R पर B का परिमाण अपरिवर्तित रहता है।
उत्तर :
(a) अब चुम्बकीय-आघूर्ण का परिमाण घट जाता है

प्रश्न 3.
एक इलेक्ट्रॉन को किसी लम्बी धारावाही परिनलिका के अक्ष के अनुदिश एकसमान वेग से प्रक्षेपित किया जाता है। निम्नलिखित में कौन सा प्रकथन सत्य है
(a) इलेक्ट्रॉन अक्ष के अनुदिश त्वरित होगा
(b) अक्ष के परित: इलेक्ट्रॉन का पथ वृत्ताकार होगा
(c) इलेक्ट्रॉन अक्ष से 45° पर बल अनुभव करेगा और इस प्रकार कुंडलिनी पथ पर गमन करेगा
(d) इलेक्ट्रॉन परिनालिका के अक्ष के अनुदिश एकसमान वेग से गति करता रहेगा।
उत्तर :
(d) इलेक्ट्रॉन परिनालिका के अक्ष के अनुदिश एकसमान वेग से गति करता रहेगा।

प्रश्न 4.
साइक्लोट्रॉन में कोई आवेशित कण –
(a) सदैव त्वरित होता है ।
(b) चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के कारण दोनों ‘डी’ के बीच के अन्तराल में त्वरित होता है
(c) की चाल ‘डी’ में बढ़ जाती है
(d) की चाल ‘डी’ में मन्द हो जाती तथा दोनों ‘डी’ के बीच बढ़ जाती है।
उत्तर :
(a) सदैव त्वरित होता है ।

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 5.
चुम्बकीय-आघूर्ण M का कोई विद्युतवाही वृत्ताकार लूप, किसी यादृच्छिक दिग्विन्यास में किसी बाह्य चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र में स्थित है। लूप को इसके तल के लम्बवत् अक्ष के परितः 30° पर घूर्णन कराने में किया गया कार्य है –
(a) MB :
(b) \(\sqrt{3} \frac{M B}{2}\)
(c) \(\frac{M B}{2}\)
(d) शून्य।
उत्तर :
(d) शून्य।

गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व अति लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
यह सत्यापित कीजिए कि साइक्लोट्रॉन आवृत्ति \(\omega=\frac{e B}{m}\) की सही विमाएँ [T-1] हैं।
उत्तर :
साइक्लोट्रॉन में चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र के लम्बवत् गति करते समय आवेशित कण वृत्ताकार पथ पर गति करता है, जिसके लिए आवश्यक अभिकेन्द्र बल, चुम्बकीय बल से प्राप्त होता है। अतः
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 26

प्रश्न 2.
यह दर्शाइए कि ऐसा बल जो कोई प्रभावी कार्य नहीं करता वेग-निर्भर बल होना चाहिए।
उत्तर :
बल कोई प्रभावी कार्य नहीं कर रहा है, अतः
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 27

प्रश्न 3.
साइक्लोट्रॉन में यदि रेडियो आवृत्ति (rf) वैद्युत क्षेत्र की आवृत्ति की दो गुनी हो जाए, तो उसमें किसी आवेशित कण की गति का वर्णन कीजिए।
उत्तर :
रेडियो आवृत्ति के दो गुनी हो जाने पर कण एकान्तर क्रम में त्वरित एवं मन्दित गति करेगा तथा दोनों डी में कण के पथ की त्रिज्या अपरिवर्तित रहेगी।

गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व आंकिक प्रश्नोत्तर

प्रश्न 1.
चित्र में दर्शाए गए गैल्वेनोमीटर परिपथ का उपयोग करके बहुपरिसरीय वोल्टमीटर की रचना की जा सकती है। हम एक ऐसे वोल्टमीटर की रचना करना चाहते हैं, जो 2 वोल्ट, 20 वोल्ट तथा 200 वोल्ट माप सके तथा 10Ω प्रतिरोध के ऐसे गैल्वेनोमीटर से बना हो जिसमें 1 मिलीऐम्पियर धारा से अधिकतम विक्षेप उत्पन्न होता है। इसके लिए उपयोग किए जाने वाले R1, R2 तथा R3 के मान ज्ञात कीजिए।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 28
हल :
गैल्वोनोमीटर को वोल्टमीटर में परिवर्तित करने के लिए
V = iG (G + R)
जहाँ iG = 1 मिलीऐम्पियर = 10-3 ऐम्पियर
तथा G = 10Ω
(i) 0 से 2 वोल्ट परिसर के लिए, 2 = 10-3 (10 + R1)
या 2000 = 10 + R1.
या R1= 1990Ω

(ii) 0 से 20 वोल्ट परिसर के लिए, 20 = 10-3 (10+ R + Ra)
या 20,000 = 10 + R1 + R2
या 19990 = R1 + R2
या R2 = 19990 – 1990 = 18,000Ω = 18 kΩ

(iii) 0 से 200 वोल्ट परिसर के लिए, 200 = 10-3 (10 + R1 + R2 + R3 )
200000 = 10 + R1 + R2 + R3
199990 = 1990 + 18000+ R3
या R3 = 199990 – 19990
= 180000Ω= 180 kΩ

MP Board Solutions

प्रश्न 2.
कोई लम्बा सीधा तार जिसमें 25 ऐम्पियर धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। चित्र में दर्शाइए अनुसार किसी मेज पर रखा है। 1 मीटर लम्बा 2.5 ग्राम द्रव्यमान का कोई अन्य तार PQ है जिसमें विपरीत दिशा में इतनी ही धारा प्रवाहित हो रही है। तार PQ ऊपर अथवा नीचे सरकने के लिए स्वतन्त्र है। तार PQ किस ऊँचाई तक ऊपर उठेगा?
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 29
हल :
माना तार PQ, h ऊँचाई तक ऊपर उठता है।
मेज पर रखे धारावाही तार के कारण h ऊँचाई पर उत्पन्न चुम्बकीय क्षेत्र,
\(B=\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \cdot \frac{I}{h}\)
तार PQ पर कार्यरत चुम्बकीय बल F = BIl sin 90° = BIL
तार PQ पर नीचे की ओर कार्यरत तार का भार = mg
सन्तुलन की स्थिति में, BIl = mg
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 30

प्रश्न 3.
12 a लम्बाई.तथा प्रतिरोध का कोई एकसमान चालक तार एक धारावाही कुंडली के रूप में (i) भुजा a के समबाहु त्रिभुज (ii) भुजा a के वर्ग (iii) भुजा a के नियमित षट्भुज की आकृति में लपेटा गया है। कुंडली विभव स्रोतV से सम्बद्ध है। प्रत्येक प्रकरण में कुंडलियों का चुम्बकीय-आघूर्ण ज्ञात कीजिए।
हल :
तार की कुल लम्बाई = 12a
प्रतिरोध = R
विभवान्तर = V0
प्रत्येक स्थिति में प्रवाहित धारा I=\(\frac{V_{0}}{R}\)
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 31

(i) a भुजा की समबाहु त्रिभुजाकार कुंडली में फेरों की संख्या (n1) = \(\frac{12 a}{3 a}\) = 4
a भुजा की समबाहु त्रिभुजाकार कुंडली के अनुप्रस्थ काट का क्षेत्रफ (A) = \(\frac{\sqrt{3}}{4}\) a2
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 32

(ii) a भुजा की वर्गाकार कुंडली में फेरों की संख्या (n2) = \(\frac{12 a}{4 a}\) = 3
कुंडली की अनुप्रस्थ काट का क्षेत्रफल (A2) = a2
कुंडली का चुम्बकीय आघूर्ण (M2) = n2IA2 =3 \(\times \frac{V_{0}}{R} \times a^{2}=\frac{3 V_{0} a^{2}}{R}\)
(iii) a भुजा की नियमित षट्भुजाकार कुंडली में फेरों की संख्या (n3) = \(\frac{12 a}{6 a}\) = 2
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 33

प्रश्न 4.
चित्र में दर्शाए गए गैल्वेनोमीटर परिपथ का उपयोग करके बहपरिसरीय धारामापियों की रचना की जा सकती है। हम 10 mA, 100 mA तथा 1 A की धारा माप सकने वाले ऐसे धारामापी की रचना करना चाहते हैं जो 10Ω प्रतिरोध के ऐसे गैल्वेनोमीटर से बना हो जिसमें 1 mA धारा प्रवाहित होने पर अधिकतम विक्षेप होता है। इसके लिए उपयोग किए जाने वाले प्रतिरोधों S1, S2 तथा S3 के मान ज्ञात कीजिए।
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 34
हल :
IG = 1 mA = 10-3A
तथा गैल्वेनोमीटर का प्रतिरोध (G) = 10Ω
गैल्वेनोमीटर को धारामापी में परिवर्तित करने के लिए उसके समान्तर क्रम में निम्न प्रतिरोध S लगाते हैं। अतः
IG × G = (I – IG) × S
(i) 10 मिली ऐम्पियर परिसर के लिए, IG × G = (I1-IG) (S1+S2 +S3)
अतः 10-3 × 10 = (10 – 1) × 10-3 (S1 + S2 + S3)
अत: S1 + S2 + S3 = \(\frac{10}{9}\) ……………………(1)

(ii) 100 मिलीऐम्पियर परिसर के लिए, IG × G = (I2 – IG) (S2 + S3)
10-3 × 100 = (100 – 1) × 10-3 (S2 + S3)
या  S2 + S3 = \(\frac{10}{99}\)……………………(2)

(iii) 1 ऐम्पियर परिसर के लिए, . IG × G = (I3 – IG) S3
10-3 × 10 = (1 – 1 × 10-3) × S3
MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions Chapter 4 गतिमान आवेश और चुम्बकत्व img 35

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MP Board Class 12th Physics Solutions

MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions Unit 10 भुगतान संतुलन

MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions Unit 10 भुगतान संतुलन

भुगतान संतुलन Important Questions

भुगतान संतुलन वस्तुनिष्ठ प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
सही विकल्प चुनकर लिखिए –

प्रश्न (a)
भुगतान शेष की संरचना में निम्नलिखित में कौन – से खाते सम्मिलित होते हैं –
(a) चालू खाता
(b) पूँजी खाता
(c) और (b) दोनों
(d) इनमें से कोई नहीं।
उत्तर:
(c) और (b) दोनों

प्रश्न (b)
व्यापार सन्तुलन का अर्थ होता है –
(a) पूँजी के लेन – देन से
(b) वस्तुओं के आयात व निर्यात से
(c) कुल क्रेडिट तथा डेबिट से
(d) उपर्युक्त सभी।
उत्तर:
(b) वस्तुओं के आयात व निर्यात से

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प्रश्न (c)
भुगतान शेष की संरचना में निम्नलिखित में कौन – से खाते सम्मिलित होते हैं –
(a) चालू खाता
(b) पूँजी खाता
(c) (a) और (b) दोनों
(d) इनमें से कोई नहीं।
उत्तर:
(c) (a) और (b) दोनों

प्रश्न (d)
प्रतिकूल भुगतान सन्तुलन में सुधार का उपाय है –
(a) मुद्रा अवमूल्यन
(b) आयात प्रतिस्थापन
(c) विनिमय नियंत्रण
(d) उपर्युक्त सभी।
उत्तर:
(d) उपर्युक्त सभी।

प्रश्न (e)
विदेशी विनिमय दर का निर्धारण होता है –
(a) विदेशी करेंसी की माँग द्वारा
(b) विदेशी करेंसी की पूर्ति द्वारा
(c) विदेशी विनिमय बाजार में माँग एवं पूर्ति द्वारा
(d) इनमें से कोई नहीं।
उत्तर:
(c) विदेशी विनिमय बाजार में माँग एवं पूर्ति द्वारा

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प्रश्न (f)
विदेशी विनिमय बाजार के रूप हैं –
(a) हाजिर या चालू बाजार
(b) वायदा बाजार
(c) (a) और (b) दोनों
(d) इनमें से कोई नहीं।
उत्तर:
(c) (a) और (b) दोनों

प्रश्न 2.
रिक्त स्थानों की पूर्ति कीजिए –

  1. ब्रेटन वुड्स प्रणाली को ……………………….. सीमा प्रणाली भी कहा जाता है।
  2. विदेशी विनिमय दर एवं विदेशी विनिमय की पूर्ति में ………………………….. संबंध होता है।
  3. अवमूल्यन से देश की मुद्रा की विनिमय क्रयशक्ति ………………………….. हो जाती है।
  4. व्यापार संतुलन में केवल …………………………… मदों को शामिल किया जाता है।
  5. भुगतान – संतुलन सदैव ………………………….. में रहता है।
  6. एक देश की मुद्रा का दूसरे देश की मुद्रा में व्यक्ति मूल्य ………………………….. कहलाता है।

उत्तर:

  1. समंजनीय
  2. सीधा
  3. कम
  4. दृश्य
  5. संतुलन
  6. विनिमय दर।

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प्रश्न 3.
सत्य /असत्य बताइये –

  1. व्यापार संतुलन में दृश्य मदों तथा अदृश्य मदों दोनों का समावेश किया जाता है।
  2. व्यापार संतुलन भुगतान संतुलन का एक अंग है।
  3. अवमूल्यन की घोषणा सरकार द्वारा की जाती है।
  4. भुगतान संतुलन सदैव सन्तुलित रहता है।
  5. निर्यात प्रोत्साहन हेतु अवमूल्यन का सहारा लिया जाता है।
  6. विकासशील देशों में तेजी से बढ़ती हुई जनसंख्या का आर्थिक विकास पर अनुकूल प्रभाव पड़ता है।
  7. भुगतान संतुलन करने का एक उपाय निर्यात प्रोत्साहन भी है।

उत्तर:

  1. असत्य
  2. सत्य
  3. सत्य
  4. सत्य
  5. सत्य
  6. असत्य
  7. असत्य।

प्रश्न 4.
सही जोड़ियाँ बनाइये –

उत्तर:

  1. (b)
  2. (c)
  3. (a)
  4. (e)
  5. (d).

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प्रश्न 5.
एक शब्द/वाक्य में उत्तर दीजिये –

  1. नई व्यापार नीति की घोषणा किस सन में की गई?
  2. भारतीय रुपये के अवमूल्यन से भारतीयों के आयात कैसे हो जायेंगे?
  3. दीर्घकाल में आयात किसका भुगतान करते हैं?
  4. पूँजी खाते से किस बात का ज्ञान होता है?
  5. एक देश की मुद्रा का दूसरे देश की मुद्रा में व्यक्त मूल्य क्या कहलाता है?

उत्तर:

  1. 1991
  2. महँगे
  3. निर्यात का
  4. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय विनियोग व ऋणग्रस्तता का
  5. विनिमय दर।

भुगतान संतुलन लघु उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
स्थिर विनिमय दर से आप क्या समझते हैं?
उत्तर:
स्थिर विनिमय दर से तात्पर्य उस दर से है जो अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार में स्थिर बनी रहती है। सन् 1944 में अन्तर्राष्ट्रीय मुद्रा कोष की स्थापना के साथ एवं विश्वव्यापी मंदी एवं स्वर्णमान, के पतन के परिणामस्वरूप विनिमय दरों में स्थिरता की प्रवृत्ति बढ़ी। इस दर को अधिकीलित दर भी कहा जाता है। इसे निम्न चित्र से स्पष्ट किया जा सकता हैइस विनिमय दर व्यवस्था में दर का निर्धारण सरकार के द्वारा किया जाता है।
MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions Unit 10 भुगतान संतुलन img 2

प्रश्न 2.
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर क्या है?
उत्तर:
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर वह दर है जो केन्द्रीय बैंक के हस्तक्षेप के बिना विदेशी विनिमय की माँग और पूर्ति में साम्य स्थापित करती है। जिस बिन्दु पर विदेशी विनिमय की माँग एवं पूर्ति की शक्तियों के द्वारा दर निर्धारित हो वह साम्य या लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर कहलाती है।
MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions Unit 10 भुगतान संतुलन img 3
MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions Unit 10 भुगतान संतुलन img 4

प्रश्न 3.
भुगतान संतुलन से क्या आशय है? भारत के भुगतान संतुलन की प्रतिकूलता के तीन कारण लिखिए?
अथवा
भुगतान शेष में असंतुलन का कारण लिखिए?
उत्तर:
भुगतान संतुलन का अर्थ:
भुगतान संतुलन से आशय, किसी देश – विशेष की वस्तुओं के आयातों एवं निर्यातों तथा उनके मूल्यों के संपूर्ण विवरण से होता है। सामान्यतः विभिन्न देशों के बीच विभिन्न वस्तुओं के आयात – निर्यात के अतिरिक्त अन्य प्रकार के भी लेन – देन होते हैं, जैसे – बीमा, जहाजी किराया, बैंकों का शुल्क, ब्याज, लाभ, पूँजी का स्थानांतरण सेवाओं का पुरस्कार इत्यादि। भारत में भुगतान संतुलन की प्रतिकूलता के कारण-भारत में भुगतान संतुलन के प्रतिकूल होने के तीन कारण निम्नलिखित हैं –

1. पेट्रोलियम पदार्थों के आयात में वृद्धि:
तेल उत्पादक देश अपने पेट्रोलियम पदार्थों के मल्य प्रतिवर्ष बढ़ाते रहते हैं। साथ – ही – साथ देश में पेट्रोलियम पदार्थों की खपत बढ़ी है जिससे भारी मात्रा में इनका आयात किया गया है।

2. आशा के अनुरूप निर्यातों में वृद्धि न होना:
भारत में भुगतान संतुलन के प्रतिकूल होने का एक कारण निर्यातों का आशानुरूप न बढ़ना है।

3. बढ़ती हुई जनसंख्या:
भारत की जनसंख्या वृद्धि के कारण आयातों में वृद्धि हुई है। तथा घरेलू उपभोग के बढ़ जाने के कारण निर्यातों में कमी आई है जिससे भारत की भुगतान संतुलन में प्रतिकूलता आई है।

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प्रश्न 4.
भारत में भुगतान संतुलन को सुधारने हेतु चार उपाय बताइए?
उत्तर:
भारत में भुगतान संतुलन को सुधारने के उपाय इस प्रकार हैं –

1. निर्यात को प्रोत्साहन:
सरकार को निर्यात को प्रोत्साहित करना चाहिए, ताकि निर्यात बढ़ सके इसके लिए –

  1. निर्यात करों में कमी की जानी चाहिए
  2. देश में उद्योगों को आर्थिक सहायता दी जानी चाहिए
  3. विदेशों में वस्तुओं के लिए प्रचार व विज्ञापन किया जाना चाहिए।

2. आयात में कमी:
भारत को अपने आयात में कमी लानी चाहिए। इसके लिए आयात करों में वृद्धि की जानी चाहिए)जिससे आयातिक वस्तु महँगी हो जाए और माँग में कमी आए।

3. विदेशी ऋणों का प्रयोग:
भुगतान संतुलन की प्रतिकूलता को दूर करने के लिए विदेशी ऋणों का भी प्रयोग किया जा सकता है)। वास्तव में यह कुछ समय के लिए इस समस्या का समाधान तो कर देता है लेकिन बाद में भुगतानों को अदा करते समय कठिनाई होती है।

4. विनिमय नियंत्रण:
भुगतान संतुलन को ठीक करने के लिए विनिमय नियंत्रण भी एक अच्छा मार्ग है। इससे आयात घटते हैं एवं निर्यात बढ़ते हैं।

प्रश्न 5.
स्थिर विनिमय – दर के पक्ष – विपक्ष में दो – दो तर्क दीजिए?
उत्तर:
स्थिर विनिमय दर से आशय:
जब विनिमय – दर का निर्धारण सरकार के द्वारा किया जाता है तो उसे स्थिर विनिमय दर कहते हैं।

स्थिर विनिमय – दर के पक्ष में तर्क:
स्थिर विनिमय – दर के पक्ष में निम्नांकित तर्क दिये जा सकते हैं –

1. अंतर्राष्ट्रीय व्यापार को प्रोत्साहन:
स्थिर विनिमयदर के अंतर्गत आयातकर्ता एवं निर्यातकर्ता को इस बात की जानकारी रहती है कि कितना भुगतान करना है तथा कितना भुगतान प्राप्त होगा।

2. विनिमय व्यवस्था:
यदि देश में विनिमय – दर स्थिर है तो सट्टेबाजी जैसी प्रवृत्तियों को प्रोत्साहन नहीं मिलता है तथा सरकार विनिमय नियंत्रण तथा प्रबंध व्यवस्थाओं से मुक्त हो जाती है।

3. निर्यातक देशों के लिए आवश्यक जिन देशों को राष्ट्रीय आय का अधिकांश भाग निर्यातों से ही प्राप्त होता है उनके लिये विनिमय दर में स्थायित्व अत्यधिक आवश्यक है।

4. पूँजी निर्माण:
विदेशी विनिमय दर में स्थिरता के फलस्वरूप देश में आंतरिक कीमत स्तर पर भी अनुकूल प्रभाव पड़ता है। पूँजी निर्माण की दर बढ़ती है तथा देश का आर्थिक विकास होता है।

स्थिर विनिमय – दर के विपक्ष में तर्क:
स्थिर विनिमय – दर के विपक्ष में निम्नांकित तर्क दिए जाते हैं –

1. आर्थिक विकास पर प्रतिकूल प्रभाव:
स्थिर विनिमय – दर का प्राथमिक उद्देश्य इसमें स्थिरता को बनाये रखना होता है और राष्ट्रीय आय, रोजगार नीति, मूल्य – स्तर जैसे राष्ट्रीय उद्देश्यों को गौण मान लिया जाता है।

2. भ्रष्टाचार:
स्थिर विनिमय – दर को बनाये रखने के लिए देश में अनेक नियंत्रण लगाये जाते हैं। नियंत्रण अधिक होने पर भ्रष्टाचार फैलने के अवसर बढ़ जाते हैं।

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प्रश्न 6.
व्यापार संतुलन एवं भुगतान संतुलन में अन्तर स्पष्ट कीजिए?
उत्तर:
व्यापार संतुलन एवं भुगतान संतुलन में अन्तर –

व्यापार संतुलन

  1. व्यापार संतुलन में आयात – निर्यात की जाने वाली दृश्य मदों को ही शामिल किया जाता है।
  2. व्यापार संतुलन, भुगतान संतुलन का एक भाग है।
  3. किसी देश का व्यापार संतुलन पक्ष में न होना कोई अधिक चिन्ता का विषय नहीं है।
  4. व्यापार संतुलन अनुकूल या प्रतिकूल हो सकता है।
  5. व्यापार की दृष्टि से व्यापार संतुलन का महत्व कम होता है।

भुगतान संतुलन:

  1. भुगतान संतुलन में दृश्य मदों के साथ – साथ अदृश्य मदों को ही शामिल किया जाता है।
  2. भुगतान संतुलन की धारणा अधिक व्यापक होती है।
  3. यदि भुगतान संतुलन पक्ष में नहीं है तो यह चिन्ता का विषय है।
  4. भुगतान संतुलन सदा ही संतुलित रहता है।
  5. भुगतान संतुलन का महत्व अधिक होता है।

प्रश्न 7.
अवमूल्यन और मूल्यह्रास में अंतर स्पष्ट कीजिए?
उत्तर:
अधिकीलित विनिमय प्रणाली में जब सरकार के द्वारा विनिमय दर में वृद्धि की जाती है तो इसे मुद्रा का अवमूल्यन कहा जाता है। अवमूल्यन तब होता है जब देश स्थिर विनिमय दर प्रणाली को ग्रहण करता है। दूसरी ओर, बाजार माँग एवं पूर्ति शक्तियों के प्रभाव से बिना किसी सरकारी हस्तक्षेप के देश की मुद्रा का मूल्य कम हो जाता है तो इसे मूल्यह्रास कहते हैं, मूल्यह्रास तब होता है जब देश नम्य विनिमय दर प्रणाली अथवा तिरती विनियम दर प्रणाली को ग्रहण करता है।

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प्रश्न 8.
जब M = 60 + 0.06 Y हो, तो आयात की सीमांत प्रवृत्ति क्या होगी? आयात की सीमांत प्रवृत्ति और समस्त माँग फलन में क्या संबंध है?
उत्तर:
दिया है,
M = 60 + 0. 60 Y
∵ M = \(\bar { M } \) + mY
∴ m = 0.06
\(\bar { M } \) > 0 स्वायत्त घटक है। 0 < m < 1
यहाँ m आयात की सीमांत प्रवृत्ति है। सीमांत प्रवृत्ति का मान 1 से कम तथा शून्य से अधिक होता है। आय का एक अतिरिक्त रुपया आयात खर्च करने से प्राप्त अनुपात है। यह सीमांत प्रवृत्ति के सादृश्य होता है। आयात की सीमांत प्रवृत्ति और समस्त माँग में धनात्मक संबंध पाया जाता है।

प्रश्न 9.
व्याख्या कीजिए कि – G – T = (Sg – I) – (X – M)?
उत्तर:
G – T = (Sg – I) – (X – M)
यहाँ, G = सरकारी व्यय, T = कर, G – T = निवल सरकारी व्यय, Sg = सरकार की बचत, I = निवेश, Sg – I = निवल बचतें, x = निर्यात, M= आयात, X – M = व्यापार संतुलन। यह दिया गया समीकरण सही है, चूँकि यह स्पष्ट करता है कि निवल सरकारी व्यय, निवल सरकारी बचतों और व्यापार संतुलन के समान है।

प्रश्न 10.
क्या चालू पूँजीगत घाटा खतरे का संकेत होगा? व्याख्या कीजिए?
उत्तर:
चालू पूँजीगत घाटा खतरे का संकेत होगा या नहीं। इस संदर्भ में तर्क दिया जाता है कि जब किसी देश में चालू पूँजीगत घाटा होता है तो बचत कम हो रही होती है, निवेश बढ़ोत्तरी हो रही होती है अथवा बजट घाटे में वृद्धि हो रही होती है। देश के दीर्घकालीन परिप्रेक्ष्य के बारे में चिन्ता का कारण तब होता है जब चालू पूँजीगत घाटे से बचत कम होती है और बजटीय घाटा अधिक होता है। घाटे से उच्च निजी उपभोग अथवा सरकारी उपभोग प्रतिबिंबित होता है।

इन स्थितियों में देश के पूँजी स्टॉक में तेजी से वृद्धि नहीं होगी जिससे पर्याप्त संवृद्धि हो सके और ऋण अदायगी की जा सके। परंतु यदि चालू पूँजीगत घाटे से निवेश में वृद्धि प्रतिबिंबित हो तो चिन्ता का कोई कारण नहीं होता है क्योंकि इससे पूँजी स्टॉक का अधिक तीव्रता से निर्माण होगा और भविष्य में निर्गत में वृद्धि होगी। अतः संक्षेप में हम यह कह सकते हैं कि यदि किसी देश में ऋण की नई निधि से ब्याज दर की अपेक्षा विकास दर अधिक होती है तो चालू पूँजीगत घाटे से किसी प्रकार के खतरे का संकेत नहीं होता।

प्रश्न 11.
संतुलित व्यापार शेष और चालू खाता संतुलन में अंतर स्पष्ट कीजिए?
उत्तर:
संतुलित व्यापार शेष:

  1. आयात एवं निर्यात के संतुलन को संतुलित व्यापार व्यापार शेष कहा जाता है।
  2. यह एक संकुचित धारणा है।
  3. इमसें केवल भौतिक वस्तुओं के आयात निर्यात को ही शामिल किया जाता है।

चालू खाता संतुलन:

  1. व्यापार शेष, सेवाओं के आयात व निर्यात शेष तथा हस्तांतरण भुगतान शेष के योग को चालू खाता संतुलन कहते हैं।
  2. यह एक संकुचित धारणा है।
  3. भौतिक वस्तुओं के निर्यात – आयात के साथ – साथ सेवाओं व हस्तांतरण भुगतान के लेन – देन को भी इसमें शामिल किया जाता है।

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प्रश्न 12.
यदि देश B से देश A में मुदा स्फीति ऊँची हो और दोनों देशों में विनिमय दर स्थिर हो, तो दोनों देशों के व्यापार शेष का क्या होगा?
उत्तर:
यदि देश ‘B’ से देश ‘A’ में मुद्रा स्फीति की दर ऊँची हो और दोनों देशों में विनिमय दर स्थिर हो, तो देश ‘A’ में व्यापार शेष घाटा होगा और देश B में व्यापार शेष आधिक्य होगा। ऐसी स्थिति में देश B से देश A को वस्तुओं का आयात करना लाभप्रद होगा। परिणामस्वरूप देश A अधिक वस्तुओं का अधिक मात्रा में आयात करेगा और देश B को कम मात्रा में वस्तुओं का निर्यात करेगा।अत: देश A के सामने व्यापार शेष घाटे की समस्या उत्पन्न होगी। दूसरी ओर देश B देश A से कम मात्रा में वस्तुओं का आयात करेगा। अतः देश B का व्यापार शेष धनात्मक होगा।

भुगतान संतुलन दीर्घ उत्तरीय प्रश्न

प्रश्न 1.
भुगतान संतुलन की मदों का उल्लेख कीजिए?
उत्तर:
किसी देश का भुगतान संतुलन उसके समस्त विदेशी लेन – देन तथा लेनदारियों – देनदारियों का विवरण होता है। इसके बाँयी ओर सभी लेनदारियाँ तथा दाँयी ओर देनदारियाँ प्रदर्शित की जाती हैं बाँयी ओर की मदों एवं दाँयी ओर के मदों के अंदर के स्वरूप से भुगतान संतुलन का स्वरूप स्पष्ट हो जाता है। भुगतान संतुलन के विवरण में सम्मिलित विभिन्न मदों का वर्गीकरण लीग ऑफ नेशन्स ने दो मुख्य शीर्षकों के अंतर्गत किया था और अधिकांश देश इसी आधार पर भुगतान संतुलन का विवरण तैयार करते हैं। भुगतान संतुलन का प्रथम शीर्षक चालू खाता होता है और दूसरा शीर्षक पूँजी खाता होता है।

  1. चालू खाता: चालू खाते में दृश्य और अदृश्य मदें सम्मिलित होती हैं।
  2. पूँजी खाता: इसमें विदेशी पूँजी के विनियोग तथा ऋण की राशियों को दिखाया जाता है।

प्रश्न 2.
पूँजी खाते में शामिल मदों को बताइए?
उत्तर:
पूँजी खाते में शामिल प्रमुख मदें निम्नलिखित हैं –

  1. बैंकिंग पूँजी का प्रवाह: बैंकिंग पूँजी का अंतरप्रवाह देश के लिए प्राप्ति पक्ष तथा बाह्य प्रवाह भुगतान पक्ष में गिना जाता है, लेकिन बैंकिंग पूँजी में केन्द्रीय बैंक को शामिल नहीं किया जाता हैं।
  2. निजी ऋण: देश के निजी क्षेत्र द्वारा विदेशों से प्राप्त ऋण, भुगतान संतुलन खाते के लेनदारी पक्ष तथा उनके ऋण भुगतानों को लेनदारी पक्ष में गिना जाता है।
  3. विदेशी निवेश: विदेशी निवेश में दो प्रकार के निवेश आते हैं –
    • प्रत्यक्ष विदेशी निवेश:
    • प्रत्यक्ष विदेशी निवेश से तात्पर्य विदेशों में परिसम्पत्तियाँ खरीदना है तथा उन पर नियंत्रण रखना है।
    • पोर्टफोलियो निवेश:
  4. इस निवेश में विदेशों में परिसम्पत्तियाँ खरीदी जाती हैं परन्तु उस पर नियंत्रण नहीं होता है।
  5. सरकारी पूँजी का लेन – देन:

इसमें निम्नलिखित मदें शामिल हैं –

  1. ऋण
  2. ऋणों का भुगतान
  3. मिश्रित
  4. कोष एवं मौद्रिक सोना।

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प्रश्न 3.
विदेशी विनिमय – दर को प्रभावित करने वाले तत्वों को लिखिए?(कोई चार)
अथवा
विदेशी विनिमय – दर के उतार – चढ़ाव के पाँच कारण समझाइए?
उत्तर:
विदेशी विनिमय – दर को प्रभावित करने वाले प्रमुख तत्व निम्न हैं –

1. आयात एवं निर्यात में परिवर्तन:
यदि देश के निर्यात, आयात से अधिक हैं तो देश की मुद्रा की माँग बढ़ेगी और विदेशी विनिमय:
दर देश के पक्ष में होगा इसके विपरीत देश में आयात, निर्यात की तुलना में अधिक है तो विदेशी मुद्रा की माँग बढ़ेगी और विदेशी विनिमय दर देश के विपक्ष में होगा या प्रतिकूल होगा।

2. बैंकिंग संबंधी प्रभाव:
यदि व्यापारिक बैंक विदेशी बैंक पर बड़ी मात्रा में बैंकर्स ड्रॉफ्ट तथा अन्य प्रकार के साख-पत्र जारी करता है, तो इससे विदेशी विनिमय की मांग बढ़ जायेगी इसके विपरीत अगर विदेशी बैंक देश के बैंकों पर साख – पत्र जारी करती है तो देशी मुद्रा की मांग बढ़ेगी और विनिमय-दर देश के पक्ष में हो जाती है।

3. कीमतों में परिवर्तन:
दो देशों में किसी एक देश में सापेक्षिक दृष्टि से कीमत के परिवर्तन के परिणामस्वरूप विनिमय-दर परिवर्तित हो जाती है। जैसे – भारत में कीमत बढ़ जाती है, जबकि जर्मनी में कीमत में परिवर्तन नहीं होता है। अतः जर्मनी को भारत की वस्तुएँ महँगी पड़ने लगेंगी और वे यहाँ से कम वस्तुएँ मँगायेंगे। इसके विपरीत भारत को जर्मनी की वस्तुएँ सस्ती पड़ेंगी और वहाँ से आयात करने लगेंगी।

4. पूँजी का आगमन:
जिस देश में विदेशी पूँजी आती है उस देश की मुद्रा की मांग बढ़ जाती है। परिणामस्वरूप विदेशी विनिमय दर उस देश के पक्ष में हो जाती है। इसके विपरीत पूँजी देश से विदेश में जाती है तो विदेशी मुद्रा की माँग बढ़ जाती है। जिससे विनिमय दर देश के विपक्ष में हो जाती है।

प्रश्न 4
दृश्य आयात – निर्यात तथा अदृश्य आयात – निर्यात को समझाइये?
उत्तर:
दृश्य आयात – निर्यात:
दृश्य आयात – निर्यात के अंतर्गत उन वस्तुओं के आयात – निर्यात को शामिल किया जाता है जिनका बंदरगाह में रखे गये रजिस्टर में लेखा – जोखा रखा जाता है। इसे देखकर वर्षभर में किए गए आयातों एवं निर्यातों के मूल्य प्राप्त किये जा सकते हैं। इसलिए इसे दृश्य मदें कहा जाता है। इसमें केवल वस्तुओं के आयात – निर्यात को ही शामिल किया जाता है।

अदृश्य आयात – निर्यात:
अदृश्य आयात – निर्यात के अंतर्गत सेवाओं के आदान – प्रदान को शामिल किया जाता है। ये सेवाएँ हैं – बैंकिंग, बीमा, शिपिंग आदि जिनका बंदरगाहों पर लेखा – जोखा नहीं रखा जाता है। इस प्रकार अदृश्य मदों में सेवाओं एवं पूँजी के आयात – निर्यात को शामिल किया जाता है।

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प्रश्न 5.
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय – दर किसे कहते हैं? इसके पक्ष – विपक्ष में दो – दो तर्क दीजिए?
उत्तर:
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय – दर का अर्थ:
जब विनिमय दर का निर्धारण विदेशी मुद्रा बाजार में करेंसियों की माँग एवं पूर्ति के द्वारा निर्धारित किया जाता है तो उसे लोचपूर्ण विनिमय – दर कहते हैं।

लोचपूर्ण विनिमय – दर के पक्ष में तर्क:
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर के पक्ष में निम्नलिखित तर्क दिये जाते हैं –

1. भुगतान संतुलन में साम्य:
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर की दशा में अन्य राष्ट्रीय हितों, जैसे-राष्ट्रीय आय, मूल्य स्तर आदि की उपेक्षा किये बिना भुगतान-संतुलन में साम्य स्थापित करना संभव होता है।

2. अधिमूल्यन एवं अवमूल्यन:
लोचपूर्ण विनिमय दर होने पर अपने देश की मुद्रा को विदेशी मुद्रा की तुलना में आसानी से बढ़ाया या घटाया जा सकता है। इससे अर्थव्यवस्था में साम्य बनाये रखना संभव होता है।

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प्रश्न 6.
मान लीजिए C = 100 + 0.75 YD, I = 500, G = 750, कर आय का 20 प्रतिशत है, x = 150, M = 100 + 0.2Y तो संतुलन आय, बजट घाटा अथवा आधिक्य और व्यापार घाटा अथवा आधिक्य की गणना कीजिए?
उत्तर:
C = 100 + 0.75 YD जहाँ C = 100, C = 0.75, I = 500, G = 750, X = 150, M = 100 + 0.2Y
कर आय (t) = 20%
आय
(Y) = C + C (1 – 1) Y + l + G + (X – M)
Y = 100 + 0.75 (1 – 0.2) Y + 500 +750 + (150 – 100 – 0 – 2Y)
Y = 100 + 0.75(0.8) Y+ 500 + 750 + 150 – 100 – 0 – 2Y
Y = 100 + 0.6 Y + 1300 – 0.2 Y = 1400 + 0.4 Y
Y – 0.4 Y = 1400
0.6 Y = 1400
Y = \(\frac{1400}{0.6}\)
= 2333
बजट घाटा = सरकारी व्यय कर (G) – कर
= 750 – 2333 का 20% = 750 – 467 = 283
M = 100 + 0.2 Y = 100 + 0.2(2333)
= 100 + 467 = 567
व्यापार घाटा = M – X = 567 – 150 = 417.

MP Board Class 12th Economics Important Questions

MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 12 Consumer Protection

MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 12 Consumer Protection

Consumer Protection Important Questions

Consumer Protection Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When is consumer’s right day is celebrated ?
Answer:
On 15th March consumer’s rights day is celebrated.

Question 2.
Ahmad wants to buy a press (iron). As a aw are consumer how can he convince you about the quality of press ?
Answer:
Ahmad should check I.S.I. mark while purchasing press.

Question 3.
Reeta wants to purchase one packet of juice. She is an aware customer. How can she connived ?
Answer:
Reeta should see F.RO. mark.

Question 4.
Amrit has complained against ‘Amrit Volvo Limited’ in state commission. But he was not satisfied with orders of it. Tell where Amrit can complaint against the commission.
Answer:
Amrit can appeal in the National Commission.

Question 5.
Anjana wants to purchase a golden ring, what she should see on the ring to check quality of ring ?
Answer:
She should see Halmark.

Question 6.
What role does “the right to be heard” play for a consumer ?
Answer:
According to this right if any misbehavior or michchief is done with consumer then he can appeal to the court and has right that his complaint to be heard. The consumers right to be heard includes legal hearing to get redress.

Question 7.
Why is consumer protection important for a consumer ? Give one reason.
Answer:
Consumer protection is important for the protection of unfair practices of producers and sellers.

Question 8.
Write the names of two right under the consumer protection act of 1986.
Answer:

  1. Right to safety
  2. Right to be informed.

Question 9.
Where is the international organisation set up for standardization ?
Answer:
At the international level the organisation (ISO) was set up in Geneva.

Question 10.
W’hat is Eco-mark scheme ?
Answer:
This scheme has been introduced by the ministry of environment and forest. It signifies that the products fulfill the environmental norms. This scheme is useful for toilet soap, detergents, paints, packaging material, food products, edible oil, etc.

Question 11.
What do you mean by Lok Adalat ?
Answer:
Lok Adalat are those centers where aggrieved parties can approach directly with their grievances. Lok Adalat give patient hearing discuss the issue and give their decision on spot. It is economical and effective system.

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Question 12.
What do you mean by public support ?
Answer:
Business needs public support, without it no other business can run successfully. Business needs financial support by time to time like financial institution, banks, government employees, customer etc. Business had provide better quality of product to the society. If we exploit the public it means we destroy our self. We need people to purchase our goods.

Question 13.
What sort of precautions should be observed by consumers ?
Answer:
Consumers must take following precautions :

  1. Must acquire all the informations regarding goods purchased or service choosed.
  2. Consumer must know name of article, name of manufacturer, instructions of its use etc.
  3. Consumer must assure himself about the safety of the product.

Question 14.
What do you mean by public relation ?
Answer:
Public relation means to maintain relation among various people. Newspapers, government press are the sources of it.

Question 15.
What do you mean by consumer ?
Answer:
Under the consumer protection Act 1986 consumer means any person who for consumption purpose: .

  1. Buys goods on deferred payment
  2. Hires any service for payment
  3. Hires any service on deferred payment.

Question 16.
State any two problems of consumer.
Answer:
Two Problems of consumers are as follows :

  1. Adulteration of foods (Use of unpermitted colour)
  2. Sales of medicines after expiry date.

Question 17.
What do you mean by redressal forum ?
Answer:
Three tier grievances redressal machinery or forum is established through consumer forum.

  1. District forum
  2. State commission
  3. National commission.

Question 18.
Who can be the president of district forum ?
Answer:
The president of consumer forum can be the officiating or retired judge.

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Question 19.
Who can appeal before the court for complaint ?
Answer:
Following can complaint:

  1. A consumer.
  2. A recognized consumer organisor.
  3. A consumer or more than one consumer.
  4. Central government.
  5. State government.

Consumer Protection Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the importance of consumer protection.
Answer:
Importance of consumer protection :

  1. Providing legal protection to customers
  2. Unorganized consumers
  3. ignorance of consumers
  4. To protect from exploitation
  5. Help in the growth of business
  6. Social responsibility of business to protect the interest of owners and other
  7. Makes aware of consumers about their rights
  8. Speedy disposal of complaints
  9. Protection from pollution.

Question 2.
Explain the different rights of consumers.
Answer:
he rights of consumers are as follows :

  1. Right to safety
  2. Right to be informed
  3. Right to be heard
  4. Right to receive goods at competitive price
  5. Right to be released
  6. Right to consumer education
  7. Right to consideration
  8. Right to healthy environment.

Question 3.
Discuss the ways and means of consumer protection in India.
Answer:
The following ways and means are popular for consumer protection in India :

1. Lok Adalat: Lok Adalat is a place where aggrieved parties can approach directly with their grievances. It gives patient hearing, discuss the issue and give their decision on the spot. It is effective, economic and fast.

2. Public Interest Litigation : It refers to the system which provide legal representation to the poors, consumers, minorities and other weaker groups who are not in a position seek legal remedy of their own public interest litigation can be filled either by aggrieved person or any other person who belongs to weaker group.

3. Consumer Welfare Fund: This fond has been established for promoting the welfare of consumer.

4. Redressal Forums and Consumer Protection Councils: The Consumer Protection Act, 1986; a three tier judicial machinery has been established to settle consumer disputes :

  1. District forum
  2. State commission
  3. National commission.

It provide simple, speedy and economical redressal of consumers disputes.

Question 4.
Explain the importance of non-government organisations (NGOs) for consumer protection.
Answer:
The importance of NGOs in the field of consumer protection are as follows :

  1. Generates consumers awareness and provides education to consumers.
  2. Organises protests against hording and adulteration.
  3. Filing suit on behalf of consumers when needed.
  4. Collecting various information and data related with products and using this for consumer protection.
  5. Helping government in activities related with consumer protection.

Question 5.
Explain the importance of consumer protection on the point of view of business.
Answer:

1. Satisfaction and welfare of consumers: Consumer protection is important because it ensures to satisfy the needs of consumers and their welfare.

2. Key to survival and growth of business : A business can survive and grow only when it aims at safeguarding the interests of shareholders in general and consumers in particular.

3. Goodwill and image : For building favorable image and goodwill a business undertaking is expected to supply right product of right quality in right quantity at right time and right place to the consumers.

4. Creating and retaining consumers : Customer is the soul of business. A business without customer is meaningless like a body without soul. The main motto of a business must be creating and retaining customers. It is possible only when the customers are satisfied in all respects. .

Question 6.
What do you mean by consumer’s right or rights of consumer ?
Answer:
The consumers of America are more attentive and aware than consumers of India. Compared to India the consumers of America are having more rights and their complaints are settled immediately. President Kennedy laid more stress over consumer rights. He supported the following rights :

  1. Right to safety.
  2. Right to choice.
  3. Right to be informed.
  4. Right to be heard.

Other rights have been also given to consumers. For consumer protection International Organization of Consumer Union have been set up.

Question 7.
Who can file a complaint in a consumer court ?
Answer:
A complaint can be made by :

  1. Any consumer.
  2. Any registered consumer’s association.
  3. The Central Government or any State Government.
  4. One or more consumers, on behalf of numerous consumers having the same interest.
  5. A legal heir or representative of a deceased consumer.

Question 8.
What kind of cases can be filed in a state commission ?
Answer:
A complaint can be made to the appropriate state commission when the value of the goods and services, along with compensation claim exceed 20 lakes but does not exceed 1 crore. The appeals against the orders of a district form can also be filed before the state
commission.

Question 9.
Explain the ways of consumer protection.
Answer:
The consumer protect act has provided three tier judicial machinery for redressing the grievances of consumers.
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 12 Consumer Protection image - 1
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Question 10.
What is consumer education ? What is the need of consumer education ?
Answer:
It is considered that the consumer is the king of the market. But in the present day consumers are exploited by producers and sellers. They create an illusion in the minds of the consumers through advertisement, publicity and propaganda, so protect the interest of the consumers, consumer education or consumerism has become the need of the hour. Consumerism is an organised social and environmental force which aims at protecting the interest of consumers at large by organizing, writing and awakening the consumers.
Need of consumer educations : The main objectives of consumer education are as under:

  1. Awareness about the quality of the product
  2. Protection of consumers
  3. Information about prices
  4. Restriction on exploitation of consumers
  5. Awareness of rights
  6. Development of consumer organisation
  7. Ability to buy appropriate goods
  8. Abstaining from buying harmful products
  9. To get compensation in case of cheating by sellers
  10. To make complaint about the grievances.

Question 11.
What are the salient features of Consumer Protection Act 1986 ?
Answer:
It is the duty of the government to ensure protection to consumers of the country. The government of India has passed various acts for protecting consumer’s interest. The consumer protection act 1986 is one of the most important acts. The salient features of this act are :

  1. This act covers all goods and services. It is a comprehensive act.
  2. This act does not nullify the provisions of other acts passed for consumer’s protection. It is complementary to all those acts which have been passed in the past.
  3. This act provides for establishing consumer forums, at central as well as state level. The main motto of such forums is to

protect consumer’s interest and extend consumer’s right.

Question 12.
How can you say that the scope of consumer protection in wide ?
Answer:
Following points are in support of the answer :

  1. It gives information to the consumer’s right and responsibility.
  2. It assist consumers to remove their complaint.
  3. It provides legal protection to the consumer.
  4. It is applicable to all the goods and services.
  5. In it all the private and public organisations are

Question 13.
What are the responsibilities of a consumers ?
Answer:
A consumer must be aware about these responsibilities while purchasing, using and consuming goods and services.

  1. Consumer must be aware of all their rights.
  2. Consumer must be careful while purchasing a product.
  3. He should file complaint for the redressal of genuine grievance.
  4. Consumer must buy a standardized goods.
  5. He should ask for a cash memo on purchase of goods and services.

Question 14.
Explain the responsibilities of business towards consumers.
Answer:
The responsibilities of business toward consumers are as follows :

  1. The sell product at reasonable prices
  2. To sell quality products
  3. To settle complaints of consumers
  4. To sell products of high standard and certified by Indian Standards Institute
  5. Not to be misleading advertisements
  6. Proper packaging of products
  7. To collect information about needs, interest, etc. of consumers
  8. To provide after sales services.

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Question 15.
Write the characteristics of district forum.
Answer:
District Consumer Forum:

1. Establishment: According to consumer protection act, state government can set up one or more district fortifier in each district.

2. Composition: It consists of a president and two other members one of which must be a woman.

3. Term : Every member shall hold office for a term of 5 years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier and shall not be eligible for reappointment.

4. Jurisdiction : It has jurisdiction to entertain complaints where the value of goods and services and compensation does not exceed Rs. 20 lakhs.

Question 16.
What precautions should be taken by consumer while purchasing goods ?
Answer:
Consumers should keep in mind few things while purchasing products. They are as follows:

1. Consumer should be cautious : Consumer should be cautious while purchasing products. He should insist on getting informations like quantity, quality, price of product, etc.

2. Consumer should exercise his rights : Consumer must be aware of all his rights and must use those rights while purchasing the products and services from sellers.

3. Filing complaint for redressal : Consumers should make the complaints to the authority for genuine grievances. The consumer should be prepared to take action to enforce fair and just demands.

4. Consumer must be aware of misleading advertisements : Through advertisements the seller provides various information about product to consumer, consumers should not believe on these advertisements. He should compare the actual product usage with advertisement. If there is anything false than it should be reported to concerned authorities.

5. Consumer should not compromise on quality : He should never compromise on quality. Whenever he is purchasing products he should look for quality marks on products like ISI, Agmark, Woolmark, FPO, etc., printed on them.

Question 17.
What do you mean by standardization of products ?
Answer:
Standardization of products : These are done to assure the quality of products. The ISI stamp on goods is placed by the Bureau of Indian standards. This caters to industrial and consumer goods. These goods can be trusted to confirm to specific standards. Agmark is meant for agricultural products.

At the international level the international organization for standardization (ISO) located in Geneva sets common standards. The FAO and WHO provide food standards.

Question 18.
What do you mean by legislation concerning consumer rights ?
Answer;
Legislation concerning consumer rights : The consumer protection act 1986 provides for consumer disputes redressal at the state and national level. With the help of this law the agencies can solve grievances in a speedy, simple and inexpensive manner. A separate department of consumer affairs was set up at the state and central government. A three tier system of consumer courts at the National, State and District levels were set up. These agencies have done good work by handling lakhs of cases.

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Question 19.
What do you mean by unfair trade practice ? Give some example of it.
Answer:
In unfair means of trade practice a trader adopt the defective and harmful methods to earn profit.
Example :

  1. To provide wrong information about the product.
  2. Not to follow the fixed standards.
  3. Black marketing hording.
  4. Sell products on high rate.

Question 20.
What do you mean by indian standard beauro Write any two activites of it
Answer:
It was established in 1986.
Major activities :

  1. To establish quality of goods and services
  2. To standardize goods under VIS standardization.

Question 21.
What do you mean by Malpractices ?
In order to earn more and more profites the seller perform more profites practices like selling defective and substandard goods, charging exhorbitant prices, negligence as to the safety standard etc. Thus, to protect consumers from these business malpractices consumer protection is essential.

Question 22.
What do you mean by Moral jurisdiction ?
Answer :
Moral Justification: It is the moral duty and responsibility of business to protect the consumers. The sellers should not perform activities like adulteration, black marketing, hoarding, profiteering, etc. By doing so they can discharge their moral responsibility.

Question 23.
Explain the importance of consumer protection from the point of view of business.
Answer:
A business can not survive without paying attention on protection the consumers interest and adequately satisfying them. This is important because of the following reasons:

1. Long term interest of business : Business firms should aim at long term profit maximisation through customer satisfaction, Satisfied customers not only lead to repeat sales but also provide good feedback to prospective customers and thus help in increasing the customer base of business.

2. Business uses Society’s Resources : Business organization uses resources which belong to the society, thus they have .a responsibility to supply such products and render such services which are in public interest.

3. Social responsibility : A business has social responsibility towards various interest groups. Business organizations make money by selling goods and providing services to consumers. Thus, consumers form an important group among the many stakeholders of business and like other stakeholders, their interest has to be well taken care of.

4. Moral justification : The moral duty of any business is to take care of consumer’s interest and securing them from exploitation. Thus, a business must avoid insecure loss, exploitation and unfair trade practices like defective and unsafe products, adulteration, false and misleading advertising hoarding, black marketing etc.

5. Government intervention : A business engaging in any form of exploration time trade practices would invite government intervention or action. Thus, it is advisable that business organization voluntarily resort to such practices, where the customers need and interests will be taken care of.

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Question 24.
“Though laws and acts are there still consumers are exploited.” Why ?
Or
”Why there is need of consumer protection ? Write any four causes.
Answer:
The importance of consumer protection are as follows :

1. Consumer’s Ignorance: Today every person is limited to his own work and services and is not interested in other informations that’s why consumer is ignorant about the products which he consumes. Thus, due to this ignorance they are exploited by the sellers and became a poppet. So it becomes necessary that they should be educated about their rights.

2. Social Responsibility : Every person whether he is a trader or an officer first of all is the member of society. As a member of society he is having some responsibilities and duties but every person runs away from responsibilities and works for earning more profits by any means. Thus, consumer protection is necessary to make them aware of their social responsibility.

3. Unorganised Consumers: In India generally the consumers are unorganised because they belong to different castes, religions and sections of society. Due to lack of unity and organization among consumers the sellers make advantage of it. Thus, consumer protection is necessary to make the consumers organised.

4. Settlement of Consumers Disputes : Due to the continuous exploitation of consumers by the sellers they files the complaints to the concerned departments or forums.

These disputes should be settled speedily so that consumers should have faith on law and order. In order to solve the disputes of consumers various acts specially consumer protection act has been enacted.

5. Makes Consumer Aware: Due to continuous exploitation of consumers, consumer protection act 1986 was passed. Thus, consumer have been granted some rights according to the provisions of this act, consumer protection is necessary to make consumers aware about these rights.

Consumer Protection Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain in brief any four responsibilities of consumer to safeguard their intrest.
Answer:
The six responsibilites of consumer to safeguard their interest are as follows :

1. To exercise his right properly : Every customer should be well aware of his rights. The consumer who knows these right properly should also make other consumer aware of these rights who are either less informed or ill informed.

2. Taking precautions : Taking proper precaution without taking shelter of legal action is also a responsibility of consumer. It is also a way of protection.

3. Filling complaint for redressal: The consumer should invariably file complaint to the appropriate authority for redressal of genious grievances. He should raise his voice and protest against all sorts of exploitation by trade and industry.

4. Quality and quantity consciousness : The consumer should always make it a point to buy such product which have always quality certification such as ISI, FPO, ISO etc.

5. Escaping misleading advertisement : The consumer should see that he is not tempted by ingenious and misleading advertisement with overstated claim of product and services.

6. Taking cash memo : In case goods are purchase in cash, the consumer should compel the dealer to give cash memo and if goods are purchased on credit basis their bill of purchase must be demanded.

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Question 2.
What are various ways in which the objective of consumer protection can be achieved ? Explain the role of consumer organizations and NGOs in this regard ?
Answer:
There are various ways in which the objective of consumer protection can be achieved:

(i) Self regulation by business : Socially responsible firms follow ethical standards and practices in dealing with their customers. Many firms have set up their customer service and grievance cells to redress the problems and grievance of their consumers.

(ii) Business associations : The associations of trade, commerce and business like federation of India Chambers of Commerce of India (FICCI) and conference of Indian Industries (CII) have laid their code of conduct which lays down for their members the guidelines in their dealing with the customers.

(iii) Consumer awareness : A consumer, who is well informed about his rights and the reliefs, would be in a position to raise his voice against any unfair trade practices or exploitation:

(iv) Consumer Organization : Consumer originations plays an important protecting role in educating consumers about their rights and them. These organizations can force business firms to avoid malpractices and exploitation of consumers.

(v) Government: The government can protect the interests of the consumers by enacting various legislations. The legal framework in India encompasses various legislation which provide protection to consumer, the most important of these regulations is the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The Act provided for a three-tier machinery at the District, State and National levels for redressal of consumer grievance.

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Question 3.
Explain the role of consumer organizations and NGO in protecting and promoting consumer’s interest.
Answer:
Consumer organization and NGOs perform several functions for the protection and promotion of interest of consumers. In India, these associations are performing lots of functions some of them are :

  1. Education the general public about consumer rights by organizing training programmers, seminars and workshops.
  2. Publishing periodicals and other publications to impart knowledge about consumer problems, legal reporting, reliefs available and other matters of interest.
  3. Carrying out comparative testing of consumer products in accredited laboratories to test relative qualities of competing brands of publishing the test results for the benefit of consumers.
  4. Encouraging consumers to strongly protest and take an action against unscrupulous, exploitation and unfair trade practices of sellers.
  5. Providing legal assistance to consumers by providing aid, legal advice etc. in seeking legal remedy.
  6. Filling complaints in appropriate consumers courts on behalf of the consumers.
  7. Taking an initiative in filling cases in consumers court in the interest of the general public, not for any individual.

Question 4.
What are the rights of consumer in India ?
Answer:
Following are the rights of the consumer under the act of 1986 :

(1) Right to Safety : The consumer has a right to be protected against goods and services which are hazardous to life, e.g., sometimes we purchased the food items of low quality which causes severe problems. Thus, in this case, we should purchased good quality and FPO labelled products.

(2) Right to be informed : The consumer has a right to have complete information about the product, which he intends to buy including its ingredients, date of manufacture, price, quantity, directions for use etc. Under the legal framework of India manufactures have to provide such information on the package and label of the product.

(3) Right to Choose : The consumer has the freedom to choose from a variety of products. The marketers should offer a wide variety of products and allow the consumer to make a choice and choose the product which is most suitable.

(4) Right to be Heard : The consumer has a right to file a complaint and to be heard in case of dissatisfaction with a good or a service. It is because of this reason that many enlightened business firms have set up their own consumer service and grievance cells.

(5) Right to Seek Redressal: The consumer Protection Act provides a number product, of reliefs to the removal of defect consumer including replacement of the in the product, compensation paid for any loss or injury suffered by the consumer etc.

(6) Right to Consumer Education : The consumer has a right to acquire knowledge about products. He should be aware about his rights and the reliefs available to him in case of a product service falling short of his expectations many consumer organisation and some enlightened businesses are taking an active part in educating consumers in this respect.

Question 5.
Enumerate the various Acts passed by the Government of India which help in protecting the consumer’s interest ?
Answer:
The Indian legal framework consists of a number of regulations which provide protection to consumers. Some of these regulations are as under:

(1) The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 : The Act provides safeguard to consumers against defective goods, deficient services, unfair trade practices etc.

(2) The Contract Act, 1982 : The Act lays down the conditions in which the promises made by parties to a contract will be binding on each other.

(3) The Sale of Goods Act, 1930 : The Act provides some safeguards and reliefs to the buyers of the goods in case, the goods purchased do not comply with express or implied conditions or warranties.

(4) Essential Commodities Act, 1955 : The Act alms at controlling, production, supply, distribution and price of essential commodities.

(5) The Agricultural produce Act, 1937 : The Act prescribes grade standards for agricultural commodities and livestock products.

(6) The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 : The Act aims to check adulteration of foods articles and ensure their purity, so as to maintain public health.

(7) The Standards of Weights and Measures act, 1976 : It provides protection to consumers against the malpractice of under-weight or under-measure.

(8) The Trade Marks Act, 1999 : The Act prevents the use of fraudulent marks on products and thus provides protection to the consumers against such products.

(9) The Competition Act, 2002 : The Act provides protection to the consumers in case 01 practices adopted by business firms which hamper competition in the market.

(10) The Bureau of Indian Standard Act, 1986 : The bureau has two major activities : Formulation of quality standards for goods and their certification through the BIS certification scheme. The bureau has also set up a grievance cell, where consumers can make a complaint about quality of products carrying the ISI mark.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Explain the redressal mechanism available to consumers under the Consumer Protection Act 1986.
Answer:
For the redressal of consumer grievances, the Consumer Protection Act provides for setting up of a three-tier enforcement machinery at the District, State and the National levels.

(i) District Forum: A complaint can be made to the appropriate District Forum when the value of goods or services, along with the compensation claimed, does not exceed 20 lakhs. In case the aggrieved party is not satisfied with the order of the District Forum, he can appeal before the State Commission within 30 days.

(ii) State Commission : A complaint can be made to the appropriate State Commission when the value of the goods or services, along with the compensation claimed, exceeds 20 lakhs but does not exceed 1 crore. The appeals against the orders of District Forum can also be filed before the State Commission. In case the party is not satisfied with the order of the State Commission, he can appeal before the National Commission within 30 days of the passing of the order by State Commission.

(iii) National Commission : A complaint can be made to the National Commission when the value of the goods or services, along with the compensation claimed exceeds 1 crore. The appeals against the orders of a State Commission can also be filed before the National Commission. An order passed by the National Commission in a matter of its original justification is appealable before the supreme court. This means that only those appeals, where the value of goods + services in question, along with the compensation claimed, exceeded I crore and where the aggrieved party was not satisfied with the order of the National Commission, can be taken to the Supreme Court of India.

What are the responsibilities of a consumer ?
Answer:
A consumer should keep in mind the following responsibilities while purchasing, using and consuming goods and services :

  1. (1) Be aware about various goods and services available in the market, so that an intelligent and wise choice can be made.
  2. (2) Buy only standardised goods as they provide quality assurance. Thus, look for ISI mark on electrical goods. FPO mark on food products and Hallmark on jewellary etc.
  3. (3) Learn about the risks associated with products and services.
  4. (4) Read labels carefully, so as to have information about prices, weight, manufacturing and expiry dates etc.
  5. (5) Assert yourself to get a fair deal.
  6. (6) Be honest in your dealings. Choose only from legal goods and services.
  7. (7) Ask for a cash-memo on purchase of goods and services. This would serve as a proof of the purchase made.
  8. (8) File a complaint in an appropriate consumer forum in case of a shortcoming in the quality of goods purchased or services availed.
  9. (9) Form consumer societies which would play an active part in educating consumers and safeguarding their interests.
  10. (10) Respect the environment, avoid waste, littering and contributing to pollution.

Question 8.
Explain how the complaint shall be made to the district forum ?
Answer:
Manner in which complaint shall be to made to the district forum : A complaint in relation to any goods sold or delivered or against services should be filed by the consumer. It can be filed by any recognized consumer association or by the central or state government.

One copy is send to the opposite party, directing him to give his version of the case within a period of 30 days when the opposite party on receipts of the complaint referred to him, denies the allegations contained in the complaint or fails to take any action. He represents his case within the time given by the district forum, the district forum shall proceed to settle the consumers dispute.

After following the procedure, examining the statements of the complaint, the opposite party and witness of both, the district forum passes necessary orders and relief if any. The district forum is authorized to pass order to remove the defect points out to replace the goods with new goods, to pay the compensation.

Any person aggrieved by an order made by the district forum may prefer an appeal against such order to the state commission with the date of 30 days.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
Explanation some measures for the protection of consumer by Indian government.
Answer:
Following are the measures taken by Indian government:

(1) Lok Adalat: Lok Adalat are those centers where aggrieved parties can approach directly with their grievances. Lok Adalat give patient hearing discuss the issue and give their decision on spot. It is economical and effective system.

(2) Filling Petition for the Public Welfare : Under it legal actions are taken for the protection of those people who don’t have any representatives. In this disputes poor, environment, minorities, etc. are included.

(3) Eco friendly products : Environment and forest ministry has started Eco mark plans. Under it a big pot of mud is the mark which is used for such products which are eco friendly. In the beginning some goods like soaps, detergents, packaging material, food materials etc. are included in there products. These goods are not harmful for environment.

(4) Consumer protection council: Under the consumers act 1986 one legal mechanism was formed on 3 tier level under it all the exploitations of consumers are settled. State governments established consumer protection councils for the settlement of disputes.

(5) Giving award for fighting against consumer exploitation : For the encouragement of youths, some awards are given to those who fight against consumer exploitation.

(6) Publicity measures : 15th March is celebrated as world consumer day. In 1955 in New Delhi a function was held in which publicity measures were taken. On television every week programmed are organized. Short films are also made in favor of it.

MP Board Class 12 Business Studies Important Questions

MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market

MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market

Finance market Important Questions

Finance market Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer :

Question 1.
Primary and Secondary market:
(a) Compete with each other
(b) Complement to each other
(c) Functions independently
(d) Control each other
Answer:
(b) Complement to each other

Question 2.
The number of stock exchange in India was :
(a) 20
(b) 21
(c) 24
(d) 23
Answer:
(c) 24

Question 3.
REPO is:
(a) Repurchase agreement
(b) Reliance petroleum
(c) Read and process
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Repurchase agreement

Question 4.
NSEI commenced future trading in the year:
(a) 1999
(b) 2000
(c) 2001
(d) 2002
Answer:
(b) 2000

Question 5.
The settlement cycle in NSEI is :
(a) T + 5
(b) T + 3
(c) T + 2
(d) T + 1
Answer:
(c) T + 2

Question 6.
Liquidity is formed by :
(a) Organised market
(b) unorganized market
(c) Primary market
(d) Secondary market
Answer:
(c) Primary market

Question 7.
The headquarter of SEBI is :
(a) Delhi
(b) Mumbai
(c) kolkata
(d) Chennai
Answer:
(b) Mumbai

Question 8.
The foremost stock exchange was established in :
(a) Delhi
(b) London
(c) Tokyo
(d) New york
Answer:
(b) London

Question 9.
In India the main organ of unorganised market is :
(a) Desi banker
(b) Mahajan and Sahukar
(c) Both ‘(a)’ and ‘(b)’
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(c) Both ‘(a)’ and ‘(b)’

Question 10.
The axis of central bank is :
(a) Reserve bank
(b) Commercial bank
(c) Co-operative bank
(d) Desi bank.
Answer:
(a) Reserve bank

Question 11.
NSEI was established in :
(a) 1900
(b) 1991
(c) 1992
(d) 1994.
Answer:
(c) 1992

Question 12.
These are not securities of capital market:
(a) Equity share
(b) Preferential shares
(c) Debentures
(d) Commercial bill.
Answer:
(d) Commercial bill.

Question 13.
The first stock exchange of India was established in the year:
(a) 1857
(b) 1877
(c) 1887
(d) 1987.
Answer:
(c) 1887

Question 14.
Treasury bills are :
(a) Instrument of short term borrowings ‘
(b) Long term borrowings
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Instrument of short term borrowings

Question 15.
For stock exchange the servies of SEBI is :
(a) Volantary
(b) Essential
(c) Not essential
(d) Compulsory.
Answer:
(d) Compulsory.

Question 16.
In 2004 the number of stock exchange in India was :
(a) 25
(b) 21
(c) 23
(d) 24
Answer:
(d) 24

Question 17.
Only buying security takes place in :
(a) Stock exchange
(b) Primary market
(c) Capital market
(d) Money market.
Answer:
(b) Primary market

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. The paid up capital of NSEI is ……………..
  2. OTCEI maintains the liquidity in the securities of…………….. companies.
  3. OTCEI was established in ……………..
  4. NSEI was established in ……………..
  5. Stock exchange which provides nation wide investor base to small companies is ……………..

Answer:

  1. Rs. 3 crores
  2. Small
  3. 1990
  4. 1992
  5. OTCEI.

Question 3.
Write the answer in one word/sentence :

  1. Which market deals with long-term funds ?
  2. Where is the purchase and sale of securities take place ?
  3. In which market dealings of short-term funds take place ?
  4. Which organization is formed to protect and safeguard the interest of investors ?
  5. Write the name of one all India level stock exchange.
  6. Which instrument is issue at discount ?
  7. Which market is regulated and developed by SEBI ?
  8. Which capital market is related with new issues ?
  9. Which Stock Exchange is the greatest stock Exchange of the country ?
  10. What are the two parts of capital market ?

Answer:

  1. Capital market
  2. Stock exchange
  3. Money market
  4. SEBI
  5. NSEI
  6. Treasury bill
  7. Stock exchange
  8. Primary market
  9. Bombay Stock Exchange
  10. Primary, Secondary.

Question 4.
Write true or false :

  1. Sebi is established to protect and safeguard the interest of investors.
  2. In India there are 24 stock exchanges.
  3. Headquarter of SEBI is in Mumbai.
  4. Full form of SEBI is securities and exchange board of India.
  5. In stock exchange transaction of new securities take place.
  6. There is no control of SEBI on Mutual fund.
  7. Money market deals long-term funds.
  8. Money market is controlled by SEBI.
  9. For industrial development healthy capital market is must.
  10. There is difference between the primary market and secondary market.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True
  6. False
  7. False
  8. False
  9. True
  10. True

Question 5.
Match the columns :
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 1
Answer:
1. (d)
2. (e)
3. (b)
4. (a)
5. (c)
6. (g)
7. (f)
8. (i)
9. (h)

Finance Market Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define capital market.
Answer:
“An individual or private firm receiving deposits and dealing in hundies or lending money. Those who do not accept deposits were to be treated as money lenders.”

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Write the names of two parts capital market ?
Answer:
There are two parts of capital market:

  1. Capital market.
  2. Money market.

Question 3.
What do you mean by stock exchange ?
Answer:
A stock exchange is a place for the purchase and sale of its industrial and financial curities Shares, debentures, funds etc.) take place.

Question 4.
What is the full form of SEBI ?
Answer:
Full form of SEBI is : Securities and Exchange board of India.

Question 5.
Mfiatdo you mean by money market ?
Answer:
Money market refers to that market where transaction of lending and borrowing of short term funds take place.

Question 6.
What do you mean by Treasery bill ?
Answer:
A treasury bill is basically an instrument of short-term borrowing by the government of India maturing in less than one year.

Question 7.
Write the elements of money market.
Answer:

  1. Central bank.
  2. Commercial banks.
  3. Co-operative banks.
  4. Saving bank.
  5. Acceptance house.

Question 8.
Write two characteristics of Debentures.
Answer:
The characteristics of Debentures are :
(1) Debenture holder has the right to get interest.
(2) Debenture is merely a written instrument signed by the company under its common seal acknowledging the debt due by it to its holders.

Question 9.
Write three characteristics of capital market.
Answer:
The characteristics of capital market are :

  1. SEBI controls the capital market.
  2. In it, transactions in long-term funds take place.
  3. Capital market arranges capital in large scale.

Question 10.
What do you mean by secondary market ?
Answer:
Under secondary market capital is formed or received, from various sources. Generally it is called Stocks Exchange.

Question 11.
Whatis SEBI.
Answer:
SEBI was constituted by government of India in April 1988 as administrative body. It was aseparate body for orderly functioning of capital market.

MP Board Solutions

Question 12.
What do you mean by RAPO rate ?
Answer:
The rate at which reserve bank of India. Repurchase the government securities is  RAPO rate.

Question 13.
Write the name of index of NSE ?
Answer:
The name of index is called NIFTY.

Question 14.
“Blue Chip” shares are of which company ?
Answer:
Shares of a big prosperous company is called “Blue chip”.

Question 15.
In India how many stock exchanges are there ? Which is the oldest one ?
Answer:
There are total 24 stock exchanges in India. Mumbai stock exchange is the oldest one.

Question 16.
When preference shareholders can vote ?
Answer:
Preference shareholders generally don’t have the voting rights but the preference shareholders can use voting rights only in matters pertaining to their interest and not other matters.

Question 17.
What is debenture ?
Answer:
Money received as a loan is called ‘Borrowed capital’. The documents issued to the lender for money borrowed from him by the company is called debenture.
Debenture is merely a written instrument signed by the company under its common seal acknowledging in debt due by it to its holders.

MP Board Solutions

Question 18.
What do you mean by commercial bill ?
Answer:
Commercial bill is a bill of exchange used to finance the working capital requirements of business firms. It is a short term negotiable self liquidating instrument. Which is used to finance the credit sales of firms.

Question 19.
How is value determined in securities in share bazar ?
Answer:
Share market provides a platform for securities here forces of demand and supply work together. Thus value is fixed by securities.

Question 20.
What do you mean by Boli price ?
Answer:
The price which a customer is willing to play for securities is called Boli price.

Question 21.
Write the elements of capital market.
Answer:

  1. Development bank.
  2. Commercial banks
  3. Stock exchange.

Question 22.
Write the objectives of SEBI.
Answer:
The objectives of the establishment of SEBI are as follows :

  1. The main objective of SEBI is to provide security to the investors.
  2. To attract the savings of the people to the capital market.
  3. To keep an eye on activities of the brokers in order to control the capital market.
  4. To promote development of securities market.
  5. To provide efficient services to all the parties operating in the capital market.

Question 23.
What do you mean by Financial assets ?
Answer:
Debentures, Shares, Bills etc. are included into Financial assets.

Finance Market Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the importance of money market.
Answer:
Money market provides important functions and’ services which increases the importance of money market. The importance of money market are as follows :

1. Provides funds: Money market helps financial institutions, business enterprises to meet their short term funds requirement. This ensures smooth operations and functioning of business enterprises.

2. Use of surplus funds: If the capital of any enterprise remains unused that it will lead to business losses. Thus, through capital market the surplus funds are utilised time to time.

3. Helps in financial mobility : By sending the securities from one area to another and by investing money market helps in financial mobility. For the industrial and economical development of a nation financial mobility is essential.

4. Equilibrium between demand and supply : Necessary steps and initiatives are taken by money market time to time for maintaining equilibrium between demand and supply.

5. Economy in the use of cash : The use of cash is properly performed through money market. The procedure of this market is not complex that’s why unnecessary expenses are not incurred for the use of cash funds.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Write the types of capital market.
Answer:
Capital market is two types :

1. Organized capital market: In organised capital market there remain banks and different financial institutions in Indian capital market, Reserve Bank of India, State Bank of India, different nationalized banks, financial institutions, post office, savings bank, stock exchange etc. are included.

2. Unorganized capital market: In an unorganized capital market, indigenous bankers, merchants, personal investment, institutions as chit funds etc. are included.

Question 3.
What do you mean by Treasury bill ?
Answer:
Treasury Bill: A Treasury bill is basically an instrument  on mg by the Government of India maturing in less than one year. They are also known as Zero Coupon Bonds issued by the Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Central Government to meet its short-term requirement of funds. Treasury bills are issued in the form of a promissory note. They are highly liquid and have assured yield and negligible risk of default. They are issued at a price which is lower than their face value and repaid at par.

The difference between the price at which the treasury bills are issued and their redemption value is the interest receivable on them and is called discount. Treasury bills are available for a minimum amount of Rs 25,000 and in multiples therefore. Example: Suppose an investor purchases a 91 days Treasury bill with a face value of Rs. 1,00,000 for Rs. 96,000. By holding the bill until the maturity date, the investor receives Rs. 1,00,000. The difference of Rs. 4,000 between the proceeds received at maturity and the amount paid to purchase the bill represents the interest received by him.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
What do you mean by RAPO and Reverse RAPO Rate.
Answer:
RAPO Rate : RAPO rate is that rate at which RBI gives loans to bank for a particular period of time. A bank repurchase go  securities and is exchange receives wealth. Due to discount in RAPO rate the bank gets money at low rate whereas due to increase in RAPO rate the loan from RBI becomes expensive. If it makes loan cheper to bank it reduces the RAPO rate.
Reverse RAPO rate : It is a rate of transaction of short term loan, at which Reserve Bank of India takes loan from commercial bank within our country.

Question 5.
What do you mean by CD ? or certificate of deposit ?
Answer:
Certificate of deposit: Certificates of deposit (CD) are unsecured, negotiable, short-term instruments in bearer form, issued by commercial banks and development financial institutions. They can be issued to individuals, corporations and companies during periods of tight liquidity when the deposit growth of banks is slow but the demand for credit is high. They help to mobilize a large amount of money for short periods.

Question 6.
Differentiate between NSEI and OTCEI.
Answer:
Differences between NSEI and OTCEI:
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 2
Question 7.
What is the difference between Primary and Secondary Market.
Answer:
Differences between Primary and Secondary Market:
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 5
Question 8.
How many stock exchanges are there in India ?
Answer:

Recognized Stock Exchange in India :

  1. The Stock Exchange—Bombay (Mumbai)
  2. The Stock Exchange—Ahmedabad
  3. Madras Exchange Ltd.—Madras (Chennai)
  4. The Calcutta Stock Exchange Association Ltd.—Calcutta (Kolkata)
  5. The Delhi Stock Exchange Association Ltd.—New Delhi
  6. The Madhya Pradesh Stock Exchange—Indore
  7. The Hyderabad Stock Exchange Ltd.—Hyderabad
  8. Bangalore Stock Exchange Ltd.—Bangalore
  9. U.P. Stock Exchange Association—Kanpur
  10. Cochin Stock Exchange Ltd.—Cochin
  11. Pune Stock Exchange Ltd.—Pune
  12. The Ludhiana Stock Exchange Ltd.—Ludhiana
  13. Mangalore Stock Exchange Ltd.—Mangalore
  14. The Magadh Stock Exchange Ltd.—Patna (Bihar)
  15. Jaipur Stock Exchange Ltd.—Jaipur (Rajasthan)
  16. The Gohati Stock Exchange Ltd.—Gohati
  17. The Vadodara Stock Exchange Ltd.—Vadodara
  18. Saurashtra Stock Exchange—Rajkot (Gujarat)
  19. Bhubane ishwar Stock Exchange Association Ltd.—Bhubaneshwar
  20. Thiruva nanthapuram Stock Exchange Ltd.—Kerala.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
What do you mean by NSEI ? What are its objectives ?
Answer:
The I National Stock Exchange of India (N.S.E.I.) was established in the form of a public limit’ »d company in 30th November 1992 with a paid up capital of Rs. 25 crore. On its recognition as a stock exchange under the securities contracts act 1956 in April 1993 NSEI comment Jed operations in the wholesale debt market segment in June 1994. The capital market segrpent commenced operations in November 1994 and operations in derivatives segment commenced in June 2000.

It is an e exchange where business is carried on in the securities of the medium and large sized compar lies and the government securities. On the basis of the transactions of securities done on NSJ 31, it can be divided into two parts :

(i)Whole sale debt market

(ii) Capital market segment.
NSE i has removed the short comings of traditional share markets. It has attempted to provide be  facilities to investors.

Objectives of NSEI: NSEI is established for the following objectives :

  1. To reduce the transaction costs.
  2. To promote trading facilities for equities and debt instrument throughout the nation
  3. To reform Indian securities market in terms of market practices.
  4. To establish a stock exchange of international level.
  5. It aims at the settlement of securities, deals within short period through easy and quick process.
  6. To set up the agenda for useful and effective change in the securities market.

Question 10.
Write the importance of capital market ?
Answer:
The various characteristics of market

  1. Here transactions in long-term funds take place.
  2. In capital market, shares, debentures and securities are bought and sold.
  3. Capital market is emerging and well-organized.
  4. Capital market consists of different institutions having their own interest and limits dons.
  5. It is a Barometer of national growth and dynamic economy.

Question 11.
Write the importance of capital market ?
Answer:
Following are the importance of capital market:

  1. Capital market assist in national capital formation and development.
  2. Capital market plays important role in capital investors and money savers.
  3. Capital market provides liquidity to investors to invest securities.
  4. A number of financial intermediaries work in capital market such as banks, merchants exchanges etc.
  5. Capital market helps to generate savings in the country channelizing the same into small investments in different fields.
  6. It helps in the mobilization of capital.
  7. The goods- are found in market in the same way long term, medium term and short term loans can be found in capital market.
  8. It creates saving tendency among the public.
  9. The head of capital market is the Reserve Bank of India which is the Banker’s bank, it helps in controlling the credit.
  10. Capital market helps in the agricultural, industrial and commercial development of the nation.
  11. In various areas of business organisation capital is needed and it is fulfilled through capital market.
  12. Interest rates remain same due to organised capital market.
  13. Directors and managers of company also give loans when need
  14. Capital market fulfills the need of capital.

MP Board Solutions

Question 12.
Discuss some characteristics of primary market.
Answer:
The features/characteristics are :

  1. New securities : It deals with new securities only.
  2. Direct issue: Securities can be issued directly by issues on through intermediaries.
  3. Direct promotion of capital market: It promotes capital formatic m by use this funds is investment in plants machinery etc.
  4. Price determination : Prices of securities, generally, are determined by the management of the respective company.
  5. Place : There is no fixed place for primary market.

Question 13.

Explain the functions of Share Market or Stock Exchange.
Answer:
The functions of stock exchange are as follows :

1. Establishing fixed market: Stock exchange establishes a fixed place or market for securities because for the purchase and sale of securities a fixed market is necessary which is provided by stock exchanges.

2. Liquidity of capital : Stock exchange is completely a capital market. Different types of securities are purchased and sold here. That’s why an owner of securities can re convert this investment into cash. In this way stock exchange enhances the liquidity of cap

3. Evaluation: Stock exchange is totally a market of shares. Here there are experts to evaluate the shares and other securities. Correct evaluation of all the secretes are do  by the experts is possible through stock exchanges. Thus investors can safely invest with the help of stock exchanges.

4. Helps in capital formation for new companies : All the new companies need capital, which is difficult for these new companies to form. Thus, through stock exchange it becomes easy to form capital for such type of new firms.

5. Provides business information : Stock exchanges provide necessary information on about securities and capital market to all its members. These information are very useful ft or the member in knowing the general business trends.

6. Contribution to economic growth: Stock exchange encourage the people to their money is securities. This money is invested in industries which helps in the economic development of the nation. Stock exchange acts as a barometer of nation’s economic development and progress.

7. Protection of securities: Various types of securities are transacted in stock exchange. Every transaction takes place under securities contracts (Regulation) Act 1956. The interests of the investors are fully protected. The members of the stock exchange must follows the rules and regulation of stock exchange.

8. Publication : Stock exchange publishes different types of information useful in business. It publishes information in magazines, daily news papers, directories etc. related with stock exchange to common people.

MP Board Solutions

Question 14.
Explain the concepts of primary and secondary markets.
Answer:

1. Primary market : The place from where the public directly receives the capital first time as called primary market. Though this system the company issues new shares and debentures to public and forms capital. The ownership is transferred from company to the buyer. There is no fixed location of primary market. During the establishment of company the shares are issued and capital.is formed which is called primary capital. The capital which is received first time from the public through any medium is called primary capital

2. Secondary market: Under secondary market capital is formed or received from various sources and again it is invested this process is called secondary market. Generally it is known as stocks exchange where shares, securities etc. are bought and sold. Secondary market is located at a specified place. The secondary market creates a cluster of shares and stock brokers, underwriters and other well versed in financial matters.

MP Board Solutions

Question 15.
What services are provided by SEBI investors ?
Answer:
The following services are provided by SEBI to its investors :

1. Liquidity of Investment: A stock exchange ensures liquidity of investment by ready marketability of securities. Investors can avail of services of expert professionals who operate on the stock exchange.

2. Collateral Security : As the securities dealt in stock exchanges are negotiable they can be pledged as ‘collateral security’ for raising loans.

3. Safe and Fair Dealings : A stock exchange ensures safe and fair dealings in securities. It makes scrutiny before listing.

4. Educate the Public : Wide publicity of working of a stock exchange helps to educate the public. Investors are able to find out the market value of their investment. They can make a rational choice among various securities. Some stock exchanges publish data and reports. They serve as clearing house of business information and provide advice and guidance to investors.

5. Quick Disposal: Facility for quick disposal of securities at the stock exchanges helps to minimize the risk of investment in securities. It becomes possibility to diversify investments and risks.

Question 16.
What are its trading process of NSEI ?
Answer:

1. Placing the order : In this the seller or purchaser gives information about securities like name of company, price, number, time etc.

2. Conveying the message to computer : The terminal operator after receiving the order feeds it in the computer. NSEI established in all parts of our country continuous feeds the orders in computer.

3. Starting of matching process : As soon as the computer receives messages or orders, it starts the matching process. While matching orders, the best matching order is sought to be found.

4. Accepting orders : After selecting the best matching of buying and selling orders, its list is obtained on computer screen immediately. It tells us at what rate, time and to whom order has been transacted.

5. Delivery and Payment: The delivery and payment are made according to the rules of NSEI after the transaction has been settled.

MP Board Solutions

Question 17
What do you mean by OTCEI ? What are its objectives ?
Answer:
The OTCEI was established under section 25 of the companies act 1956 in October 1990. Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), Unit Trust of India (UTI), Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI), Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI), General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), SBI capital market limited and Canbank financial services limited are the promoters of OTCEI, The need of OTCEI was felt due to the existance of large number of new and small companies which remain unnoticed and consequently their shares remain largely untraded. The OTCEI is a completely computerised in which buying and selling of securities is absolutely transparent.
Control: The functions and activities of OTCEI is under the supervision of government of India and SEBI.
Objectives : The objects of the establishment of the OTCEI are as follows :

  1. To maintain the liquidity in the securities of small companies.
  2. To provide speedy solution to the problems of investors.
  3. To maintain the transparency of transactions.
  4. To bring the stock exchange within the reach of an ordinary man.
  5. To provide facilities for listing of small companies.

Question 18.
Write the special features of secondary market.
Answer:
Following are the characteristics of secondary market:

1. It creates liquidity: It creates liquidity in securities. By liquidity we mean changing of securities in cash very soon. This work is done by secondary market.

2. It comes after primary market: Under secondary market public do not get the capital first time, under secondary market capital is formed or received from various sources and again it is invested this securities are first sold in primary market and then in secondary market.

3. It has a particular place : Secondary market is located at a particular place which is called an exchanges. It is not compulsory that selling and buying of shares should be done through exchange also. Two persons can do it directly.

4. It encourages new investments : In share market the rates of shares goes on changing. To take advantage of this situation new investors enters this market which encourages industrial sectors.

MP Board Solutions

Question 19.
What is meant by money market ? Discuss its characteristics.
Answer:
Money market refers to that market where transaction of lending and borrowing of short term funds take place. It is divided into two sectors i.e., organised market and unorganised market. Organised market consists of Reserve Bank of India on the other hand unorganised market consist of indigenous bankers and money lender.
The characteristics of money market:

  1. Dealing in short term fund: Money market provides short term funds for use. By short term use means four period up to one year.
  2. Meeting short term financial needs : Money market focuses on meeting the short term financial requirement.
  3. Safety : The securities of money market and normally safe. They have minimum risk of default due to shorter term and financial soundness of the issuers.
  4. High liquidity: These are highly liquid because they can be changed into cash very easily.
  5. Types of Securities : Treasury bills, certificates of deposits, commercial bills etc. are issued for raising capitals.
  6. Control: Reserve Bank of India controls this type of market.

Question 20.
Write the characteristics of Treasury Bill.
Answer:
Following are the characteristics of Treasury Bill :

(1) Treasury bill is basically an instrument of short term borrowing by the government of India maturing in less than one year.

(2) They are also known as zero coupon bonds issued by Reserve Bank of India. On behalf of the central government to meet its short-term requirement of funds.

(3) Treasury bills are issued in the form of promissory note. They are highly liquid and have assured yield and negligible risk of default.

(4) They are issued at a price which is lower than their face value and rapid at par. The difference between the price at which the treasury bills are issued and their redemption value is the interest receivable on them and is called discount.

Question 21.
Write the features of call money.
Answer:
Following are the features of call money :

(1) Call money is short term finance repayable on demand, with a maturity period of
one day to fifteen days, used for inter-bank transactions. .

(2) Commercial banks have to maintain a minimum cash balance known as cash reserve ratio.

(3) The Reserve Bank of India changes the cash reserves ratio from time to time which in turn affects the amount of funds available to be given as loans by commercial bank.

(4) Call money is a method by which banks borrow from each other to maintain the cash reserve ratio. The interest rate paid on call money loans is known as the call rate. It is a highly volatile rate that varies from day to day and sometimes even hour to hour.

(5) There is an inverse relationship between call rates and other short term money market instruments such as certificates of deposits and other commercial papers.

Question 22.
Describe the function of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
Answer:
The functions of SEBI are as follows :

  1. To protect the interests of investors in the security market and to properly develops the security market.
  2. 10 regulate the business being done in the security market. .
  3. To check the function of stock brokers, share transfer agents, trustees, sub-brokers etc. and register them.
  4. To register and regulate investment schemes like mutual food.
  5. To carry on research work related with security market.
  6. To restrict and prohibit unfair and fraudster of trade practices related with security market.
  7. To promote and control self regulatory organization.
  8. To provide education to the investors related with securities.
  9. To check insiders trading in securities.

Finance Market Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the importance of financial management.
Or
“Finance is the life-blood of business.” Explain in any five points.
Answer:

1. Basis of success of enterprise : Irrespective of the size of organization, financial management paves the way for success of any enterprise, as proper management of funds is assured

2. Increases efficiency: Financial management ensures smooth running of enterprise, as it is essential in every stage of business. Finance is not only essential for promotion but marketing and winding-up.

3. Essential for determination of capital sources : Financial management helps identify proper sources of capital and raise appropriate funds required. Hence, it is very essential.

4. Determination of capital structure: Capital structure refers to the combination of various sources, or the ‘mixes’ of various sources of capital. It is the composition of various sources. Financial management helps in deciding the appropriate capital structure.

5. Best utilization of available funds: Financial management ensures best utilization of existing funds. Financial management consists of estimation of capital, raising of capital and use of it in a judicious way. Hence, the available funds are used in the best possible way.

6. Importance to the Shareholders and Investors : Shareholders and other investors always expect the safety of their money. They invest their small savings in shares and other investment channels and they should be informed of the rate of return they will get on their investments. This is possible through financial management only. In the absence proper knowledge about the return on their investments, the investors may suffer loss at the hands of brokers or middlemen.

7. Importance to the Financial Institutes : The fundamental function of financial institutes is finance only. Therefore, these institutes should possess the required knowledge about financial management so that there is a proper balance between the safety of their money (capital) and its liquidity.

8. Importance to the Employees : Finance management leads to growth of an enterprise and it earns more profit. With growth in profit of the enterprise, the employees will be benefited. Therefore, financial management has both direct and indirect importance for the employees.

9. National Importance : Every developed or developing nation must possess the knowledge of proper financial management. This is the reason why a person having financial expertise is chosen as the finance ministry of the country. The importance of financial management becomes even more important in countries like India which have shortage of finance.

10. Importance to other Persons : Knowledge of financial management is also important for other persons like economists, mercantile experts, brokers, middlemen, politicians because every person in a society has to deal with finance. A person may hurt his financial planning in the absence of knowledge of financial management. Therefore, knowledge of financial management is necessary for every member of the society.

MP Board Solutions

Questions 2.
Write the importance of personnel management.
Answer:
The importance of personnel management can be stated as follows :

1. To achieve targets: Targets of an enterprise can be achieved only if the personnel working in any enterprise are fully satisfied. This is possible if there exists a department to look after the requirements and pacify the grievances of personnel.

2. To face competition : In today’s cut throat competition, it is very hard to be ‘the best’. Mentally satisfied and physically strong personnel ensures that the targets are achieved on time and this work is done by personnel management.

3. Overall personality development: Under the guidance of personnel management, the employees live together and work with full cooperation and under proper discipline. It results in the overall development of the employees.

4. Universal need: For proper development of an enterprise and its success, a personnel management is essential. It is also essential for industries, profession, etc.

5. Increase in efficiency of employees: Proper training, good working environment, appraisals, rewards, etc. done by personnel management increases the efficiency of employees which ultimately helps the organization to achieve its predetermined objects.

Question 3.
Discuss the factors determine working capital requirements of a business enterprises.
Answer:
The capital invested in current assets such as stock of material and finished goods, bills receivable, short-term securities and cash at hand and cash at bank. The two senses of working capital are “Gross Working Capital” and “Net Working Capital”.
The factors which govern the amounts of working capital in a business are :

1. Nature of Business : Public utilities and service organizations require little working capital as sales are on cash basis. There is little time gap between production and sales and these enterprises do not maintain large stock of goods. In trading and manufacturing concerns, on the other hand large amount of working capital is needed to maintain stocks.

2. Size of the Business : The volume of business has a direct influence on working capital requirements. Large firms require greater working capital for investment in current assets and to pay current liabilities.

3. Production Cycle : The length or duration or production process also affects working capital requirement. Where production takes longer time, More working capital is required because more funds are needed for raw material, labour and other expenses. On the other hand, smaller production cycle need less working capital.

4. Turnover of Working Capital: Turnover implies the speed with which the working capital circulates in business. The rate of turnover of working capital is measured by the ratio of sales to current assets. More rapid is the flow of working capital, lesser is the need for working capital.

Question 4.
What is the meaning of financial management ? Give one definition of it. Write the main objectives of it.
Answer:
Meaning : Financial management is a functional activity of business management and it is a part of management. Financial management is responsible for the financial activities of a business. This is a group which deals with the finance, decision-making and formulating policies for the finance related activities of an enterprise. Financial management represents the wider interests of an enterprise and in this sense it is a watchdog of the enterprise. Financial management maintains coordination between sources of finance and their uses so that optimum utilization of the available finance could be made. Financial management includes cash flow, budget, credit, profit and loss, income etc.
Definitions : Different experts have defined financial management as under:

1. E.F.L. Breach says, “Financial management is that aspect of management which makes optimum and effective utilization of financial resources.”
According to a narrow view, the immediate objectives of financial management are to arrange for a suitable system for the organization’s liquidity, and profitability. But in a wider perspective, the objectives of financial management are to arrange for maximum financial facilities for the enterprise so that owners of the enterprise get the maximum benefit. Thus, main objectives of financial management have been proposed as under :

I. Profit Maximization : Traditionally, business is considered to be a profit-earning entity and profit has been considered to be the basis of measuring the efficiency and standard of an enterprise. Therefore, the primary objective every business is to earn the maximum profit. No limit has been demarcated as to what is ‘maximum profit’. Therefore, the following points should be kept in mind :

  1. Profit should be rational and justified;
  2. Social welfare should be kept in mind while earning profit;
  3. There should be a standard or decisive policy for earning profit;
  4. The profit earned should be used for social welfare also;
  5. Higher profit is a motivating factor for better business.

II. Maximization of wealth : It is a novel concept that value of wealth be maximized instead of maximizing profit. This will ensure growth of the business thereby benefiting the shareholders, managers, employees etc. With the increase in the value of the wealth of an enterprise, it will enjoy goodwill and will be stronger. Therefore, the objective of financial management should be to maximize the value of wealth.

III. Mobilizing adequate finance at minimum cost: The main objective of financial management is to arrange finance at minimum cost for the business because if cost increases than profit margin will reduce in business.

IV. Maximum rate of return : The objective of financial management is to get maxi¬mum returns on the invested capital so that shareholders can get maximum dividend and more interest can be given on debentures and apart from that various allowances can be given to employees.

Question 5.
What are the steps involves in trading procedure ?
Answer:
The Trading procedure involves the following steps :

1. Selection of a broker : The buying and selling of securities can only be done through SEBI registered brokers who are members of the Stock Exchange. The broker can be an individual, partnership firms or corporate bodies. So the first step is to select a broker who will buy/sell securities on behalf of the investor or speculator.

2. Opening D’mat Account with Depository : D’ mat (Dermaterialized) account refer to an account which an Indian citizen must open with the depository participant (banks or stock brokers) to trade in listed securities in electronic form. Second step in trading procedure is to open a D’mat account.

The securities are held in the electronic form by a depository. Depository is an institution or an organization which holds securities (e.g., Shares, Debentures, Bonds, Mutual Funds etc.). At present in India there are two depositories : NSDL (National securities Depository Ltd.) and CDSL (Central Depository Services Ltd.). There is no direct contact between depository and investor. Depository interacts with investors through depository participants only.
Depository participant will maintain securities account balances of investor and intimate investor about the status of their holdings from time to time.

3. Placing the Order : After opening the D’mat Account, the investor can place the order. The order can be placed to the broker either (DP) personally or through phone, email, etc. Investor must place the order very clearly specifying the range of price at which securities can be bought or sold, e.g., “Buy 100 equity shares of Reliance for not more than Rs 500 per share.

4. Executing the Order : As per the Instructions of the investor, the broker executes the order, i.e., he buys or sells the securities. Broker prepares a contract note for the order executed. The contract note contains the name and the price of securities, name of parties and brokerage (commission) charged by him. Contract note is signed by the broker.

5. Settlement: This means actual transfer of securities. This is the last stage in the trading of securities done by the broker on behalf of their clients. There can be two types of settlement.

(a) On the spot settlement : It means settlement is done immediately and on spot settlement follows. T + 2 rolling settlement’ This means any trade taking place on Monday gets settled by Wednesday :

(b) Forward settlement: It means settlement will take place on some future date. It can be T 5 or T + 7 etc. All trading in stock exchanges takes place between 9-55 am. and 3-30 pm. Monday to Friday.

Question 6.
Explain the various documents or instruments of money market.
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 6
1. Treasury BUI: Treasury Bill: A Treasury bill is basically an instrument  on mg by the Government of India maturing in less than one year. They are also known as Zero Coupon Bonds issued by the Reserve Bank of India on behalf of the Central Government to meet its short-term requirement of funds. Treasury bills are issued in the form of a promissory note. They are highly liquid and have assured yield and negligible risk of default. They are issued at a price which is lower than their face value and repaid at par. The difference between the price at which the treasury bills are issued and their redemption value is the interest receivable on them and is called discount.

Treasury bills are available for a minimum amount of Rs 25,000 and in multiples therefore. Example: Suppose an investor purchases a 91 days Treasury bill with a face value of Rs. 1,00,000 for Rs. 96,000. By holding the bill until the maturity date, the investor receives Rs. 1,00,000. The difference of Rs. 4,000 between the proceeds received at maturity and the amount paid to purchase the bill represents the interest received by him. ,

2. Commercial paper: Commercial paper is a short-term unsecured promissory note, negotiable and transferable by endorsement and delivery with a fixed maturity period. It is issued by large and creditworthy companies to raise short-term funds at lower rates of interest than market rates. It usually has a maturity period of 15 days to one year. The issuance of commercial paper is an alternative to bank borrowing for large companies that are generally considered to be financially strong. It is sold at a discount and redeemed at par. The original purpose of commercial paper was to provide short-terms funds for seasonal and working capital needs.

For example, companies use this instrument for purposes such as bridge financing. Example : Suppose a company needs long-term finance to buy some machinery. In order to raise the long term funds in the capital market the company will have to incur flotation costs (costs associated with floating of an issue are brokerage, commission, printing of applications and advertising etc.). Funds raised through commercial paper are used to meet the flotation costs. This is known as Bridge Financing.

3. Call money : Call money is short term finance repayable on demand, with a maturity period of one day to fifteen days, used for inter-bank transactions. Commercial banks have to maintain a minimum cash balance known as cash reserve ratio. The Reserve Bank of India changes the cash reserve ratio from time to time which in turn affects the amount of funds available to be given as loans by commercial banks. Call money is a method by which banks borrow from each other to be able to maintain the cash reserve ratio. The interest rate paid on call money loans is known as the call rate. It is a highly volatile rate that varies from day-to-day and sometimes even from hour-to-hour.

There is an inverse relationship between call rates and other short-term money market instruments such as certificates of deposit and commercial paper. A rise in call money rates makes other sources of finance such as commercial paper and certificates of deposit cheaper in comparison for banks raise funds from these sources.

4. Certificate of deposit:Certificate of deposit: Certificates of deposit (CD) are unsecured, negotiable, short-term instruments in bearer form, issued by commercial banks and development financial institutions. They can be issued to individuals, corporations and companies during periods of tight liquidity when the deposit growth of banks is slow but the demand for credit is high. They help to mobilize a large amount of money for short periods.

5. Commercial bill : A commercial bill is a bill of exchange used to finance the working capital requirements of business firms. It is a short-term, negotiable, self-liquidating instrument-which is used to finance the credit sales of firms. When goods are sold on credit, the buyer becomes liable to make payment on a specific date in future. The seller could wait till the specified date or make use of a bill of exchange. The seller (drawer) of the goods draws the bill and the buyer (drawer) accepts it.

On being accepted, the bill becomes a marketable instrument and is called a trade bill. These bills can be discounted with a bank if the seller needs funds before the bill matures. When a trade bill is accepted by a commercial bank, it is known as a commercial bill.

MP Board Solutions

Question 7.
Write the objectives and functions of SEBI.
Answer:
Objectives : The objectives of the establishment of SEBI are as follows:

  1. The main objective of SEBI is to provide security to the investors.
  2. To attract the savings of the people to the capital market.
  3. To keep an eye on activities of the brokers in order to control the capital market.
  4. To promote development of securities market.
  5. To provide efficient services to all the parties operating in the capital market.

Functions of SEBI: The functions of SEBI are as follows :

  1. To protect the interests of investors in the security market and to properly develops the security market.
  2. To regulate the business being done in the security market.
  3. To check the function of stock brokers, share transfer agents, trustees, sub-brokers etc. and register them.
  4. To register and regulate investment schemes like mutual food.
  5. To carry on research work related with security market.
  6. To restrict and prohibit unfair and fraudster of trade practises related with security market.
  7. To promote and control self regulatory organization.
  8. To provide education to the investors related with securities.
  9. To check insiders trading in securities.

Question 8.
Differentiate between money market and capital market.
Answer;
Differences between Money Market and Capital Market:
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 3
Question 9.
What are the factors affecting fixed capital ?
Answer:
The various factors affecting fixed capital are :

1. Nature of industry : Fixed capital requirement largely depends on the nature of industry. When there is a need of land, building, machinery etc. in industry, the need of capital increases.

2. Nature of production : The requirement of fixed capital also depends on the nature of production, whether it is capital based or labour based.

3. Scope of business : If business is only a buyer or only a seller the capital requirement is less and if it is both the capital needed is comparatively more.

4. Expansion of business : If business is to be expanded in future then fixed capital is required in great sum. Due to modem machines and management the expenses increases. So capital requirement increases.

5. Preliminary expenses : The need of fixed capital will increase if the promoters at the time of establishment of company speed more on salary of promoters, establishment expenses, purchase of patent etc.

6. Attitude of management: If the manger wants to enter in the market as a major producer from. The very beginning than more fixed capital will be needed.

Question 10.
Describe the establishment, objects and advantages of Unit Trust of
India (UTI)
Answer:
Unit Trust of India (UTI):
MP Board Class 12th Business Studies Important Questions Chapter 10 Finance Market image - 4
The basic idea underlying the creation of the unit trust, as with similar trusts in other [ countries is to afford the small savers, a means of acquiring a share in the widening prosperity
based on steady industrial growth of the country through providing facilities for investment j which combines the benefit of wide diversification, a reasonable return and expert services I of management talent. The trust commenced its operations with affect from July, 1964.
Objectives of UTI

(i) It mobilizes savings of the community and channelizes them into productive investment. By promising savers triple benefits of safety, liquidity and profitability of investments, the trust encourages individual savings.

(ii) It gives everyone a chance to indirectly own shares and debentures in a large number of select companies and thus enables the investor to share in the widening prosperity of industrial growth.

Management

The trust is managed by a board of trustees consisting of 11 persons including some of the distinguished men in finance and business. The chairman of the board is appointed by the central Govt, in consultation with IDBI. The executive trustee and four other members : are appointed by IDBI. The remaining members are appointed by Reserve bank of India,Life Insurance Corporation and Commercial Banks.

Performance of Unit Trust in the Field of Investment of Funds

Investment of funds constitutes another aspect of operations of UTI. During the past 33 years of its life, the trust has been able to build up sizeable funds. As on 30th June, 1984 aggregating Rs. 1261-33 crores is collected. During the year 1983-84, the investable funds recorded funds recorded a marked rise of Rs. 391 -09 crore.

The cardinal feature of the trust’s investment activity has been to build a balanced flexible investment portfolio composed of corporate securities, Govt, securities and other investments representing fixed deposits with companies, advance deposits for shares and debentures, bridging finance, application money and money at call and short notice so as to ensure reasonable return with safety of capital and capital appreciation.

Units are gaining popularity because they are highly liquid in the sense that an investor can sell them whenever he wants.
Uses of resource : The fund of UTI has been invested in so many ways.
The percentage of investment is as follows :

  1. On shares and debentures of companies 55%
  2. On fixed deposits and other deposits in the bank 45%

MP Board Solutions

Question 11
What is the functions of finance management ?
Answer:
Finance is required in every field like business, industry, commerce, professional service etc. All persons working in these fields need knowledge of financial management. In each field, the person who manages and plans the financial resources is called the finance manager. A finance manager performs the following functions :

(A) Administrative Functions : All these functions relate to decision-making and the finance manager has to perform all these functions as the general functions. These are :

  1. To make prior financial estimates;
  2. To make financial planning;
  3. To organize the financial activities;
  4. To maintain coordination between different departments.

(B) Executive Functions: “The finance manager performs certain executive functions which are as under:

1. Arrange/Organize Finance: A finance manager has to find and arrange the various sources of finance required for the enterprise sd that, on the basis of the finance available, the operations of the enterprise may be carried on.

2. Allotment of Available Funds : The funds available with the finance manager are meant for requirements of the entire enterprise. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the finance manager to allot funds as and where needed in the enterprise.

3. Management of Assets : Under these are covered activities like purchase of current and fixed assets, arrangements for their safety, maintenance etc. Which are carried on under the instructions of the finance manager. The finance manager has also to consider, before allotting funds, the use and justification for the funds in different departments.

4. To Organize Expenditure : The finance manager should prepare budget estimates for expenditure required in the entire enterprise and invest the same in a planned manner. For this, the finance manager has to consider the expenditure on pay, interest, taxes, development activities etc.

5. Profit Planning : The finance manager makes proper planning for increasing the profits. He takes necessary steps to increase the profitability e.g., to fix proper prices, to control the costs, to control the expenditure, to exercise control on unproductive expenditure.

6. To Submit Reports: The finance managers submits various a few important reports from time to time which include report on availability of funds, monthly income and expenditure statement, position of balance of cash, a note indicating the financial position of the enterprise etc.

7. To Maintain Records : The finance manage has to prepare records of the various documents relating to finance and preserve them so that they may be used for future planning.

MP Board Class 12 Business Studies Important Questions