MP Board Class 8th Social Science Solutions Chapter 19 National Movement and Achievement of Independence
MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 19 Text Book Exercise
Choose the correct option of the following
When Rollat Act was passed?
(a) 7 April 1819
(b) 8 March 1919
(c) 2 January
(d) 6 March 1919
(b) 8 March 1919
Who was the Lt. Governor of Punjab during Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?
(a) Lord Dalhousie
(b) Lord Macually
(c) General O Dyer
(d) O Dyer
(c) General O Dyer
Who was the President of Swaraj Dal?
(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Chittaranjan Das
(c) Gopal Krishan Gokhle
(d) Dada Bhai Naorozi
(b) Chittaranjan Das
When Salt Satyagrah Movement began?
(a) 5 March 1931
(b) 8 August 1942
(c) 12 March 1930
(d) none of the above
(c) 12 March 1930
Fill in the blanks:
- 6 April 1919 was celebrated as ……….
- Simon Commission came to India in ………..
- Gandhiji undertook the ……….. to break the Salt Law.
- In 1940 the annual session of Muslim League was held at ………..
- Day of national dishonor
- On 3rd February 1928
- Dandi March
MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 19 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which title was given to Gandhiji by the British?
Gandhiji was offered Kaiser-I-Hind title by the British Govt.
Give names of the prominent leaders of Swaraj Dal?
Chittaranjan Das and Moti Lal Nehru founded the Swaraj Dal. Chittaranjan Das was its President Vithallbhai Patel, Chittaranjan Das and Moti Lal Nehru were its prominent leaders.
When the Second World War broke out?
The Second World War broke out in September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain also joined war in favor of Poland. The Govt, of India immediately joined the War without consulting the national Congress. The annoyed Congressmen in protest tendered registrations in the seven Provinces.
MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 19 Short Answer Type Questions
Why Khilafat Movement was started?
At the end of First World War, Turkey defeated by the British forces suffered injustice at the Lands of Britain. Khalifa was dethroned from his post. He was the religious head of the Muslims and Muslim community in India opposed this heinous act against Turkey. In 1919 under the leadership of Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Shaukat Ali, Maulana Azad the Khilafat committee war formed.
The objective of Khilafat movement was to protest against the injustice done to Khalifa and Turkey. The Khilafat movement was given full supports by Gandhiji and the Indian National Congress.
What were the major objectives of Swaraj Dal?
Main objectives of Swaraj Dal:
- To achieve Swaraj
- To interrupt official work
- To oppose the policies of British Govt
- To develop national awakening
- To enter Councils by election.
The members of Swaraj Dal Vithallbhai Patel, Chittaranjan Das and Pt. Moti Lal Nehru and other members jointly formed an independent forum and put up demands before the Govt. when the Govt, did not consider the demands they interrupted the Govt, working.
Why Gandhiji put off the Non-cooperation Movement?
Gandhiji withdraw Non-cooperation Movement because an excited crowd of people set fire to a police station at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh which caused the death of 22 policemen including as Inspector. Mahatma Gandhi was pained to see that the country had not understood the message of non-violence.
MP Board Class 8th Social Science Chapter 19 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe about the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?
There was a great resentment among the people on the restrictions on the entry of Gandhiji and other leaders in Punjab. This protest grew more intense when two leaders of Punjab Dr. Satpal and Dr. Saifuddin Kichlu were arrested without any reason by Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar. The people took out a peaceful rally in protest of this arrest. The police tried to stop the procession but failing to stop they fired.
After that the procession became very violent and people set houses on fire. The Govt, handed over the charge of Amritsar in the hands of General 0 Dyer on April 10, 1919. On the day of Baisakhi on April 13, 1919 a General Meeting was held at 4:30 p.m. in Jallianwala Bagh. Ten thousand people gathered there.
General Dyer reached there with 400 armed laced troops and without prior information to the crowd he ordered firing. The firing resulted in thousands of death and large number of people met fatal injuries. This heinous act of inhumanity hurt the feelings of Indians all over the country. They organised protests against British Government.
What were the key programmes of Non-Cooperation Movement?
In December 1920 in Nagpur the Congress session unanimously adopted the non-cooperation proposals mooted by Gandhiji. The movement was supposed to be fully peaceful. And to show non-cooperation with the Govt, at all level. The movements had two sides:
- To denounce Govt, posts and titles.
- Boycott Govt, schools and colleges.
- Boycott Judiciary.
- Not to pay taxes.
- Boycott of foreign goods and clothes.
B. Positive side:
- Establish national schools and colleges.
- To settle disputes by Panchayats.
- Stress on truth and non-violence.
- To promote Charkha for spinning and weaving.
- To enroll one crore volunteers to make the movement successful.
The Non-cooperation Movement was soon a success among the masses.
Explain the Civil Disobedience Movement.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930. The chief reasons were:
- Peaceful hartals, demonstrations, meetings, requests and appeal were not heeded by the government.
- Repression was let loose on peaceful people by die British Government.
- The leaders of the movement wanted to force government to accede to their demands. They wanted complete freedom for their country.
- There was no other alternative left but to disobey the British Government.
The defiance of the Salt Law followed by the spread of Civil Disobedience Movement. This Movement meant more than the violation of the Salt Law. There were held demonstrations, hartals, boycott of foreign goods, and later refusal to pay taxes. The lakhs of people participated in the movement, including a large number of women. The Government resorted to firings and lathi charges. As a result, hundreds of people were killed and thousands of them were imprisoned.
What is Cripps Mission? Mention about it?
The British Govt, desperately needed Indian support during the Second World War. The Southern frontier of India was being threatened by the importing Japanese forces. On the other hand, Indian National Army in Rangoon was awaiting to attack India through the route of Burma under these circumstances Stratford Cripps was sent to India to assure Indians about the future course and self-rule in India.
According to Cripps proposal dominion status was to be granted to India. Even a Constituent
Assembly was proposed but almost every party opposed this proposal on various grounds.
Write note on the Quit India Movement?
Quit India Movement was a call to the British regime to leave India for ever and handover its governance to its people. This movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1942. The call of Mahatma Gandhi was given a prompt and effective response by the people.
As a result of the movement, the British Government arrested many Congress leaders including Gandhiji and declared Indian National Congress illegal. On this, the Indians rose in open rebellion against the Britishers. They set fire to many police stations, destroyed post offices, Railway stations and other Government buildings. At this, thousand of people were arrested and while the other thousands were shot dead.