In this article, we will share MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management Pdf, These solutions are solved subject experts from the latest edition books.
MP Board Class 8th Science Solutions Chapter 1 Crop Production and Management
MP Board Class 8th Science Crop Production and Management NCERT Textbook Exercises
Select the correct word from the follow¬ing list and fill in the blanks: float, water, crop, nutrients, preparation
(a) The same kind of plants grown and cultivated on a large scale at a place is called …………
(b) The first step before growing crops is of the soil.
(c) Damaged seeds would on top of the water.
(d) For growing a crop, sufficient sunlight and …………. and ……… from the soil are essential.
(d) water, nutrients.
Match items in column ‘A’ with those in column ‘B.
|(i) Kharif crops||(a) food for cattle|
|(ii) Rabi crops||(b) urea and superphosphate|
|(iii) Chemical fertilizers||(c) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste|
|(iv) Organic manure||(d) Wheat, gram, pea|
|(e) Paddy and maize|
|(i) Kharif crops||(e) Paddy and maize|
|(ii) Rabi crops||(d) Wheat, gram, pea|
|(iii) Chemical fertilizers||(b) urea and superphosphate|
|(iv) Organic manure||(c) Animal excreta, cow dung, urine and plant waste|
Gine two examples of each.
(a) Kharif crop
(b) Rabi crop.
(a) Examples of Kharif crop – maize and paddy.
(b) Examples of rabi crop – wheat and mustard.
Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following:
(a) Preparation of soil
(a) Preparation of soil: It is the first step before growing a crop. First task in the process is to turn the soil and loosen it. This allows the roots to penetrate deep in the soil. The process of loosening and turning of soil is called tilling or ploughing which is done by a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron. If the soil is very dry, it may need watering before ploughing. The plough hed fields may have big pieces of soil called crumbs. These crumbs are broken and the field is leveled for sowing and for irrigation.
(b) Sowing: It is the process of putting seeds in the soil. For this purpose, good quality seeds are selected which are clean, healthy, of good variety and give a high yield. Tools for sowing seeds are traditional tools shaped like funnel and a seed drill. An appropriate distance between the seeds is also important to avoid overcrowding of plants.
(c) Weeding: In a crop field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These are called weeds. Weeds are to be removed to protect the crops. The process of removal of weeds is called weeding. If weeding is not done, the growth of the crop is adversely affected. Some weeds are poisonous for animals and human beings. Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds, which may then dry up and get mixed with the soil. The weeds must be removed before they produce flowers and seeds. They are removed either manually or by using weedicides.
(d) Threshing: When the crop mature, they are cut. This process is called harvesting. After harvesting the crops are threshed for removing grain seeds from the chaff. This is carried out with the help of a machine called combine, which is in fact a combined harvester and thresher.
Explain how fertilizers are different from manure?
What is irrigation? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water?
Irrigation means supply of water to plants at different intervals. It helps absorption of nutrient elements by the. plants from the soil. It is essential for i growth and elongation of the roots of crop plants. It is also essential for providing moisture for the germination of seeds. Water supplied to plants by irrigation provides hydrogen and oxygen. Irrigation is essential to increase 1 the number of aerial branches in crop plants which in turn will increase the yields also.
Modem methods of irrigation help us to use water economically. The main methods used are as follows:
(i) Sprinkler System: This system is more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available. The perpendicular pipes/ having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles.,It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for sandy soil [Fig. 1.1(a)].
(ii) Drip System: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. The system provides water to plants drop by drop
[Fig 1.1(b)]. Water is not wasted at all. It is a boon in regions where availability of water is poor.
If wheat is sown in the kharif season, what would happen? Discuss.
Kharif crops need lot of rainfall, whereas wheat needs winter (cold) season and not heavy rainfall. So if wheat were sown in kharif season, the crop will damage due to heavy rainfall as well as collection of water in the fields.
Explain how soil gets affected by the continuous plantation of crops in a field?
Soil supplies mineral nutrients to the crop. The nutrients are essential for the proper growth of the crop. Continuous growing of crops makes the soil poorer in certain nutrients. To avoid this, a method of crop-rotation is adopted, which maintains the nutrients of the soil intact.
What are weeds? How can we control them?
Weeds are undesired plants which are grown among crop plants. They absorb water, nutrients etc., of the crop plants. Therefore, their removal from the field is a must. Farmers adopt many ways to remove weeds and control their growth.
- Ploughing (tilling) the field before sowing the crop helps in uprooting and destroying the weeds.
- The weeds may be removed manually before they produce flowers and seeds.
- Weeds can be controlled by spraying certain chemicals called weedicides. These weedicides do not damage the crops.
Arrange the following boxes in proper order to make a flow chart of sugarcane crop production:
Flow chart of sugarcane crop production is given below:
Complete the following word puzzle with the help of clues given below:
1. Providing water to the crops.
2. Keeping crop grains for a long time under proper conditions.
5. Certain plants of the same kind grown on a large scale.
3. A machine used for cutting the matured crops.
4. A rabi crop that is also one of the pulses.
6. A process of separating the grain from chaff.
MP Board Class 8th Science Crop Production and Management NCERT Extended Learning – Activities and Projects
Sow some seeds in the soil and arrange to water them by drip irrigation. Observe daily.
(i) Do you think it can save water?
(ii) Note the changes in the seed.
(i) Yes, drip irrigation saves water as it does not allow the water to flow on sides and get wasted.
(ii) Seeds slowly get germinated.
Collect different types of seeds and put them in small bags. Label them.
Collect picture of some agricultural machines and paste them in a file write their names and uses.
Project Work Visit a farm, nursery or a garden nearby. Gather information about:
(i) importance of seed selection.
(ii) method of irrigation.
(iii) effect of extreme cold and extreme » hot weather on the plants.
(iv) effect of continuous rain on the plants.
(v) fertilisers/manure used.
MP Board Class 8th Science Crop Production and Management NCERT Intex Activities and Projects
Show the different sources of food.
MP Board Class 8th Science Crop Production and Management NCERT Additional Important Questions
A. Short Answer Type Questions
Agriculture is the branch of biology which deals with the production of plants and animals useful to man, involving soil cultivation, breeding and management of crops and livestock.
What is necessary to provide food for a large population?
In order to provide food for a large population – regular production, proper management and distribution of food is necessary.
The weathered superficial layer of the earth’s crust which is Capable of supporting life is known as soil.
What are the constituents of soil?
Soil contains both living and decaying plants and animals and microbes and their remains as well as inorganic minerals.
How is humus beneficial for the growth of plants?
Humus is rich in nutrients which are beneficial for plant growth. Being porous it also holds water and acts as a useful storage to serve in the dry months.
B. Long Answer Type Questions
What is the importance of microbes in the soil?
Microbes play an important role in agriculture. Many microorganisms -act as decomposers. They break down or decompose dead leaves, animal’s remains and wastes in the simple compounds and form carbon, nitrogen and other chemicals. They are also important in forming humus.
How is Humus formed by microbes present in soil?
Where there are dense layers of trees, the soil underneath them is dark coloured. It is made up of mixed organic material. This organic material is of partially or fully decomposed plant and animal remains and wastes. This is called Humus.