MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Important Questions

 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Triticum aestivum wheat is:
(a) Haploid
(b) Diploid
(c) Tetraploid
(d) Hexaploid.
(c) Tetraploid

Question 2.
Man – made cereal is :
(a) Potato
(b) Triticale
(c) Triticum
(d) Sugarcane.
(b) Triticale

Question 3.
In cattles, anthrax is disease is caused by :
(a) Bacteria
(b) Fungi
(c) Virus
(d) Ticks.
(a) Bacteria

Question 4.
The causal organism of haemorrhagic septicaemia as :
(a) Brucella avartus
(b) Bacillus sp.
(c) Pasturella boviseptica
(d) Clostridium.
(c) Pasturella boviseptica

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
Foot and Mouth disease of cattles is caused by :
(a) Fungi
(b) Bacteria
(c) Virus
(d) Mycoplasma.
(c) Virus

Question 6.
The disease caused after rainy season is :
(a) Black fever
(b) Haemorrhagic septicaemia.
(c) Ponkni
(d) Anthrax.
(c) Ponkni

Question 7.
The vaccination for galghontu is given to animal in :
(a) January – February
(b) March – April
(c) May – June
(d) October – Nov ember.
(c) May – June

Question 8.
The cause of plague disease of animals is :
(a) Fungi
(b) Bacteria
(c) Virus
(d) Mycoplasma.
(c) Virus

Question 9.
Example of cereal plant is :
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Maize
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.

Question 10.
Botanical name of common wheat is :
(a) Triticum aestivum
(b) T. vulgare
(c) T. durum
(d) T. monococcum
(b) T. vulgare

Question 11.
Wheat and rice belong to family
(a) Graminae
(b) Papillionaceae
(c) Euphorbiaceae
(d) Compositae
(a) Graminae

Question 12.
Padma and Jaya are the improved varieties of:
(a) Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Gram
(d) Groundnut
(b) Rice

Question 13.
Botanical name of Ratanjot is :
(a) Pongamia pinnata
(b) Ricinus communis
(c) Jatropha curcas
(d) None of these
(c) Jatropha curcas

MP Board Solutions

Question 14.
Fertilizer elements are:
(a) Nitrogen
(b) Phosphorus
(c) Potassium
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question 15.
Fertilizer that supplies least % of nitrogen is :
(a) Urea %
(b) (NH4) SO4
(c) (NH4) NO3
(d) Organic nitrogen fertilizer.
(d) Organic nitrogen fertilizer.

Question 16.
Fertilizer that supplies both nitrogen and phosphorus to soil:
(a) Ammonium sulphate
(b) Ammonium nitrate
(c) Urea
(d) Super phosphate
(d) Super phosphate

Question 17.
Nitrogen fixing organism is :
(a) Rhizobium
(b) Azolla
(c) Azotobacter and Azospirillum
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question 18.
VAM is :
(a) Bacteria
(b) Yeast
(c) Fungi
(d) Virus.
(c) Fungi

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks :

  1. The process of separating animals with desired characters for breeding purpose is called ………………………..
  2. Breeding between two genetically different animals is called ………………………..
  3. Anthrax fever of cattles is caused by bacterium ………………………..
  4. Ranikhet disease of fowls was first observed in ……………………….. district.
  5. Fowl pox disease is caused by ………………………..
  6. No. of chromosomes in Triticum vulgare is ………………………..
  7. Groundnut belongs to family ………………………..
  8. Botanical name of Karanj is ………………………..
  9.  ……………………….. is the first genetically engineered food.
  10. Rhizobium, Azolla and Anabaena are the examples of ………………………..
  11. Insecticides azadirachtin is obtained from leaves of ……………………….. plants.
  12. Insects harming plants are called ………………………..
  13.  ……………………….. bacterium is found in the roots of leguminous plants. (MP 2015)
  14. Nostoc and Anabaena are called ………………………..
  15. Bacteria responsible for N2 fixation is ……………………….. (MP 2009 Set A)


  1. Selection
  2. Outbreeding
  3. Bacillus anthraxis
  4. Ranikhet (Kumau)
  5. Virus
  6. 42
  7. Papillionaceae
  8. Pongamiapinmta
  9. Flavr – Savr Tomato
  10. Biofertilizers
  11. Neem
  12. Pest
  13. Rhizobium
  14. Cyanobacteria
  15. Rhizobium.

Question 3.
Match the followings :
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 1

  1. (c)
  2. (d)
  3. (e)
  4. (a)
  5. (b).

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 2

  1. (d)
  2. (e)
  3. (a)
  4. (c)
  5. (b).

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 3

  1. (d)
  2. (c)
  3. (a)
  4. (b)

Question 4.
Write the answer in one word/sentences:

  1. Name the type of vegetative propagation in the plants having bulb.
  2. Name the product of hybridization of two different species.
  3. Name the first man – made crop.
  4. Give one example of millet.
  5. Write botanical name of coconut. (MP 2013,17)
  6. What is called breeding between two closely related animals?
  7. In which animal Ranikhet disease occur ? (MP 2015)
  8. Name the causal organism of anthrax disease of cattles.
  9. Write the name of galghontu disease of cattles.
  10. Which hormone is used for production of milk in cows? (MP2016)
  11. Give the botanical name of any one cereal plants.
  12. Name the soil best suited for rice cropping.
  13. Give the botanical name of any oil seed crop.
  14. Give the botanical name of Ratanjot.
  15. Name the technique by which genetically modified plants are produced.


  1. Scaling
  2. Hybrid
  3. Triticale
  4. Rye
  5. Coccus nucifera
  6. Inbreeding
  7. Fowls
  8. Bacillus anthraxis
  9. Pasturella boviseptica
  10. Stilbrestol hormone,
  11. Triticum aestivum (Wheat)
  12. Clay loam
  13. Arachis hypogea (Groundnut)
  14. Jatropha curcas
  15. Transgenesis.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objective of animal breeding?
Breed referes to the group of animals having same ancestral characters, general appearance, size, etc.

Objectives of animal breeding:

  1. To increase the quantity of yield.
  2. To improve the desirable qualities of the produce.

Question 2.
Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which of the methods is best? Why?
The methods employed in animal breeding are :

  1. Natural methods: These can be carried out by inbreeding and outbreeding methods.
  2. Artificial methods : These are carried out by artificial insemination and Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET).

The artificial method of animal plant breeding is best as it ensures good quality of progeny. It is also economic and time saving process to obtain the desirable progeny.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?
Apiculture is the practice of bee – keeping for the production of various products such as honey-bee’s wax, etc. Honey is a highly nutritious food source and is used as an indigenous system of medicines. Other commercial products obtained from honeybees include bee’s wax and bee pollen. Bee’s wax is used for making cosmetics, polishes and is even used inseveral medicinal preparations. Therefore, to meet the increasing demand of honey, people have started practicing bee – keeping on a large scale. It has become an income generating activity for farmers since, it requires a low investment and is labour intensive.

Question 4.
Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.
Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value. Some commercially important aquatic animals are Prawns, Crabs, Oysters, Lobsters and Octopus. Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy. This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein. A fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas.

Question 5.
Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.
The major steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are as follows:

  1. Collection of variability.
  2. Evaluation and selection of parents.
  3. Cross – hybridization among the selected parents.
  4. Selection and testing of superior recombinants.
  5. Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.

Question 6.
Explain what is meant by biofortification.
Biofortification is a process of breeding crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and fat content. This method is employed to improve public health. Breeding of crops with improved nutritional quality is undertaken to improve the content of proteins, oil, vitamins, minerals and micro – nutrients in crops. It is also undertaken to upgrade the quality of oil and proteins. An example of this is a wheat variety known as Atlas 66, which has high protein content in comparison to the existing wheat. In addition, there are several other improved varieties of crop plants such as rice, carrots, spinach etc. which have more nutritious value and more nutrients than the existing varieties.

Question 7.
Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus free plant and why?
The terminal bud having apical meristem are the best suited parts of plant for making virus free plant because they are not infected by virus.

Question 8.
What are the major advantages of producing plants by nticropropagation?
Major advantages of producing plants by micropropagation are:

  1. Large number of plants can be grown in short – time
  2. Disease – free plants can be obtained.
  3. Plants that have lost the capacity to produce seeds can be grown
  4. The plants where sexual reproduction is absent, may be hybridised by tissue culture.
  5. Plants produced are genetically similar to the parent and have all its characteristics.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
Find out what are the various components of the medium used for propagation of an explant in vitro are?
The major components of the medium for in-vitro propagation are :

  1. Water
  2. Agar – agar
  3. Sucrose
  4. Inorganic salts
  5. Vitamins
  6. Amino acids
  7. Growth hormones like Auxin, Cytokinins.

Question 10.
Name any five hybrid varieties of crop plants which have been developed in India.

  1. Cauliflower varieties – Pusa shubhra and Pusa snowball K – 1
  2. Brassica varieties – Pusa swamim (Karan rai)
  3. Wheat varieties – Himgiri
  4. Rice varieties – Jaya and Ratna
  5. Chilli varieties – Pusa Sadabahar.

Question 11.
What is scaling? What are its importance?
It is a method of vegetative propagation which is applicable for growing plants having bulbs, (example Onion, Garlic). In this method, all the scales of bulb are separated and planted in the field (Soil) having all the necessary conditions for their growth. Here scales develop to produced small bulblets. About 3 to 5 bulblets developing from one scale. This method is applicable for the plants belonging to the family Liliaceae. example Garlic, Onion, Lilium, etc.

Question 12.
What is tissue culture? What are its objectives?
Tissue culture:
“Tissue culture is an experimental process through which a mass of cells (callus) is produced from an explant tissue and the callus produced in this way can be used directly either to regenerate plantlets or to extract to some primary and secondary metabolites.”

When appropriate culture conditions were provided, cell masses could then proceed along various developmental pathway, to regenerate shoot and root organs and eventually whole plants.

Aims of Plant Tissue Culture:

  1. To develop new plants from the plant organ other than seeds.
  2. To produce hybrid varieties of plants.
  3. To produce disease free plants from diseased plants.
  4. To reduce the period of reproductive cycle.
  5. Development of haploid plants.
  6. To develop stress resistance plants.

Question 13.
What is callus culture? Give its technique.
Callus culture:
Callus is the unorganised and undifferentiated mass of tissue. The plant body of higher plants is made of multicellular, well organised differentiated structures like root, stem, leaves etc. Sometimes the cells of these differentiated structures proliferate to form large mass of unorganized and undifferentiated cells which is called as callus and this process is called callus culture. In this methods, the isolated plant cells tissues or organs are cultured in nutrient medium in glass culture tubes or in petridishes under aseptic conditions. The cultured part is called as explant. The growth responses depend upon the source of the explant, composition of the nutrient medium and the suitable growth conditions.

Technique of callus culture : Callus culture involves the following steps :

1. First it is necessary to sterilize the plant organ from which an explant is taken. Sterilizing agents commonly used are mercuric chloride solution (0.1 w/v), sodium hypochloride (1.6 available chlorine) and a solution of bromine in water (1% w/v). Explants can be taken from seedlings (cotyledon, hypocotyl or root) or mature organs or from wood stem parts.

2. Wash the explant with distilled water, cut small pieces of it and transfer it on suitable culture medium. Agar agar is used for making culture medium. The culture media was supplemented with amino acids, vitamins, kinetin or other growth factor. An auxin and usually a cytokinin promote high growth rate of callus.

MP Board Solutions

Question 14.
Why aeration is essential in the process of tissue culture?
For any living being, respiration is a must. Through respiration only it can perform various activities. Oxygen is necessary for respiration.Tissue culture also needs oxygen, then only it can grow. Aeration provides oxygen to the plant parts, thus aeration is essential in the process of tissue culture.

Question 15.
What is inbreeding ? Give its advantages.
The mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4 – 6 generation is called inbreeding. It may lead to inbreeding depression i.e., the loss of fertility, vigour and productivity of the hybrid.

Question 16.
List the components which are present in honey. Name the three species of honeybee and write the chemical compositions of honey.
There are three species of honeybee:

  1. Apis indica
  2. Trigona species
  3. Malinopa species.

Uses of honey:

  1. In the form of medicine.
  2. In the form of nutritive food material.

Chemical composition :

Fructose – 41%
Glucose – 35%
Sucrose – 1.9%
Dextrine – 1.5%
Protein – 0.18%
Mineral salts – 3.3%
Water – 17.25%

Some amount of vitamins B, B6, Coline, Vitamin C and D.

Question 17.
What precautions should be kept in the process of incubation?
Incubatory period is 21 days in fowl, precautions of incubation of hens are as follows:

  1. The eggs chosen should be of good quality.
  2. Egg size should be medium.
  3. Colour of egg should be white.
  4. Eggs should be washed in water.
  5. Eggs should not be shaken.
  6. In summers, eggs should not be kept more than 30 days.
  7. At night, the fowl should be fed before incubation. Incubation of egg should be done by Indian fowl.

Question 18.
Give three significance of poultry farming.

  1. Poultry provide humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers.
  2. Poultry rearing and poultry farming is a good source of income.
  3. It provides additional income and job opportunities.

Question 19.
Give the characteristics of meat providing chickens and give two examples of these.
Characteristics of meat providing chickens are as follows:

  1. Size is big.
  2. They intake large quantity of nutrition.
  3. Theii feathers are loose.
  4. Their growth rate is low.
    Example: Australorps, Sussex.

MP Board Solutions

Question 20.
Write the examples of three freshwater and three marine water fishes and give its significance.
Examples of three freshwater fishes :

  1. Rohu
  2. Catla,
  3. Seenghala.

Significance of Freshwater fishes :

  1. Rohu (Labio rohita) : Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
  2. Catla {Catla catla) : Its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight.
  3. Seenghala {Mystus seenghala) : It is rich in iron and copper which is good for circulatory system.

Examples of three marine water fishes:

  1. Hilsa
  2. Pomfret
  3. Bombayduck.

Significance of Marine water fishes :

  1. Hilsa (Ilishaa species): It is rich in omega – 3 fatty acid.
  2. Pomfret {Sfromatus niger): High in vitamin D
  3. Bombay duck {Harpodon): It is the source of calcium.

Question 21.
Fish meat is better than other animals, why?

  1. Fish meat is better because it is rich in protein.
  2. Iodine is found in it which protects from goiter disease.
  3. It has low fat so, it protects our heart.
  4. Fat soluble vitamin A and D are found in much quantity.
  5. It is digestible. So, it is better for children.

Question 22.
Name the developed breed of cow and buffalo. Explain why buffalo milk is better than cows milk.
Developed varieties of Cow:

  1. Holstein friesian
  2. Jersey
  3. Ayer Shayer and
  4. Brown swiss.

Developed varieties of Buffalo:

  1. Murra
  2. Surti
  3. Bhadavari and
  4. Nagpuri.

Buffalo’s milk is better than Cows milk because :

  1. Buffalo gives triple qunatity of milk than cow.
  2. Buffalo milk is rich in fat.
  3. It has much resistance power.

Question 23.
What is the significance of sheep and goat? Give the name of three Indian species of each.
Zoological name of sheep is Ovis aries. It gives wool, meat and leather. Its Indian species are:

  1. Lohi: It gives carpet quality of wool and meat production.
  2. Bakharwal.
  3. Patanwadi.

Zoological name of goat is Capra aegagrus. It gives us both meat and milk. The three, species are as follows :

  1. Cashmere goat.
  2. Sirohi.
  3. Jamunapari.

Question 24.
Name the five species of chicks.

  1. Rhode Island Red
  2. New Hampshired
  3. Light Sussex
  4. Australorps
  5. White Leghorn.

MP Board Solutions

Question 25.
How foot and mouth disease of cattles spreaded? Write symptoms and control measures of this disease.
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease caused by Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV). It affects clovenhoofed animals including cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer and pigs. Since, it is highly infectious, can be spread by infected animals through contact with contaminated animals.

Symptoms of disease:

  1. High fever lasting two to five days.
  2. Animals become dull, eat less due to painful lesions in the mouth.
  3. Weight loss.
  4. Ulcer in mouth, foot and teats and causes wound thus, parts become painful and it fails to walk properly.

Question 26.
Give characteristics of egg laying chicken.
Characteristics of egg laying chicken are as follows:

  1. Their skin is soft.
  2. A gap of 3 – 4 fingers is there between pubic and keel bones.
  3. Their body is heavy in weight.
  4. Their vent is soft and moist.
  5. Their romb is well developed, red in colour and soft.

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Write the name of causal organism, symptoms of disease and control measures of ranikhet disease of fowls.
1. Ranikhet Disease : This disease was first discovered from the hills of Ranikhet (Kumau), hence called Ranikhet disease.

2. Causal organism: Virus.

3. Symptoms:

  • Difficulty in breathing.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Head, neck and legs are paralyzed.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Increase in the temperature of the body.
  • Secretion of mucilagenous substance from the mouth and nostrils.
  • The colour of the body become voilet.
  • Laying of egg is inhibited and eggs become ruptured.

4. Control and Treatment:

1. Isolation.
2. Died individuals should be immediatly burned.
3. Water should be disinfected.
4. Vaccination by ranikhet vaccine :

  • F strain vaccine given to 1 to 3 days old chicks.
  • Freeze dried chick embryo vaccine is given to 6 to 8 months old chicks.

Question 2.
Write the method and advantages of artificial breeding in cattles.
What is artificial insemination? Write its importance.
Artificial Hybridization:
It is a method in which sperms of male are injected into the reproductive tract of female ones. Where they fertilize egg to produce individuals with new characters.

Artificial hybridisation involves the following steps:

1. Selection of Parents:
It is the first step of natural hybridization in which male and female individuals with desired characters are selected. Usually healthy animals with desired characters are selected.

2. Collection of Semen:
It is the second step of artificial hybridization. In this step male individuals are stimulated mechanically or electrically so, that they release semen. This semen is collected in vials.

3. Preservation of Semen:
Collected semen is diluted with appropriate diluting liquid and is stored in refrigerators.

4. Introduction of Semen into vagina (= Insemination):
In this step, the desired semen is injected into the vagina of female individuals when they are heated. This technique was used for the first time by Spallanzani in 1780 in dogs. In India, this technique was used for the first time by Animal Research Institute, Eta Nagar (U.P.). More than 10 – 70% species of cattles are developed by this technique.

Precaution taken during insemination:

  1. Insemination should be done in appropriate period.
  2. Only high quality semen should be used.
  3. Correct technique of insemination should be used.
  4. The animals should be healthy during insemination.

Advantages of artificial insemination:

  1. Few semen of healthy males are used for inseminating many female individuals.
  2. The transportation of semen in ampules is easier.
  3. The problem of availability of suitable males is solved by the development of this technique.
  4. Cattles with desired characters should be used.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
How can we provide high living standards for poultry farming?
The steps for providing high living standards are as follows:

  1. Protection
  2. Provide proper places
  3. Necessary facility
  4. Cheap and comfortable
  5. Clean
  6. Facility of water and light
  7. Nearness from market
  8. Protection from parasites and other insects.

While the construction of poultry farms see that they are made of low prices and keep in mind the following things:

  1. There is no moisture left in the farm.
  2. Farm should be in a place where there is proper sunlight because microorganism can not grow in this situation.
  3. There should be proper aeration facility because there are no sweat glands present in fowls as they release moisture by
  4. the process of breathing.
  5. There should be cleanliness in farm.
  6. Fowl is a feable bird who has lots of enemies this is the reason they should be defended.

Question 4.
What is aquaculture? Describe various steps of aquaculture.
The culture of useful aquatic organisms specially animals is called as aquaculture.

Steps involved in aquaculture (Fishery):
Four types of ponds are required for the culture of fished at commercial level.

  1. Hatchery tank : For fish culture first of all fish seeds are sown in hatchery tank.
  2. Nursing tank : After hatching, small fishes are transferred to the nursing tank.
  3. Rearing tank : When fishes attain a size of 2 – 3 inches than they are transferred into the rearing tank.
  4. Storage or Stocking tank : After attaining Suitable size, these fishes are transferred into the storage tank where these fishes are stored and supplied to the market.

Question 5.
What is single cell culture? Explain paper raft technique and its application.
Single Cell Culture :
The culturing of a single cell on suitable sterilized culture media under controlled and aseptic conditions is called single cell culture. Establishment of a single cell culture provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the properties and potentialities of plant cells. Several workers have successfully isolated single cell division and even raised complete plants from single cell cultures.

Paper raft technique of single cell culture:
1. In this technique, the single cells are isolated with the help of micropipette and transferred on to the upper surface of filter paper resting on nurse callus. These active nurse callus and the culture medium piovides growth factors to the single cells.

2. The single cells then divides and as a result of proliferation in them, the colonies develop.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 4
3. Colonies formed in nutrient medium are transferred to the subcultured fresh nutrient media. The callus developing from such single cells are called as single cell clones.

Question 6.
There is a scope for better prospects through aquaculture in the rural areas of Chhattisgarh. Discuss.
In the village area of Chhattisgarh ponds are developed. In all villages and towns of Chhattisgarh many ponds can be seen. Canals, dams and water reservoirs are constructed for development purpose. These all sources can be used for progress of the state by scientific way.

Production of useful aquatic organisms is known as aquaculture. Various algae and aquatic animals such as fishes, prawn, crab, oyster etc. are cultured in pond Pisciculture, Prawn culture and Pearl culture are various main culture of aquaculture. Pisciculture is rearing and management of fishes. Prawn culture is production of prawn. Pearl culture is rearing and management of oyster for pearl production. All these productions has commercial importance.

MP Board Solutions

Question 7.
How can crop varieties be made disease resistant to overcome food crisis in India? Explain, Name some disease resistance variety in India. Give the method of breeding for disease resistant variety.
Crop varieties can be made disease – resistant by conventional breeding methods or by mutation breeding. The germplasm is screened for resistance source or mutations are introduced followed by hybridization of selected parents. The resulting hybrids are evaluted and tested finally, disease resistant varieties are released.

Disease resistant variety of:

  1. Wheat to leaf and stripe rust – Himgiri.
  2. Brassica to white rust – Pusa swamim.

Methods to breeding for disease resistance:

  1. Hybridization.
  2. Selection.

These steps are involved it:

  1. Selections of breed from resistant source.
  2. Hybridization of selected breed.
  3. Selection of Hybrid.
  4. Evaluation.
  5. Testing of new variety and its production.

By hybridization and selection some fungi, bacteria and viruses can be disease resistant. These varieties given below :

Table : Disease resistant variety of crops.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 5

Question 8.
How is plant breeding helpful to provide resistance to pests?
Plant breeding for developing resistance to insect pests:

1. The host crop plants may be resistant to insect pests due to the morphological, biochemical or physiological characteristics.

2. Some characteristics that lead to pest resistance are :

Hairy leaves in plant example resistance to Jassids in cotton and cereal leaf beetle in wheat.
Solid stem in wheat exhibits non – preference by stem sawfly.
In cotton, smooth leaf and absence of nectar repel bollworms.
In maize, high aspartic acid, low nitrogen and sugar content protects them from stem borers.

3. The steps of breeding method is same as for the other agronomic traits.

4. Some varieties developed by hybridization and selection are as follows:
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production 6

Question 9.
Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
1. Animal husbandry evolves new techniques and technologies for the management of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that are useful to humans.

2. These methods can also be applied rearing animals like bees, silkworm, prawns, crabs, fishes birds, pigs, cattle, sheep and camels for their products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

Question 10.
If your family owned a diary farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
Dairy farm management deals with processes which aim at improving the quality and quantity of milk production. Milk production is primarily dependent on choosing improved cattle breeds, provision of proper feed for cattle, maintaining proper shelter facilities and regular cleaning of cattle. Choosing improved cattle breeds is an important factor of cattle management. Hybrid cattle breeds are produced for improved productivity.

Therefore, it is essential that hybrid cattle breeds should have a combination of various desirable genes such, as high milk production and high resistance to diseases, Cattle should also be given healthy and nutritious food consisting of roughage, fibre concentrates and high levels of proteins and other nutrients. Cattle’s should be housed in proper cattle-houses and should be kept in well ventilated roofs to prevent them from harsh weather conditions such as heat, cold and rain. Regular baths and proper brushing should be ensured to control diseases. Also, time – to – time check – ups by a veterinary doctor for symptoms of various diseases should be undertaken.

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions

Leave a Comment