MP Board Class 11th Special English Essay Writing
Essay is an attempt which gives expression to one’s thought on a given subject. It is a written composition in well-arranged paragraphs. It deals with one particular subject. Students at school level are, not required to write elaborate essays in which great learning and loftiness of language is required. It is enough if they can write English in a clear, simple and correct style.
Remember the following rules to acquire good style :
- Simplicity. It means the expression of thoughts in simple language and simple words. High sounding words and complex sentences have no place in their expression.
- Clarity Ideas are to be expressed in such a clear language that it can easily convey the meaning to the reader.
- Originality. The language must consist of original English words and structure of sentences. Foreign words, Latinised style, colloquial phrases and slang in expressions must be avoided.
- Accuracy. Words and phrases should be exact. Wrong words and inaccurate expression give wrong or different meanings. Generally, they mislead the readers.
- Brevity. Brevity means to use the least number of words in expressing the ideas. Conciseness makes the language idiomatic and forceful.
- Unity. The sentence of a paragraph should have only one main idea. Unnecessary details must be left out. It saves the time of the reader as well as yours.
- Order. Clauses and sentences should have proper connection with one another. Loose phrases of sentences destroy the beauty of the style arid add to its ugliness.
3. Hints for Essay Writing
Following hints should be kept in mind while writing an essay :
- Use short sentences and write short paragraphs. They should vary in length.
- Be vivid in your description of anything. For this purpose comparisons and contrasts may be used. They dd not destroy the beauty of your description.
- Say everything that is necessary on the subject. Always keep your aim clear before you. Never write vague things. Vagueness corrupts our habit of writing to the point.
- Be clear and concise in your remarks.
- Write a neat and legible hand, ft is the key to success.
4. How to Write an Essay
When you are asked to write an essay on some particular subject, begin as follows :
- Understand the Subject fully. Have a clear idea of what you are going to write. Do not set to work before you understand the particular aspect of the subject.
- Collection of the Material. By putting intelligent questions to yourself upon the subject, collect material for your essay in hand. Note down the ideas as they strike you. After writing them to arrange them in order.
- Planning. Having collected ideas, begin preparing the outline. Group together the allied ideas and reject the unnecessary ones. Arrange them under a few main headings and’draw up a scheme.
- Having written the outline, begin writing the essay. Divide your essay in a few paragraphs. Each paragraph should deal with one healing.
5. Structure of an Essay
An essay can be divided into three parts :
- The Introduction.
- The Body.
- The Conclusion.
The Introduction. The introduction of the essay should be brief. A short quotation or a proverb serves a good purpose. The first sentence should be striking and interesting. It should be a keynote.
The Main Body : The beginning should lead naturally to the main body. We should deal with the necessary and relevant facts. The body is the longest and the most important part of the essay. It should be split up into suitable paragraphs of different lengths. The end of one paragraph should prepare the reader for the next paragraph.
Conclusion : The end of the essay must be as strking and interesting as the introduction. The least sentence should strike the attention of the reader, ft should leave a lasting impression on his mind. The end should be natural and not abrupt.
6. Errors to be Guarded Against
Avoid the following errors while writing an essay :
- Definitions/except in the case of any elaborate essay.
- Introductory remarks by way of showing one’s humility and thus exacting the sympathy of the examiner,
- Quotations, except from very familiar authors,
- Use of too many metaphors and similes.
- Repetition of words and ideas.
- Colloquial phrases of slang expression,
- Foolish abbreviations.
- High sounding words.
Now let us see the examples of essays.
1. A Visit to a Historical Place
I had a great desire to see the Taj Mahal, the most peaceful and matchless tomb at Agra. So I made use of the kind invitation sent to me by my dear friend in the summer vacation, ! had heard much about the beauty of the Taj Mahal anti had heard of how Mughal Emperor, Shahjahan had, at great cost built the world-famous tomb for his beloved wife, Mumtaj Mahal, as a token of his great love for her. It is said that it took twenty years to build it, and that twenty thousand men were employed to complete it.
I, with my friend, reached the Taj in the evening just before sunset. We went into the beautiful garden to enjoy its straight walks, tall dark cypress trees, smooth green lawns; beds of glowing flowers and its flashing fountains. There rose up before us the wonder of the world, I found it all of white marble; I enjoyed the sight of a splendid white dome rising up in the middle with four tall white marble minarets around it, one at each corner of the raised platform on which the peat tomb stood.
At a little distance, the Taj Mahal looked small and delicate like a fairy palace; but as I got nearer I saw how large and stately it really was. When we went up the marble steps the dome seemed to soar high up into the blue sky and the clouds which were red and gold with sun-set light. It stands on the bank of blue river Yamuna. The water of the river was all gold In the sunset glow and made the building look more beautiful than ever.
We went inside. We saw the marble tomb within, They were decorated with precious stones, and the beautiful screens of carved marble. There we thought of the beloved queen whose body lay below, and the great love of the King who had spent his wealth in putting up lovely memorial to her. The real tomb of the queen lies in a small room which one can reach by descending some steps.
This hall is charming for its most beautiful patterns of marble work. The pavement is made with the squares of white and black marble. Everything in this hall, i.e. walls, screens and tombs, are all covered with inscriptions from the Quran. There are also flower designs in laid with beautiful precious stones of different colours.
When it was full moon, I persuaded my friend to take me again to see the Taj. We enjoyed the wonderful moon. It looked like a building of pearl, or a palace made of silver. It looked to be made of white cloud. The shining white marble, the black shadows, the soft moonlight, the silence and the sweet-scented garden all made it a sight never to be forgotten.
The Taj has been described variously by the poets. It has been described as “Poem in Marble” or a “Dream in Marble”. The late world-famous and Nobel Prize Winner poet, Tagore wrote many poertis on the Taj Mahal, which are very excellent. No photographic description or portrait can describe its full beauty.
It is no wonder if visitors come from far and ne^r to have a look at the Taj Mahal in thousand every year. It is indeed one of the seven wonders of the world.
The Menace of Terrorism
My Views on Terrorism
Terrorism is the most talked-about news item in today’s life.
Every morning we come across sensational news and reports of acts of terrorism committed by terrorism in the world. Sometimes it is a murder of an eminent politician, sometimes it is the kidnapping » of an envoy by terrorists in order to blackmail a government to concede to their just or unjust demands. The highjacking of airplanes is a common phenomenon nowadays. Bomb explosions taking place \ in crowded areas is yet another criminal act of the terrorists.
These are many other forms of these anti-social or anti-national, inhuman activities. Fish plates are removed from the railway tracks, the wells or water tanks are poisoned by the terrorists.
These anti-social or anti-national activities are performed by the terrorists in order to call the attention of the National /Government or the world community on a certain problem and to get their just or unjust demands fulfilled.
Terrorism is an international problem which has clouded our lives and made them insecure. We do not know at what moment we may be the victims of a bomb explosion or a railway accident or the highjacking of aeroplane. No one has forgotten the Bombay bomb-blasts, the Godhra incident, Akshardham attack, WTC attack and very recently Russian Massacre.
We may classify terrorism into two categories : positive and negative. Positive terrorism is one in which the aims are good. For example, a number of Indian patriots took to terrorism against the British government to force it to grant freedom to India. The terrorism of South Africa and North Ireland etc. may be included in this category. This type of terrorism is understandable since its aims are good for mankind. But w^ would not recommend such means for even right ends. In order to secure the achievement of noble ends, right means must be employed, as Mahatma Gandhi did.
Negative terrorism is one in .which an. unsatisfied section of a community holds the entire community to ransom in order to get its unacceptable demands fulfilled.
Terrorism has no boundaries nor any caste, creed or culture. It can occur anytime anywhere in, the world sometimes without any intention. Terrorists have no human heart. They spare none not even the innocent little children.
No doubt terrorists are the person who has been created by our society. It is the misguided zeal of a few genius who are spreading it in the world. We must handle them with care otherwise the whole world will be doomed. There is a need to spread a public conscience. The whole world should fight against it unitedly.
3. Dowry—A Social Evil
Since the dawn of civilization dowry system has been prevalent in our society in one or the other form. It is one of the biggest evils of our society. It is an insult to the sacred institution of marriage. Parents pay huge sums of money so that their daughter may live a happy married life. The groom’s parents try to get the maximum from bridegroom’s parents. Unreasonable demands have been made by the groom’s parents and sometimes, the marriage ceremony is abruptly stopped in the absence of sufficient dowry. Fabulous amount of cash, refrigerators, cars, coloured television sets, scooters,and even houses are demanded in dowry. The parents of the girls, have to incur heavy debts in order to meet the demands of the greedy in-laws of their daughter. No wonder then the birth of a daughter is not liked by any Indian parents.
Giving a dowry ii a vary old custom. Even in the past, the parents of the girl have been giving dowry in the form of gifts. Its supporters give a number of arguments to justify it. According to them, it is a fine method of setting up an establishment for their newly-weds. Another argument given in support of dowry is that when the girl’s parents are quite choosy about the educational qualification, social status of their would-be son-in-law, why should they not share the expenses incurred in achieving the social status, because ultimately, it is their daughter who is going to be the beneficiary, Additionally, a daughter-in-law who brings adequate dowry with her commands a better respect from her in-laws. On the other hand, a bride without sufficient dowry feels insecure and uneasy, All these are absurd arguments and cannot, in any way, justify this social evil, There is point no setting up one establishment by upsetting the establishment of the bride’s parents.
Modem girls are educated and in many cases are not dependent upon their husbands for their upkeep. In their case, it is foolish to insist on dowry as the regular earnings are no less than dowry, A girl can gain confidence only from her merits and not from the dowry, It is duty of all enlightened citizens of our country to fight out this evil. We must rid our society of this curse. Anti-dowry Act has been enforced but if the people do not co-operate, the evil of dowry cannot be eliminated, As a matter of fact, all dowry seekers and givers shpuld be boycotted socially. Educated boys and girls should bow not to marry the sons or daughters of those who demand dowry,
4. Corruption In India
Corruption—A Cancer of Society
Corruption is a deep-rooted menace, that has eaten into the vitals of our society. There is hardly any sphere of social, economic, political and religious activity that is free from the corruption of some kind. Corruption has become so common that most of people have come to accept it as part of their life.
Bribery and corruption has increased greatly after 1947. The growth of democracy and industry, the system of licenses and permits for setting up enterprises, securing quotas of law materials, imports and exports and expansion of trade and commerce is responsible for the increase in corruption. Stringent laws against corruption have proved to be effective in curbing this evil.
Corruption flourishes as long as there are people who are prepared to give bribe and others who are prepared to accept it, directly or indirectly. Each one of us has a weakness for easy money. People are prepared to do anything or stoop to any extent of taking graft in order to maintain their so-called standards of living^ People who indulge in corruption maintain a double standard. On the one hand they accept a bribe and on the other they urge people to be honest and pure. Such hypocrisy compounds the offense. It is not difficult to locate the causes of corruption. Corruption generally breeds at the top and then gradually filters down to the lower levels. Gone are the days when people who joined politics were fired by the spirit of serving the nation. Those who suffered for the sake of getting their country freed from the foreigners, knew only how to make sacrifice. They had never expected any compensation for their sacrifices. Those were the times when only the selfless people joined politics. But unfortunately, the present-day politics has become a business like any other business. The modem politicians are no longer motivated by any lofty ideals. In order to win elections, they spend huge sums of money with the hope that after they are elected, they would recover much more than what they had spent. When the people in power indulge in unscrupulous practices, a common man also indulges freely.
Government after government have made promises to root out corruption from our public life but this evil has persisted of , course, there are honest officials but they are in minority. Let us as a nation contemplate seriously as to what will happen when our public life is loaded with corruption. A certain amount of introspection by those who are in power can only initiate the process of minimising the evil of corruption in our country. If the public in general is indifferent, corruption would continue to grow us like cancer.
5. My Favourite Game
Your Favourite Game
Game is a part of my life. Right from my childhood I have been a good player. I take part in all the outdoor games. Everyone has his or her own choices. Some like hockey, other like football, while many other consider cricket to be their best game. The game which I like most is football. I have my own reasons for liking this game.
Now you can ask me why I prefer football to any other game. Well, it can be easily explained. The main object of all games is to give us some exercise. This is one reason why football is my favourite game. It helps our body to grow. It brings a sense of discipline and a habit of endurance in us. A good football player is sure to succeed in any walk of life. He can make a great soldier to defend his country. He can be a clever statesman to run the government. He can continue to be a good sportsman if he is dedicated to his game. He can be anything because his endurance, sense of discipline has taught him to be himself and be independent of his mind.
But is there no other game which gives hard exercise? Surely none other except perhaps hockey. But hockey carries many risks for the life of a player. It also makes the player quarrelsome. He uses ‘stick as his weapon. On the other hand, in football, no such , risk is involved. One can go on playing without hitting anyone seriously.
Another reason of my choice is that it is very economical. It does not require elaborate and costly equipment. A ball and a well- leveled ground is all that is required to start our game. And then . it is easy to pick up its rules. We do not require any special coach for if is learned so easily by boys that they begin to play it a very young long before they are to play hockey or cricket. lt would not be an exaggeration to say that football is a game which one learns ^ at a very early stage of one’s life.
Like hockey or cricket, football is played by two teams of eleven boys. A team consists of five forwards, three half backs, two full-backs and one goal keeper. The player kicks the ball with his feet. But he may touch it wifh any other part except, of course his hands. The goal keeper, however, can use his hands as well. As a player may be tempted to push an opponent or go for a head of the ball near the opposite goal. So pushing and off side are regarded as a foul play. The penalty for a foul is a risk by a player of the opposite team. The fewer fouls you make, the more chance you have to win the game easily.
The game of football gives us good exercise. We have to keep vigilant and alert. It encourages team spirit. It gives a very good exercise to all the limbs of our body. It keeps us fit for all the times. No wonder then I have a special preference for my favorite game football.
6. A Cricket Match
Cricket is one of the most popular games of the present century. Of late it has become quite popular in our country. Go where you may when the cricket match is on, people are glued to their transistors or television, sets. It appears as if the entire machinery of the Government has come to a standstill and people are concentrating as to the performance of our national heroes, the cricketers.
Cricket has introduced in India a long time ago. Previously this game was played only by a few aristocrats. The Rajas and Maharajas only could afford this costly game.
In the last spring holidays, a friendly cricket match was played between the filmstars team and the cricketer’s team. It was played on the Indira Gandhi Stadium. A large number of spectators gathered there to witness the match. I am also very fond of this game. I also went to see the match.
The match started at 10 A.M. Messrs Derby and Dick acted as umpires. The cricketers plus team won the toss and began to bat. Their captain sent in Rohan and Chetan, two good opening batsmen to face the bowling Govinda and Rakesh.
They had a good start. Rohan could not face the strong and, sharp bowling of Govinda. He was bowled before the score was ten. In the next fifteen minutes Chetan was also caught in the slips.
The batsman who followed them played a steady game. Soon one of them opened his account with a boundary. He punished loose balls. He squares cut the off-balls beautifully to the boundary. He did not take liberty with the straight balls. But he delighted the spectators by hitting hard the loose ones. The bowlers tried their best to, dismiss the players. They kept good length and line of the ball. The batsmen remained at the crease till they had scored 60 runs. Rohan had caught one of them at the corner. The second wicket also fell quickly. After this our bowlers had an easy time. Our opponents could not stand against our hard hitting balls. There was a regular going in and coming out of the players. There were no less than five ducks. The rot did not stop till the whole team was out for a paltry 100 runs.
The second innings started with a new zeal after the interval. Our opening pair hit up 29th when one of them was caught in the slips. Rohan filled up vacancy and scored five boundaries. He was raising the score steadily when his companion went forward to hit a slow ball. He lost his balance. And he was stumped by the wicket-keeper.
Our next player was a good hitter. He sent the ball over the boundary thrice and scored a dozen runs quickly. The score went up to 70. Runs came in boundaries and occasional singles were also cleverly stolen between the players. Zafar and Ajay hit out powerfully between them and the score increased rapidly. It was a fine performance indeed. They were well set when one of the deliveries bumped dangerously high and Zafar, in trying to hit, gave an easy catch to the wicket-keeper. Ajay was also caught in the slips. The rest were easily dispersed off. And when the game came to an end, Film Plus team won by ten runs and three wickets. It was hard-fought victory for four players and the team should in praise of the team. We returned home clapping our hands and jumping merrily.
7. Science And Civilisation
Science has been the wonderful phenomenon for mankind. It has considerably altered the world by its wonderful discoveries and inventions. Revolutionary changes have been brought about which could not have taken place in the absence of science. It is science that produced and developed human civilisation. The process of science and development of human civilisation have run parallel. Science has been a potent factor to shape the history of man’s civilisation on earth. Our forefathers lived a primitive life, and we are now living in an atomic age. This long leap from the jungle to the atomic civilisation could be possible only through science.
The concept of civilization is different from that\of culture. Civilisation includes the physical development while culture signifies the inner growth. All the industrial, agriculture and technological developments, are the essential parts of a developing civilisation.
We are now living in a world of dazzling glitter. Machines have reduced much of the human labour and suffering. They are serving humanity like faithful servants. Ours is a push-button civilisation, which depends upon tools, implements and machines. There are specific features that make a civilisation full. The entire structure of civilisation stands on some solid factors. The first condition for a true civilisation is that it must include the fulfilment of the primary human necessities just as food, clothing and housing. It is a matter of proud privilege that the present generation is enjoying better living conditions. We have better clothes to wear, better and nourishing food to eat and a better house to live in than our ancestors. In this respect, we can assume an easy superiority over them. There is no denying the fact that it is science v which has made our living conditions better. We must be grateful to science for its many benefits.
The other factor which makes a civilisation meaningful and s useful is leisure. If a civilisation cannot provide leisure to the people, it is not a civilisation of human beings but of brutes. If a person is busy filling his belly from morning to evening, he -does nothing different from what an animal does. The poor fellow struggles for his survival throughout his whole life and this is what the people of hunting and pastoral age did.
Science has bestowed numerous gifts on mankind. Means of transport and communications, medical facilities, electricity, agriculture machinery, recreational facilities etc. are such gifts of science to man. The blessings of science have made human life smooth and easy. Unfortunately the gifts of science have not been shared by all human beings equally. No civilisation is complete unless the gifts of science are enjoyed by all. The gap between the rich and the poor has widened. This has hampered the uniform development of our civilisation.
Science has invited lethal weapons which can destroy mankind in a twinkling of an eye. The atomic weapons have multiplied. Science can take away from us in a moment what it has given to us during the last several ages.
The terror of war is always hanging upon our heads like the / Sword of Democles. The survival of humanity is facing a horrible peril. The future of our civilisation is uncertain if the^tomic weapons spark the Third World War. If science has made civilisation strong on one hand, it has made it weak on the other. If the gifts of science are not properly used, time is not far when we shall see the end of human civilisation.
8. Democracy in India
India is said to be the largest democracy in the world in terms of numbers. Democracy is the form of government in which people’s will is supreme. Since in the present day big countries, it is not possible for the entire population of a country to gather at one place and deliberate and control the whole affairs. Government is therefore, carried by the elected representatives of the people. Of all the political forms of governments democracy is considered to be all best. Democracy is therefore, the most cultured and civilised political institution.
Democracy is the temple in which there is only idol to be worshipped and that is the idol of the people. Democracy provides, to its people, freedom of thought, speech and action. Elections are held after a certain specified number of years. General Elections have been held in India for several times. It shows that the foundations of democracy here are stable. In comparison, in most of the neighbouring countries, like Pakistan, Bangladesh, sudden overthrow of Governments have been witnessed. Army rule has been imposed in those countries and people enjoy less freedom as we do in India.
It is not mere holding of elections that is important, but people in India have developed matureudgements. When they found that a particular political party failed to represent their feelings, people of India have voted that party out. In 1977, the Congress (I) was defeated at the polls. Within two and half years, when the Indian people felt that theanata Government was unable to deliver the good, they brought back Congress again. In the recent past, also many surprising political changes have been witnessed in the State elections. In Haryana and Punjab, the Congress was defeated at the elections. This is despite the fact that majority of the electorate is still not very highly educated. But by and large, people in India have developed matureudgement which is imperative for the success of democracy. The Indian electorate has once again voted the Congress out of power in the recent general elections. Very recently a new trend of governance has emerged in the sense that no political party could gain majority which resulted in the formation of coalition government continuously for two consecutive terms, – first by the NDA and second by of UPA.
It is a matter of serious concern that many drawbacks have crept into our democratic structure. Majority of the political leaders in our country have become corrupt and self-seeking. At times, one finds that democracy in our country is no longer the government of the people, for the people and by the people. It is only a handful self-seeking leaders who are ruling the country without any regard to the public welfare which should be the important aspect of any democracy. Once elected, the ruling party forgets the voters and starts filling up their own coffers. This is certainly not healthy for the continuance of democracy. When we compare Indian democracy with that in England, we wonder at our public morality. The I politicians here feel reluctant to leave their seats of power once voted by the people. For the success of democracy in our country, what we require is clean public life of the politicians. The recent scandals about the Fairfax and Bofors have given a shock to the democratic setup in India. If the people of our country are vigilant, only then there lies some hope for the future of democracy in India.
9. Problem of Unemployment In India
The Burning Problem Of India
Unemployment has emerged as a major national issue during the last many decades it has been increasing day by day. It is the burning question of the day. We find long queues before the Employment Exchanges. This problem of unemployment has been baffling our planners ever since we attained freedom. The population of India has already crossed the danger mark of 1000 million. Such an abnormal growth of population has belied all calculations and plans.
There are several factors or reasons that are responsible for the large-scale unemployment in the country. First, the population ! is increasing very rapidly. Employment opportunities have not increased with the rise in population. The rise in population must ! be controlled in order to end unemployment.
Education has reached the remotest villages of India. Educated persons run to the cities in search of jobs. We find many graduates and matriculates running after white-collar jobs. They do not like to work in factories and mills or in the fields. This has given rise to unemployment.
With the advent of automatic machines, employment opportunities in offices have declined. Moreover, educated persons do not like to work in the villages. To end this tendency factories should be set up in the villages. The young men would then stop coming to cities.
India is predominantly an agriculture country. There is no dearth of raw materials in India. We must make India an industrial country if we wish to control the mounting pressure of unemployment.
Most of the women too have taken up employment in offices and factories. This has decreased employment opportunities for the menfolk. The Government must plan in such a way that men are also gainfully employed.
Our system of education is not employment oriented. There is no vocational training in our schools or colleges. Most of the people do not like to work with their own hands. Small scale or rural industries have been badly neglected. Cottage industries can absorb most of our unemployed youth. Had we taken to rural V industrialisation, cottage and small scale industries instead of establishing big multi-crore industrial projects, the problem of unemployment would have been solved to a large extent.
Our Government is fully alive to the serious results of unemployment problem. New Education Policy lays stress on vocationalisation and the de-linking of degrees from jobs. Small scale industries are being set and educated youth are being given all possible encouragement to set up their own enterprises.
10. Educational Value of Television
Television and Education
Television is a wonder to our life gifted by science. It has become a craze in the present day world. I has both advantages as well as demerits. Educational importance of television cannot be underestimated. In all .the developed and developing countries of the world, television is increasingly being made an important aid to education. Its audio-visual quality makes education programmes more effective and interesting. Schools are making full use of its potential for imparting education. In our country, television is as yet confined only to the cities but slowly it is gaining popularity among the affluent villagers. In most of the schools in Delhi, television is being freely used as a useful means of education.
Everyone would acknowledge that television is the most effective means of imparting scientific education. The best teachers can teach the largest number of students in the most effective way at a particular given time. In subjects like science and geography, there are many things which can be shown on television rather than taking the students to these actual places. For example,‘the student can have the actual glimpse of snow-fall, on the mountains through the use of television. This demonstration of the real things is sure to have a lasting impression on the minds of the students, rather v than merely telling them about those things. Scientific experiments can be shpwn to the students with the help of the television, I Students can be shown the celebration of important national events like the celebration of Independence Day and Republic Day.
The students can listen to the important speeches of the national leaders on television. The actual scene along with the particular gestures of the leader will be remembered more vividly by the students.
Physical education is becoming an important aspect of modem education. Certain games can be taught with the help of television. Expert physical instructors can demonstrate the various body movements in various physical exercises. The popular T.V. programme presented by famous cricketers Sunil Gavaskar has become very popular among the budding cricket players. The Delhi Doordarshan makes it a point to show the direct telecast of all
important national and international sports events. Test Matches on T.V. virtually hold the entire nation’s work for the duration of the match.
Television can be very useful in imparting technical education to the students. Hence one can’t deny the fact that Television serves a major role in the field of education effectively.
12. Importance of Games and Sports
The real education is one which can make a student intellectually sharp, physically strong and morally sound. It develops and strengthens the three aspects of our personality-mind, body and soul. In this sense games and sports are the basic need of life. Unless the development of the mind and body goes hand in hand with a corresponding awakening of the soul, the former alone would prove to be a poor, lop-sides affair. Therefore, games and sports, must form an integral part of the education of our youth.
So far physical education has been neglected in our educational system. Games and sports have been woefully neglected in our schools and colleges. Our education has been concerned only with earning degrees and diplomas. No wonder then our youngmen have started hating physical labour. Our graduates who come our of out universities with gold medals are physical wrecks. It darkens their future completely.
Hence there is a need to change our attitude towards games and sports. Some people think that sports and games are unimportant things that people do at times when they are not working. They consider them only as amusement like the cinema or ^adio, such things, they think are harmful for the studies of a strident who must at all times continue to stuff his brain with facts and figures. In fact, however> sports and games are of great value, especially to students who work with their brains Tnost of the day.
Sports and games make oilr bodies strong and keep us healthy. Little brairr work can be done by an ailing person. A sound mind resides only in a sound body. Physical exercise is essential for health. Every nerve, every sinew and everyoint of the body gets strengthened through games. But a good health is not the only thing we get through them. They give us valuable practice in making eyes, brain and muscles work together. In tennis, for instance, our eyes see the ball coming,udge its speed and direction and pass this information on to the brain. The brain has then to decide what to do, and to send its order to the muscles of the arms, legs, and so on so that the ball is met and hit back where it ought to go. All this must happen with very great speed, only those who have had a lot of practice at tennis can carry out this complicated chain of events successfully.
Sport and games are also very useful for character training. In their lessons at college, boys and girls may learn about such virtues as unselfishness, discipline and love of one’s country. But what is learnt in books cannot have the same deep effect on a person’s character as what is learned by experience. Game inculcate in the ! players the habits of teamwork, discipline is being guided by a captain obedience to the rules of the game as interpreted by the referee or umpire and spirit of sportsmanship in taking the defeats along with victories with a smile. If we want a disciplined nation, we must give due encouragement to games and sports in our schools and colleges.
Recreational value of sports and games cannot also be denied. After a tiring day in the class room, in the laboratory or at your desk, there is nothing more refreshing than an hour in the field. A hot game of hockey, or a fast match of football and an exciting cricket takes off our fatigue. One feels fresh once again for any amount of work.
Games and sports thus must be compulsory for all students. Colleges and schools should have proper equipment and facilities- % for the students. The’ teams may win or lose, games play their wonderful role of making students active and agile in their life.
13. Computer that changed Our Life
Science has gifted us so many wonderful things that have affected our style of living and made life easy going Computer is one of- them that has played an important role in improving the conditions of advanced nations. We can effectively realise our dreams 1 through proper use of computers.
India declared its computer policy in November 1984. It has Opened, a new beginning of computer revolution in the history of India. The first computer in India was built in 1966 by Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. After a while Bhabha Atomic Research Centre added to computers in a series. Computers are now manufactured on a commercial basis. This has given a further momentum to the computer revolution in India. The establishment of the Electronics Corporation of India was a momentous event. r The use of electronics will not accentuate the problem of v unemployment. On the other hand, it will provide employment to a lot of people. Electronics can be safely and carefully made use of in agriculture, weather-forecasting and soil testing.
The ruling party made use of computer in the last Lok Sabha and Assembly elections. Computer played a great and important role in the analysis of election results.
The Government has established National Information Centre in New Delhi under Electronics Commission which is fitted with the most advanced and accurate computers.
The use of computer has proved to be very beneficial in banks. There are plans to fit computers at the main branches of all the nationalised banks.
The computer is being increasingly used in transport system. The international alirline have already got it.
Its use in Post and Telegraph, military corporate houses will revolutionise the working of these departments. The computer has been found of immense use in the statistical department for the purpose of data analysis.
Indeed advantages of the use of computers are many. They make calculations much faster and more accurately than in all industrial countries of Europe and USA, on a large scale: If data are correctly fed into a computer than it can check and correctly examine answer book at much faster rate. That is why computers are in use of practically all the educational institutions of the developed countries of the world, and developing countries like India are making increasing use of them.
14. Wonders of Science
Science is a tremendous concept. It has worked, wonders for us. It has gifted a number of wonderful objects. There are reasons to consider science to be blessing. Science has helped men to conquer the forces of nature. It has added new comforts to the life of men. It has made men superior to all other creatures.
It has made the rulers powerful because of gun powder. The life during the dark ages was unsafe. In those days looting and murders were common after sun set.
Faster modes of travelling and improved means of communication have established order and security. Today we can take lunch in India and supper in London. It has conquered distance. Similarly telephone, telegraph and wireless have helped us to save time .and send ‘messages at any moment. Through its devices it helps us and save time from kitchen to fields. Now man has a greater amount of lesiure.
Science has brought success in every field of our life. Man has almost conquered diseases. He has checked polio and plague. Surgery can now show miracles. By applying science to industries men have been able to raise the living standard of common people. Most of the people were naked. They were very poor. They had no food to fill their bellies. Like cats and rats died due to starvation, cold and over work. Science has now made large scale production. Almost every one is provided with common necessities of life.
As a matter of fact, a scientific invention cannot be blamed for the tragedy of man. After all an atom bomb does not prepare itself or explode on it own account. A discovery of science is lifeless, obviously, it can never control man. Seeing in this light, Science can * never turn out to be a master it is always a slave.
Men should always think of both the positive and negative aspects of discoveries of science. When man loses the moral values in life then he thinks of destroying innocent people. He also becomes one of its victims. No body should be slave to science” and an enemy to human civilization. Science should always be used for peaceful purposes. Science must be tackled wisely because any sort of mishandling can bring a doom to our life. Its devasting aspect is almost beyond control.
15. The Problem of India’s Increasing Population
Indian life has turned to be critical there are so many problems that have made us panicky. Increase in population is one of them. Famines, floods, earthquakes and riots often occur. The government is doing its best to solve these problems. But the population problem is the most dangerous. The population explosion has ‘taken a rapid stride in India. According to the Census of 1971, the population of India was 54.8 crores. It became 68.4 crores in 1981 and 84.4 crores in 1991. It has crossed 100 million according to the 2000 census report. This presents a horrible situation. The explosion of population has complicated the problems of poverty, illness, unemployment and marty others.
The population in India is growing rapidly. The advancement and expansion of medical science has resulted in the lower death rate. Along with it, the illiterates of our country give no thought to the national problems created by this rapid growth of population. The children are thought to be God gifted.
The population explosion in India has brought about many severe consequences. The health of the mother runs down and that results in the rearing or weakening, which make a weak, dull, illiterate and poor nation. Therefore, for the welfare of the family and the nation as a whole, it is very necessary to check the growth of population. Every citizen of India should try to limit his family. For this ‘Family Planning’ or ‘Family Welfare’ is needed.
Growth of population may be prevented by observing celibacy and self-control. But in the present day atmosphere, it is rather impossible. So the negative check have been chalked out by the government. Loops, Nirodh and contraceptive tablets have been invented. The government is making a vigorous propaganda for it.
People are being encouraged to go under vasectomy or tubectomy operations Family Welfare Centres have been set up in all parts of the country where ‘Nirodh’ and contraceptives are sold on nomial charges Or distributed freely. Operations are also managed there.
We should realise that the children are product of choice, not of chance or god gift. ‘We two and ours two’ slogan should be maintained by every citiien. We should be watchful for the future progress and prosperity oftfljihe nation and observe ‘Family Welfare’ programme. People should be educated to be wise to control this situation. There is a need for public conscience which alone can solve this problem otherwise a time will come when there will be no place even to stand on Indian land and nothing to eat for anyone in India.
16. India Ushering into the Twenty-First Century
Our young and dynamic late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi had promised to take India right into the 21st century. The tremendous progress that our country has made after getting independence gives us an optimistic picture of our country. If we compare the progress of these four decades with the country that sjndia was at the close of the 19th century, we would wonder at thfe difference. The present century has witnessed far reaching advances in politics, economics, trade, industry, education and science. We were a primitive nation of snake charmers and grass cutters at the close of the last century. Now we are a free nation and have our place in the comity of nations. Our economic growth rate is at par with that of many advanced countries of the world. Our scientists have acquired great name in the world of science and in no way inferior to the top-ranking scientists that the world has today. We have come to assume the role of a ‘big brother’ in the South East Asian Region and have earned a big name in the non-aligned countries of the world. Ours is the biggest democracy in the world. These are no mean achievements.
The Indian Government has launched ambitious plants and if these are sincerely implemented one can jolly well hope that in the twenty-first century things are going to improve still further. Indian economy has already shown significant growth rate of 5 percent per annum in a sustained fashion.
No doubt we have not been able to check the ever increasing numbers of our population but there are indications that educated couples are increasingly taking to the advantages of small family. If we are able to educate more and more people we can certainly hope to curb the, increasing trend of our population in the years to come. Once we are able to tame the monster of population problems, we shall be able to make our economic programmes more meaningful.
India is no more a large undernourished country of 1000 million. It is now a country which is more than self-sufficient in food- production due to vast irrigation project, a local fertiliser industry ‘ and green revolution. We have to take appropriate measures to meet the challenge posed by the frequent drought in some parts of our country. Such unforeseen calamities often push the wheel of progress backward. Our scientists are competent enough to find out a satisfactory solution to the continued dry spell occurring quite frequently. If only we are able to provide our laborious farmers with adequate means of irrigation, they can do wonders in the realm of agriculture. We can eliminate our dependence upon foreign countries in the matter of foodgrains.
Indian can boast of one of the best armed forces in the world. Equipped with the latest weapons, our soldiers are second to none in the world and they can defend the frontiers of our country ably. Ourawans have already shown their valour in the wars fought more than twice in free India. High technology is being used both in the civilian iand military sectors. We are self-sufficient in nuclear energy. Today India builds its own power reactors, heavy water and reprocessing plants and plans to add 22 reactors within the next 15 years to the 6 already in operation. The day is not far off when it will become second to none in Asia.
India is an industrial giant among developing countries. With an ever-growing internal market of 1000 million people, her industrial product have reached markets across the seven seas. It has also developed a technology appropriate for the needs of the third world. The performance of India’s private industrial sector has been exemplary and is still growing. If the industrial growth continues at this rate we will witness in the coming century as India which will be at par with many advanced nations of the west.
Indian villages are no longer the same as these were forty years ago. Government of India has been giving ‘top priority to rural development. All the Five Year Plans have been geared to improve the lot of the villagers. The schemes like Integrated Rural Development Programme are basically aimed at making our backward villages modern. Schools and hospitals are being opened in the villages to improve the lot of the villages and spread literacy among them. The. New Education Policy recently launched by the Government envisages opening of Navodaya Vidyalas at district centres. These schools would impart the most modern education to the village children who have hithertofore been ignored from such sophisticated schools.
India no doubt has shown the way of progress. Now it has attracted the attention of the-whole world as a largest world market. Even the USA has been trying to develop its good relation with India. It is our great achievement.
17. Value of Discipline
Discipline is a way which follow the order. No nation can be great unless its people are disciplined. Discipline in life leads to success. No country, school, college or home without discipline can function properly. Thus, it is necessary in all walks of life.
Discipline starts from home. Respect the authority is the base of discipline. Children must obey their parents and elders. Parents to love them and guide them properly.
Discipline is very necessary for the continuance of a well regulate and orderly life. It is needed and orderly life. It is needed in every shape of life. Its Importance in our country today is Very great. The freedom of the nation can be safe only when we Iedrn the lesson of discipline. Discipline is required for the progress and betterment of individual in his life. It is the guide and the guardian of a man’s life. All the great men risen to heights of success and glory by ordering discipline in their lives. Loose discipline in farmily, in the classroojn, in the army and field will lead to the path of ruin.
An indisciplined army is unmanageable. It will suffer defeat in the battle-field. Whereas a disciplined army fights unitedly and comes out victorious. The discipline of Indian army is well-known all over the world.
In a classroom no teacher can teach his or her students. It is for the class to maintain discipline. One learns discipline first at home and then in school. To obey set rules is discipline. In a family, the head can’t run it smoothly if the members don’t maintain discipline. In an assembly all the members must observe discipline if they want to do any goodob successfully and in time.
Discipline should be the way of life without which we will face complete chaos. We will make no progress at . all. It provides an order and perfection to our life. If there is no discipline in any field of life, there will be no progress. Even in family if we lack discipline it is sure to be doomed. Hence we need to discipline our life.
Infact discipline is very essential in all walks of life. In its absence there will be utter diorder, confusion and chaos. No nation can progress in its absence. It is the key to success. Hence, it must be followed by all.
18. Indian Politics Todajr
Politics of Coalition
At present Indian politics is under the process development. Although right from the time of freedom movenlent the processes on but during the last twenty years these have been a lot of changes. Due to selfish motto of political parties, the aim of getting power to rule things have gone the worst.
Indian politics has lost the real component of fair practice in politics. The means should be right and pure to achieve the object but in our country now the attraction of power is so much that no body cares for the means. For example, for winning the election they adopt all those malpractices which are immoral in our society. After election horse-trading goes on to capture power. Minister, officials and leaders of political parties adopt immoral ways and means to earn money.
After 1985 many cases of corruption were defected in public life in which leader, Government officials, servants, contractors, brokers and antisocial elements were involved. the fashion and tradition of commission increased the corruption in all Walk of life. During the last ten years there were a lot of scandals in which so many ministers, secretaries, directors, government officers and servants are found involved. The cases of share scandal, hawala, urea and chara are the worst which have opened the new chapter of corruption in public life. Though these scandals are mere examples, there are a lot such scandals which are still to be brought into light. Indeed there is a lot of corruption in our public life. Bribery has become a courtesy. No work is done without it. Almost all the measures adopted to control it have failed head long, because most of our leaders, political workers, government officers, public servants, contractors, brokers, businessmen, traders, industrialists are directly or indirectly involved in the cases of corruption. Some of them have been caught while the others are still beyond reach.
At present even the representatives of people such as some of the MLAs, MP’s and ministers, government officers and servants are following the path of corruption and they are making hay while the sun shines. The whole system has become so spoiled and corrupt that it needs well planned serious efforts.
As now-a-days no party is getting absolute majority at the centre so the politics of coalition is going on. It is giving us weak government moreover the country has to fall to mid term polls due to coalition politics. This new trend now seems to be the way of Indian politics. In coalition form of govt, no single party gets majority. Many of the parties form the govt. It becomes very critical for one to run the govt, and control the parties of different ideas.
For example two successive govt, had ruled India—one the NDA and now the UPA. This trend is not at all good to nation.
19. Communal Harmony
Amity between the communities in the country, and absence of any friction and tension among them is known as communal harmony. , In countries like India, it is very important, being a pre-condition to internal peace, which is essential for progress and development of the country. As we know, India has got multiplicity of religions and very nature of the culture is composite. But religion has never been a source of conflict between the comm.unities in Indian society. Mutual tolerance and high regard for other religions is an age-old tradition of the country. Still the vested interest has always been active to create disharmony between them. There were, however, not a single instance some years back where obstruction in religious performance has been a cause of communal riots. This phenomenon in the Indian context is politically motivated and has always been engineered by vested interests. It were there at thb time of the foreign rule as well as ih post-independence era.
Communal harmony as such is highly sensitive an issue and, cannot be soft-pedaled any more in view of our traditional values, composite cultural heritage and secular character of our state. But the main problem is how to maintain communal harmony at administrative and social levels. There is lack of political consciousness among the common people due to illiteracy. Secondly, antisocial and professional criminals have been playing a key role in communal riots and flare-ups as agents of vested interests and their hirelings. Finally, there is need of an effective mechanism to deal with it. Present mechanism is not so smooth. It lacks coordination and people’s involvement. The intelligence agencies report in advance to the District and State authorities about the communal tension and the element actively associated with growing tension and potentials of disturbances etc. But generally no action is taken and authorities wait for the riots. It is only thereafter that police move in for action and curfew is clamped to control the situation. During curfew arrests are made for violations.
For the last ten years Ramanambhoomi-Babri Masjid issue is a major root of communal disharmony. Muslims and Hindus are face to face with each other on this issue. In the earlier the communal riots on this issue have taken many lives in Gujarat. Three bogies of a train in which Ramsevaks were returning from Ayodhya were burnt by a mob of 2000 Muslim fundamentalists at Godhra railway station. In which 58 persons were burnt alive. Suddenly in reaction of it, Hindus started burning the properties and men and women in different areas of Gujarat.
To begin with, therefore, the first thing is to have a fresh look at it and amend our approach accordingly. Foremost in the process thus is resolute toil on the part of government to protect the foundation pillar of the Indian state. We must tackle the situation wisely.
With fresh approach to the problem fresh measures are also to be taken to deal with it effectively. The measures would include suitable amendments in the existing applicable law, pertaining to apprehension of breach of peace and criminal conspiracy against the state and people of India. A new mechanism involving individuals and social organisations on different levels to watch vigil over the situation replacing existing local peace committees will have to be evolved to help the administrative machinery in taking preventive and follow-up action in cases of attempts and conspiracy of breach of communal harmony. This will lead our country to the path of glory.
20. The Role Of Opposition Parties in a Democracy
In a parliamentary system of government the party or the group of parties commanding majority forms the government and remains in power as long as it enjoys the confidence of popularly elected’ house. Regarding seating arrangement, the house is divided into two wings. On the right-hand side of the speaker the ruling party or the parites are allotted seats and in parliamentary terminology these are called as treasury benches. While on the left hand side of the speaker, the opposition party members or parties are allotted seats. Parties and group on either side have their own elected leaders. The Prime Minister is also the leader of the House while the leader of the largest opposition party enjoys the status of the leader of opposition in the House. There is a prescribed procedure for this and they are accorded recognition of their status by the Speaker as per rule and regulations and establishment norms in respect thereof .”The government is free to determine the policies and programmes and make decision, so long as it retains power that is again subject to the approval of the House in a prescribed manner.
The opposition parties play very significant role in a democracy as representatives of the people who have returned them to the House to safeguard their interests. With this view, they criticise government in case the later ignore them or conceal facts and they resort to protestation in the House and at the public level. It counts very much for awareness among the people over the specific issues of national importance and raises levels of political consciousness among them.
Most impressive and dominant role of the opposition in a democracy is that of a ‘watch dog’ of the system. In such countries where there is a two-party system in vogue, the opposition party forms a ‘shadow cabinet’ to exercise vigil over the performance of the government. This is truer in case of United Kingdom. Two-party system is also in vogue in United States of America. Since there is no parliamentary system of government, the opposition party in the House of Representatives of the US Congress (the lower House of the Parliament) forms as many committees as the ruling party does and present their views over the policies and performance of the US administration in National and International. Affairs before the official committeesoint committees are also formed on important subjects or issues.
In countries where there is multiparty system in vogue including, India, the opposition parties try to cooperate among Mhemselves over particular issues. Arbitrary and despotic behavior of the government is checked by the opposition parties demanding information and debate in the House.” It is the opposition in the Parliament that has a very important hole of check and balance to play in the larger public interest and correct democratic practices.
Members of the opposition parties are also included in the advisory committees attached to the respective ministries. All the measures of the government connected with the respective ministries are discussed and finalized by them. Opposition plays a significant role in it through its recommendations.
Therefore, in shaping of the legislative measures, opposition has a say, or at least influences it. Still, if their recommendations are ignored, they have another chance when the bill is introduced in the House and debated.
Opposition in Parliament enjoys a good status and the members of the House have a privilege of raising such issues that are more relevant to the cause of public; more particularly when the government overlooks them or conceals the facts related to them. It is very clear, therefore, that the role of opposition parties is more vital to the healthy growth of democracy and in the larger public interest.
In extreme cases of confrontation, if the government is all powerful to crush the opposition, the later is potent enough to make a stir against the former and force them to exit by means of mass movement and agitation. Only then they can save democracy. Plato has rightly said, “The punishment of wise man who refuses to take part in the affairs of the government, is to live under the government is to live under the government of unwise men.”
Though the real role of the opposition parties is to appreciate the govt, in its progressive works and to oppose and control its negative role. But now the concept seems to have changed completely. Only to oppose the govt, has become their prominent role. It mars the progress of the nation.
21. Pollution: Need For Environmental Consciousness
The unsustainable life styles and consumption patterns of the industrialized countries have led to the worst environmental degradation. As far back as in 1992, Earth Summit at Rio deaniero highlighted the facts adding that poverty is the main setback in controlling and reforming of environmental pollution for the poor and developing countries. It called for a global partnership for environmental protection. Agenda 21 adopted at Reo deniers addressed the pressing problems of the day with over 2500 recommendations for action in social and economic areas, such as combating poverty, changing patterns of production and consumption, conserving and managing natural resources, protecting the atmosphere, oceans and biodiversity, preventing deforestation and protecting sustainable agriculture.
The major problems of the environment are recognised as global climatic change, ozone depletion, water and air pollutions, deforestation and resource, degradation. 23 billion tones of carbon dioxide is released in the air by burning fossil fuels causing Greenhouse effect. The Greenhouse gases are mainly contributed by the industrialized nations. By the middle of 21st century, earth’s temperature at present level of heat emission would go up by one to three degrees Celsius and the sea level would rise between 30 to 100 centimeters.
India has witnessed alarming environmental degradation in the last two decades. It is the sixth-largest and the second-fastest producer of Greenhouse gases. The key environmental pollutions related to industries in India are water pollution, soil erosion, ground water contamination and deforestation. Indian rivers are also suffering from high level of pollution due to enormous municipal wastes, industrial effluents and agricultural run-offs. According to expert findings, 70 percent of India’s surface water is severely polluted. As per government statement in 1992, 3/4 of the total waste water generation is due to municipal waste which is one half of the total pollution load.
Consequent to it, fresh water resources are depleting very fast and water-borne diseases are on the increase that account for 2/3rd of the total illness in India. Air pollution in India is the highest by vehicular sources to the extent of 64 percent, by thermal power 16 percent, by industry 13 percent and by climatic sector 7 percent. The average level of suspended particular matter, in Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and Delhi is very high and these are included in the list of 10 metropolitans of the world in respect thereof. These cities have reached critical level while Kanpur, Nagpur and Ahmedabad are hitting the same. Chennai is found moderate.
In respect of land pollution, it is disposal of solid and toxic municipal and industrial wastes. The per capita solid waste generation average in India is to the order of 360 to 400 gms per day. This waste counts for affliction of respiratory diseases.
In case of pollution control of environmental reform it is very important to note that a partnership of highly industrialized nations with the poverty stricken and developing countries is,a must for sustainable development. It implies the help of the farmer to the latter which includes transfer of latest non-pollution technology.
This has been the main stress in the Rio-Declaration. Inune 1997, Earth plus five summit was held in New York to review the programme adopted in ‘Agenda 21’. The conference concluded that the targets were not achieved—annual emission of carbon dioxide, blamed for global warming, continued to rise, fresh water scarcity remained, and depletion of forest cover was not being checked. In another conference, held in Japanese resort, Kyoto, in December 1997, to check global warming, participants agreed to meet binding targets between 2008 and 2012.
The steps to control pollution in India include environmental clearance for major industrial activities based to impact assessment before site selection. Introduction of unleaded petrol, low-sulphur diesel and higher emission norms throughout the country in a phased manner is the second significant step. Beside this, efforts are to be intensified further to control pollution in 22 industries in various towns and cities that are critically polluted. The industries are to comply with such emission and effluent standards as may be notified in a time-bound manner.
22. Forest and Human Life
Man is an important part of the biosphere. He has an intricate relationship with forests and trees. The biosphere and ecosystem are self-sustaining. Nature maintains a balance in land, water, air and all the living organisms in the world. Any imbalance in the tine biosphere is called environmental pollution.
The grand industrial development, the green revolution, the transport expansion, the rapid growth of cities and accidental management of natural resources have badly affected environmental balance. The pollution of air and water will soon reach a point when no place on the earth will remain safe. Due to large scale industrial and human settlements on grand scale many rivers have become gloomy and dark. The large scale industrial waters, and oil poured in the sea have started killing marine life.
Undoubtedly the modem technological development has been the main cause of polluting our air, ocean and rivers etc. It is a matter of great importance that our rivers are becoming dark. Fishes are rotting on the sea shores. Trees are withering and cities are filled with foul air. Toxic chemicals are finding their way into our food. When the normal composition of air is changed, air becomes polluted.
The main causes of air pollutions are
- manufacturing processes,
- agriculture activities,
- use of solvent and
- nuclear energy programs.
Combustion can be described in three types—
(i) Fuel-burning, transportation and refuse burning. All these three kinds of combustion release several types of gases. These gases pollute air. They also cause pollution. Chemical plants, metallurgical plants and plants for waste recovery come under this category. The polluted things released from these processes make the air unfit for human consumption. Agriculture activities are another source of air pollution. The use of chemical fertilizers and manures and burning of field waste pollute the atmospherical air.
Several types of solvents are used in spray-painting, polishing of furniture, dyeing, printing and dry cleaning. The solvents produce hydrocarbons which pollute air.
Various measures may be adopted to control pollution To trap smoke particles chambers should be made. Lofty smoke stakes should be built. Gases should be discharged through exhaust pipes higher in the air. Chemical industries should not be allowed to be set up on the banks of rivers. Waste materials should be subjected to anti-pollution treatment.
In view of the great danger to mankind, many countries in the world have passed laws to prevent pollution. But it has been seen that anti-pollution laws are not being obeyed everywhere.