MP Board Class 6th Sanskrit परिशिष्टम्

MP Board Class 6th Sanskrit परिशिष्टम्

१. मम माता देवता
(मेरी माता देवता है)

मम माता देवता।
मम माता देवता॥
अति सरला, अति मृदुला,
गृहकुशला, सा अतुला॥
मम माता॥

पाययति दुग्धं, भोजयति भक्तं
लालयति नित्यं, तोषयति चित्तम्॥
मम माता॥

अनुवाद :
मेरी माँ देवी है। वह अत्यन्त सरल, अत्यन्त कोमल, गृहकार्यों में अति कुशल है अत: वह मेरी माँ अतुलनीय है। वह दूध पिलाती है, माँ के प्रति भक्त बने हुए मुझको भोजन कराती है। प्रतिदिन लालन करती है तथा मेरे मन को प्रसन्न बनाती है। मेरी माँ ऐसी ही है।

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सायङ्काले नीराजयति
पाठयति च मां शुभकरोति
शुभं करोतु कल्याणम्

आरोग्यं धनसम्पदम्।
शत्रुबुद्धिविनाशाय
दीपज्योतिर्नमोऽस्तुयते॥

पाठयति च मां शुभङ्करोति॥
मम माता॥

रात्रौ अङ्के मां स्वापयति
मधु मधु मधुरं गीतं गायति
आ आ आ आ आऽऽ
मम माता॥

अनुवाद :
सायंकाल के समय थकान से रहित करके प्रसन्न बनाती है। पढ़ाती है और मेरा कल्याण करती है। हे माँ, तुम मेरा कल्याण करो, मुझे स्वस्थ बनाओ तथा धन सम्पत्ति से युक्त करो। मेरी दुष्ट बुद्धि का विनाश करने के लिए तुम दीप की ज्योति के समान हो। (अतः) मैं तुम्हें नमस्कार करता, हूँ। हे माँ, तुम मुझे पढ़ाती हो, और मेरा शुभ (कल्याण) करती हो।
रात्रि को मुझे अपनी गोद में सुलाती हो। मीठे-मीठे मधुर गीत गाती हो, हे मेरी माँ।

२. नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना
(न तो क्लिष्ट है और न कठिन)

सुरससुबोधा विश्वमनोज्ञा
ललिता हृद्या रमणीया।
अमृतवाणी संस्कृतभाषा
नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना॥
॥ नैव क्लिष्टा॥

अनुवाद :
यह संस्कृत भाषा देवताओं की वाणी (अमृत वाणी) है। सुरस है, सुबोध है। विश्व के लोगों के मन को जानने वाली है। ललित है। हृदय को अपने आप में रमाने वाली यह संस्कृत भाषा न तो क्लिष्ट है और न कठिन।

कविकोकिल-वाल्मीकि-विरचिता
रामायणरमणीयकथा।
अतीव-सरला मधुरमञ्जला
नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना॥
॥ सुरस…….॥

अनुवाद :
कवियों में कोयल के समान वाल्मीकि द्वारा रचित रामायण की कथा अति रमणीय है। वह अत्यन्त सरल, मधुर और मञ्जुल (कोमल) संस्कृत भाषा में रचित है। वह कभी भी क्लिष्ट नहीं है और न कठिन है। (वह संस्कृत भाषा) सुरस, सुबोध और विश्व मनोज्ञा है।

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व्यासविरचिता गणेशलिखिता
महाभारते पुण्यकथा।
कौरव-पाण्डव-सङ्गरमथिता
नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना॥
॥सुरस……..॥

अनुवाद :
व्यास द्वारा विरचित और गणेश जी द्वारा लिखी गई महाभारत की कथा अत्यन्त पुण्यशाली है। इसमें कौरव और पाण्डवों के युद्ध का वर्णन किया गया है। उसकी संस्कृत कभी भी क्लिष्ट नहीं है और न कभी भी कठिन है। वह तो सुरस, सुबोध और विश्व मन को मोहित करने वाली है।

कुरुक्षेत्र-समराङ्गण-गीता
विश्ववन्दिता भगवद्गीता।
अमृतमधुरा कर्मदीपिका
नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना॥
॥सुरस…….॥

अनुवाद :
कुरुक्षेत्र के युद्ध में (भगवान श्री कृष्ण ने) विश्व बन्दनीया भगवद्गीता का गायन किया था। वह गीता मधुर अमृत है तथा कर्म की दीपिका है (कर्म को निर्दिष्ट करने वाली है) जिसकी रचना संस्कृत भाषा में हुई है। जो कभी भी क्लिष्ट नहीं है और न कभी कठिन ही है। वह भाषा तो सुरस, सुबोध तथा विश्वमन को मुग्ध करने वाली है।

कविकुलगुरु-नव-रसोन्मेषजा
ऋतु-रघु-कुमार-कविता
विक्रम-शाकुन्तल-मालविका
नैव क्लिष्टा न च कठिना॥
॥ सुरस ……..॥

अनुवाद :
कविकुल गुरु कालिदास ने नव-रसों के उन्मेष से संयुक्त संस्कृत भाषा में ऋतुसंहार, रघुवंशम्, कुमारसम्भवम् काव्य की तथा अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् तथा मालविकाग्निमित्रम् नाटकों की रचना की है जो कभी भी क्लिष्ट नहीं है और न कठिन है। वह भाषा तो सुरस, सुबोध तथा विश्वमन को मुग्ध करने वाली है।

३. सुन्दरसुरभाषा
(सुन्दर देव-भाषा)

मुनिवरविकसित-कविवरविलसित
मञ्जलमञ्जूषा, सुन्दरसुरभाषा।
अयि मातस्तव पोषणक्षमता
मम वचनातीता, सुन्दरसुरभाषा॥
॥ मुनिवर……॥

अनुवाद :
श्रेष्ठ मुनियों द्वारा विकसित तथा श्रेष्ठ कवियों द्वारा विलसित अत्यन्त मञ्जुल पिटारी सदृश सुन्दर देववाणी-हे माता संस्कृत-तुम्हारी पोषण क्षमता (अन्य भाषाओं को पुष्ट करने की क्षमता) मेरे वचने से अतीत है (परे है)। तुम सुन्दर देव भाषा (वाणी) हो जिसे श्रेष्ठ मुनियों ने विकसित किया है।

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वेदव्यास-वाल्मीकि-मुनीनाम्
कालिदास-बाणादिकवीनाम्।
पौराणिक-सामान्य-जनानाम्
जीवनस्य आशा, सुन्दरसुरभाषा॥
॥ मुनिवर….॥

अनुवाद :
हे सुन्दर सुरवाणी (संस्कृत)। वेदव्यास, वाल्मीकि, मुनियों, कालिदास, बाण आदि कवियों तथा पौराणि क और सामान्य लोगों के जीवन की तुम आशा हो। तुम्हें श्रेष्ठ मुनियों ने विकसित किया है।

श्रुतिसुखननदे सकलप्रमोदे
स्मृतिहितवरदे सरसविनोदे।
गति-मति-प्रेरक-काव्यविशारदे
तव संस्कृततिरेषा, सुन्दरसुरभाषा॥
॥ मुनिवर”॥

अनुवाद :
हे सुन्दर देववाणी। वेद में आनन्द पूर्वक ध्वनित होती हो, सम्पूर्ण प्रसन्नताओं को देने वाली हो। स्मृतियों में कल्याण का वरदान देती हो। सरस हो एवं विनोद से परिपूर्ण हो। हे संस्कृत भाषा-तुम गति और मति की प्रेरक हो, काव्य रचना में कौशल प्रदान करती हो क्योंकि तुम्हारी यहीं संस्कृति है। हे संस्कृत भाषातुम्हें श्रेष्ठ मुनियों द्वारा विकसित किया गया है।

नवरस-रुचिरालङ्कृति धारा
वेदविषय-वेदान्त-विचारा।
वैद्य-व्योम-शास्त्रादि-विहारा
विजयते धरायां, सुन्दरसुरभाषा॥
॥मुनिवर…..॥

अनुवाद :
हे सुन्दर सुरभाषा संस्कृत ! तुम नवरसों से अत्यन्त सुन्दर सुसज्जित अलंकृत धारा के समान हो, जिसका विषय वेद और वेदान्त के विचार हैं। संस्कृत भाषा में वैद्यक, व्योम और शास्त्रीय ज्ञान संकलित है। ऐसी यह सुन्दर सुरभाषा इस पृथ्वी पर विजय प्राप्त कर रही है।

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४. दिव्यामेनां दैवीवाणीम्
(दिव्य देववाणी)

दिव्यामेनां दैवीवाणी, वयं वदामः। क्षणे-क्षणे।
भाषाजननी जनकल्याणी, वयं वदामः। क्षणे-क्षणे।
एकीभूयाऽखिले समाजे, बन्धुत्वं रचयामः,
भेदं-द्वन्द्वं तथा विहाय, आनन्दं जनयामः,
आदि-हर्षे, चाभ्युत्कर्षे, वयं हसामः।क्षणे-क्षणे।

अनुवाद :
प्रत्येक क्षण हम इस दिव्य देववाणी में ही बोलते हैं। यह संस्कृत अन्य भाषाओं की जननी है, मनुष्यों का कल्याण करने वाली है। हम इसे प्रत्येक क्षण बोलते हैं।

सभी समाज में एकत्व स्थापित हो जाय और बन्धुत्व की हम रचना करें तथा भेदभाव के झगड़ों को दूर करके आनन्द की उत्पत्ति करें। विपत्ति में, हर्ष में तथा उत्कर्ष में हम सदा ही हँसते रहें-प्रत्येक क्षण प्रसन्न बने रहें।

वीराधीराः स्वयंसैनिकाः, संस्कृति-सेवालग्नाः,
निजसौख्ये नहि राष्ट्रसेवने, सिद्धाः सदानिमग्नाः,
हानि, लाभ, जयाजयं वा! अभिनन्दामः क्षणे-क्षणे।

अनुवाद :
हे माता संस्कृत भाषा! हम तुम्हारा प्रतिक्षण अभिनन्दन करते हैं। हम वीर और धीर हैं, हम सभी स्वयं सैनिक हैं जो संस्कृति की सेवा में लगे हुए हैं। अपने सुख के लिए नहीं, वरन् राष्ट्र की सेवा करने में सफल हैं तथा सदा ही सेवा में संलग्न हैं। हम सबको हानि, लाभ तथा जय पराजय समान प्रतीत होती है।

गता तमिस्त्रा गतं दुर्दिनमुत्तिष्ठत जाग्रतरे,
पाषाणेऽपि नवमितिहास, निश्चयेन लिखतरे,
जने-जनेऽपि मैत्री भावं, तत्पश्यामः क्षणे-क्षणे।

अनुवाद :
अज्ञान के अन्धकार की रात्रि समाप्त हो गयी है। दुर्दिन बीत गया है। इसलिए हे भारतीय जन! उठो और जागो। पत्थरों पर भी निश्चय के साथ नया इतिहास लिखो। हम सभी प्रत्येक क्षण मनुष्य में मैत्रीभाव को देखें।

नजातिनकुलं नो वर्णः, नचगोत्रं नच गौरः कृष्णः,
नधनिकश्चाथवानिर्धनो,नवासुखी नासक्त विवर्णः,
केवलमेकं मानवधर्म, चानुभवामः, क्षणे-क्षणे।

अनुवाद :
जाति, कुल, वर्ण, गोत्र, काले और गोरे, धनवान और निर्धन, सुखी-दुखी, असक्त, विवर्ण के आधार पर कोई भेद न करें। हमारा केवल एक ही मानव धर्म का प्रत्येक क्षण अनुभव करते रहें।

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५. मृदापि चन्दनम्
(मिट्टी भी चन्दन)

मृदापि च चन्दनमस्मिन् देशे ग्रामो ग्रामः सिद्धवनम्।
यत्र च बाला देवीस्वरूपा बालां सर्वे श्रीरामाः॥
हरिमन्दिरमिदमखिलशरीरम्
धनशक्ती जनसेवायै
यत्र च क्रीडायै वनराजः
धेनुर्माता परमशिवा॥
नित्यं प्रात: शिवगुणमानं
दीपनुतिः खलु शत्रुपरा॥           ॥ मृदपि ॥

अनुवाद :
इस देश में मिट्टी भी चन्दन है तथा प्रत्येक गाँव सिद्धवन है और जहाँ की बालाएँ देवी के समान हैं तथा सभी बालक श्रीराम जैसे हैं। यह सारा शरीर हरि मन्दिर है। यहाँ का धन और शक्ति जन सेवा के लिए है तथा यहाँ सिंह खेलने के लिए खिलौने हैं। परम कल्याणी गौ माता सदृश है। नित्य प्रति प्रात:काल में शिव का गुणगान होता है तथा शत्रुओं को भगाने के लिए ज्ञान रूपी दीपक की ज्योति विद्यमान है।

भाग्यविधायि निजार्जितकर्म
यत्र श्रमः श्रियमर्जयति।
त्यागधनानां तपोनिधीनां
गाथां गायति कविवाणी
गङ्गाजलमिव नित्यनिर्मलं
ज्ञानं शंसति यतिवाणी॥             ॥ मृदपि ॥

अनुवाद :
भाग्य का विधान करने वाले अपने कर्म से तथा अपने परिश्रम से जहाँ लक्ष्मी को प्राप्त करते हैं, ऐसे यहाँ के लोग धन का त्याग करने वाले और तपोनिधि हैं जिनके (यश की) गाथा को कवियों की वाणी गाती रहती है। गंगा के जल के समान नित्य निर्मल यतियों की वाणी यहाँ के ज्ञान की प्रशंसा करती रहती है। यहाँ की (भारतवर्ष की) मिट्टी भी चन्दन है।

यत्र हि नैव स्वदेहविमोहः
युद्धरतानां वीराणाम्।
यत्र हि कृषकः कार्यरतः सन्
पश्यति जीवनसाफल्यम्
जीवनलक्ष्यं न हि धनपदवी
यत्र च परशिवपदसेवा॥           ॥मृदपि ॥

अनुवाद :
युद्ध में संलग्न वीरों को यहाँ अपने शरीर के प्रति कभी भी विद्रोह नहीं रहा है। यहाँ का किसान अपने कार्य में संलग्न होकर ही अपने जीवन की सफलता का दर्शन करता है। धन और पद की प्राप्ति उसके जीवन का लक्ष्य नहीं है। यहाँ तो दूसरों के कल्याण के लिए पद प्राप्त कर सेवा ही लक्ष्य है। यहाँ की मिट्टी भी चन्दन है।

MP Board Class 6th Sanskrit Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement

Body Movement Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Joints of the bones help in the ……………………… of the body.
  2. A combination of bones and cartilages forms the …………………… of the body.
  3. The bones at the elbow are joined by a …………………….. joint.
  4. The contraction of the …………………….. pulls the bones during movement.

Answer:

  1. Movement
  2. Skeleton
  3. Balls socket
  4. Muscles.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Indicate true (T) and false (F) among the following sentences.

  1. The movement and locomotion of all animals is exactly the same.
  2. The cartilages are harder than bones.
  3. The finger bones do not have joints.
  4. The fore arm has two bones.
  5. Cockroaches have an outer skeleton.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. False
  4. True
  5. True.

Question 3.
Match the items in Column I with one or more items of Column II.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 1
Answer:

(i) – (d)
(ii) – (a) and (g)
(iii) – (e)
(iv) – (f)
(v) – (b) and (c).

Question 4.
Answer the following:

Question (a)
What is a ball and socket joint?
Answer:
The round end of one bone fits into the hollow space of the other bone. Such a kind of joint allows movements in all directions. Such joints are called ball and socket joints.

Question (b)
Which of the skull bones are movable?
Answer:
The facial bones of our skull comprises upper and lower jaw, in which lower jaws is movable.

Question (c)
Why can our elbow not move backwards?
Answer:
Elbow cannot move backwards because it has hinge joint which allows only back and forth movements.

MP Board Solutions

Projects And Activities

Activity 1.
Make a table to show how do animals move from place to place?
Answer:
Movement of Animals
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 2

Activity 2.
Make a table to show the movements of different parts in our body?
Answer:
Movement of different parts in our body:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 3

Activity 3.
Observe a cockroach and explain how is it move?
Answer:
Cockroaches walk and climb as well as fly in the air. They have three pairs of legs. These help in walking. The body is covered with a hard outer skeleton. This outer skeleton is made of different units joined together and that permits movement.

There are two pairs of wings attached to the breast. The cockroaches have distinct muscles those near the legs move the legs for walking. The breast muscles move the wings when the cockroach flies.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 4

Body Movement Intex Questions

Question 1.
Boojho wonders about movements in plants. He knows they do not move from place to place, but, do they show any other kind of movement?
Answer:
Yes

Body Movement Additional Important Questions

Body Movement Objective Type Questions

Choose the correct answer:

Question (a)
Our finger has ……………………… bones?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(b) 3

Question (b)
Cockroach has …………………….. pairs of joint legs?
(a) 2
(b) 3
(c) 4
(d) 5
Answer:
(b) 3

Question (c)
Our skeleton has bones?
(a) 206
(b) 306
(c) 406
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) 206

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. The animals which has back bone are called …………………………..
  2. The back bone has ………………………… regions.
  3. Our foot has ………………………… longer bones.
  4. In the fore – arm, there are ………………………. bones.
  5. Fishes move in water with the help of ………………………….
  6. The ancient Greek philosopher …………………………… write the book on “Gait of Animals”.
  7. Snails move with the help of a ……………………………… foot.

Answer:

  1. Vertebrate
  2. Five
  3. Five
  4. Two long
  5. Fins
  6. Aristotle
  7. Muscular.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. We have ten organ systems.
  2. Cartilage is hard and bones are soft.
  3. The place where two or more bones meet together is called a joint.
  4. The hard covers of crabs and insects are called exoskeleton.
  5. Strong muscles and light bones work together to help the birds fly.
  6. We can bend or. move our body only at those points where bones meet.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True
  6. True.

Question 4.
Match the items in Column A with the Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 5
Answer:

(i) – (d)
(ii) – (e)
(iii) – (a)
(iv) – (c)
(v) – (b)

Body Movement Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How are animals move from are place to another?
Answer:
The animals move from one place to another by one of the following ways: Walk, run, jump, creep, fly, slither, swim and crawl.

Question 2.
Do you get a feel of something hard pressing against your fingers?
Answer:
Yes, the hard structures are the bones.

Question 3.
What are joints?
Answer:
The places (points) where we are able to bend or rotate our body.

Question 4.
How are bones joined together?
Answer:
Bones are held together at joints by strong cords called ligaments.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
What are hinge joints?
Answer:
These joints allow movement only in one plane not more than 180 degrees.

Question 6.
Name any two parts of your body which you are able to (i) bend (ii) rotate?
Answer:

  1. Elbow
  2. Arms.

Question 7.
Where do you find hinge joints?
Answer:
Knee and Elbow.

Question 8.
How do muscles move the bones?
Answer:
The muscles move the bones by contraction.

Question 9.
What is ball and socket joint?
Answer:
The rounded end of one bone fits into the cavity of the other bone is called as ball and socket joint.

Question 10.
Where do you find pivotal joint?
Answer:
The joint where our neck joints the head is a pivotal joint.

MP Board Solutions

Question 11.
Define movement?
Answer:
When organisms move their body parts without changing their position.

Question 12.
Define fixed joints?
Answer:
The joint where movement of bone is not allowed is called fixed joint.

Question 13.
What is skeleton?
Answer:
All the bones in our body form a framework to give a shape to our body. This framework is called the skeleton.

Question 14.
What is locomotion?
Answer:
When animals move from one place to another place. This kind of movement is called locomotion.

Question 15.
Define cartilage?
Answer:
The cartilage is additional part of skeleton, not as hard as the bone and can be bent.

MP Board Solutions

Question 16.
Is cartilage also found in the joints of the body?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 17.
How may bones are there in human skeleton?
Answer:
There are 206 bones in human skeleton.

Question 18.
What is X – rays?
Answer:
The X – rays show the shapes of the bones in our bodies.

Question 19.
Define skull?
Answer:
The skull is made of many bones joined together. It encloses and protects a very important part of the body, the brain.

Question 20.
How do fishes move?
Answer:
They move with the help of tail fins and anal fines.

Question 21.
Does the earthworm have bones?
Answer:
No.

MP Board Solutions

Question 22.
How does a cockroach move?
Answer:
Cockroach has distinct muscles attached with skeleton process. These muscles move the body.

Question 23.
What is streamlined?
Answer:
The lead and tail of the fish are smaller than the middle portion, of the body. The body’tapers at both ends. This body shape is called streamlined.

Question 24.
How does snails move?
Answer:
The snails move with the help of a muscular food.

Body Movement Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are bone joints and from what are they joint?
Answer:
The place where two bones or more than two bones meet together is called a joint. There are various kinds of joints. They are held together at joints by strong cords called ligaments.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Define pivotal joint?
Answer:
The joint where our neck joins the head is called pivotal joint. It allows us to bend our head forward and backward and turn the head to our left or right. In a pivotal joint a cylindrical bone rotates in a ring. Thus, we can say that pivotal joint is a very important joint for our body.

Question 3.
Draw a diagram of hinge joints?
Answer:
The hinge joint allows a back and forth movement. For example, the elbow has a hinge joint that allows only a back and forth movement.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 6

Question 4.
Describe rib cage with the help of a diagram?
Answer:
Just feel your chest bones and the back bone by gently pressing the middle of the chest and back at the same time. From the figure also, we see that the ribs are curiously bent. They join the chest bone and the backbone together to form a box. This is called the rib cage. Some important internal parts of our body lie protected inside this cage.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 7

Question 5.
How many regions are there is our backbone? Draw the diagram of backbone also?
Answer:
The backbone has five regions. From the top they are the neck, chest, hip, tail and belly regions. The five vertebrae of the hip are inseparable. They are fused together. The four vertebrae of the tail are also fuse.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 8

Body Movement Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define with diagram the bones present in our hand?
Answer:
The hand comprises the upper arm, fore – arm, wrist, palm and fingers. The upper arm has one long bone, and forearm has two long bones. Wrist is made up of several small bones. The palm is composed of fine slightly longer bones. There are three small bones in each finger.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 9

Question 2.
Define shoulder bones and pelvic bones with neat diagrams?
Answer:
If some one stands pressing against a wall, two bones becomes visible at the shoulder. These are called shoulder bones. While as shown in Fig. (b), this Fig. Bones of the hand. structure is made of pelvic bones. They enclose the portion of your body below the stomach. This is the part you sit on.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 10
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 11

Question 3.
How many parts does our skull have? Draw its diagram also?
Answer:
Our skull has two main parts i.e., cranium or the brain case and the facial bone. The bones of cranium are flat and held firmly. It protects brain, the facial bones comprise upper and lower jaw. Lower jaw is movable. The’ skull has a pair of eye sockets. Fig. The skull.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 12

Question 4.
Draw the diagram of the human skeleton?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 13

Question 5.
Draw the diagram of skeleton of a bird?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 14

Question 6.
Define the movement of snake?
Answer:
Snakes have a long backbone. They have many thin muscles. They are connected to each other even though they are far from one another. They also interconnect the backbone, ribs and skin. The snake’s body curves into many loops.

Each loop of the snake gives it a forward push by pressing against the ground. Since its long body makes many loops and each loop gives it this push, the snake moves forward very fast and not in a straightline.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 8 Body Movement img 15

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants

Getting to Know Plants Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Correct the following statements and rewrite them in your notebook?

  1. Stem absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
  2. Leaves hold the plant upright.
  3. Roots conduct water to the leaves.
  4. The number of petals and sepals in a flower is always equal.
  5. If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are also joined together.
  6. If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is joined to the petal.

Answer:

  1. Roots absorbs water and minerals from the soil.
  2. Stem holds the plant upright.
  3. Stem conducts water to the leaves.
  4. The number of petals and sepals in a flower may not be always equal.
  5. If the sepals of a flower are joined together, its petals are separate and not joined together.
  6. If the petals of a flower are joined together, then the pistil is not necessarily joined to the petal.

Question 2.
Draw (a), leaf, (b) a taproot and (c) a flower, you have studied for Table 7.3?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 1

Question 3.
Can you find a plant in your house or in your neighborhood, which has a long but a weak stem? Write its name. In which category would you classify it?
Answer:
The plant found in our house is money plant which has a long but a weak stem. This plant needs support, these are called climbers.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
What is the function of a stem in a plant?
Answer:
Stems hold the plant upright. Stems also carries water from roots to leaves and flowers and supplies food from leaves to all parts of plant. Stems can be modified into leaf like structure as in causes to conserve water. Stem can be modified for storage of food.

Question 5.
Which of the following leaves have reticulate venation? Wheat, tulasi, maize, grass, coriander (dhania), China rose?
Answer:
Tulasi, Coriander (dhania) and China rose.

Question 6.
It a plant has fibrous root, what type of veriation do its leaves likely to have?
Answer:
Parallel variation.

Question 7.
If a plant has leaves with reticulate venation, what kind of roots will it have?
Answer:
Tap root.

Question 8.
It is possible for you to recognize the leaves without seeing them? How?
Answer:
Yes, we can recognize leaves by smelling or touching. For examples, leaves of maize, tulasi, dhania, podina, bananasjetc.

Question 9.
Write the names of the parts of a flower?
Answer:
A flower has mainly four parts:

  1. Sepals
  2. Petals
  3. Pistil
  4. Stamens.

MP Board Solutions

Question 10.
Which of the following plants have you seen? Of those that you have seen, which one have flowers? Grass, maize, wheat, chilli, tomato, tulasi, pipal,
shisham, banyan, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon, sugarcane, potato, groundnut?
Answer:
I have seen all these plants. Plants with flowers are chilli, tomato, tulsi, mango, jamun, guava, pomegranate, papaya, banana, lemon.

Question 11.
Name the part of the plant which produces its food? Name this process?
Answer:
The leaves of plant produce food. The process is called photosynthesis.

Question 12.
In which part of a flower, you are likely to find the ovary?
Answer:
The ovary is found in pistil part of a flower.

MP Board Solutions

Question 13.
Name two flowers, each with joined and separated sepals?
Answer:
The flowers with joined sepals are rose and sunflower. The flowers with separated sepals are China rose and mustard plant.

Projects and Activities

Activity 1.
Name of plant parts are hidden in this grid. Search for them by going up, down, or even diagonally forward as well as backward. Have fun?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 2
Answer:

  1. Ovule
  2. Midrib
  3. Filament
  4. Fruit
  5. Flower
  6. Vein
  7. Stem
  8. Herb
  9. Petal
  10. Sepal
  11. Stamen
  12. Ovary.

Activity 2.
Make a table to show categories of some plants?
Answer:
Categories of plants:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 3

Activity 3.
Show by an experiment that various kinds of plants have different kinds of stem?
Answer:
Observe carefully the plant of wheat. Press the stem of it with fingers. Then repeat the procedure, for stem of rose, money plant, gourd and bitter gourd. The stem of wheat is green, tender and weak, this can be pressed easily with the fingers, where as the stem of rose is tough and more force is required to break or press it. The creeper of bitter gourd and money plant can not stand straight on its own.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 4

After observing various kinds of stem, it is known to us that wheat stem is weak, rose stem is tough and bitter gourd stem can not stand by itself.

Getting to Know Plants Intex Questions

Question 1.
Paheli wonders what kind of stem the money plant, beanstalk, gourd plants and grape vines have. Do observe some of these plants. How are these different from a herb, a shrub or a tree? Why do you think some of them need support to climb upwards?
Answer:
These are climbers.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Boojho has a brilliant idea If he wants to know what kind of roots a plant has, he need not pull it out. He just has to look at its leaves?
Answer:
Yes.

Getting to Know Plants Additional Important Questions

Getting to Know Plants Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question (a)
Which of the following is a modified root?
(a) Turnip
(b) Potato
(c) Ginger
(d) Onion.
Answer:
(a) Turnip

Question (b)
Which of the following is a modified stem?
(a) Turmeric
(b) Sweet potato
(c) Radish
(d) Beet.
Answer:
(a) Turmeric

Question (c)
Which of the following is a modified leaf?
(a) Peas
(b) Maize
(c) Banyan
(d) Spines in cactus.
Answer:
(d) Spines in cactus.

MP Board Solutions

Question (d)
Which of the following is a tap roots?
(a) Peas
(b) Maize
(c) Wheat
(d) Millets.
Answer:
(a) Peas

Question (e)
Which of the following has fibrous roots?
(a) Tulasi
(b) Balsam
(c) Wheat
(d) Marigold.
Answer:
(c) Wheat

Question (f)
Which of the following has thick and wooden (hard) stem?
(a) Rose
(b) Money plant
(c) Saventi
(d) Banyan.
Answer:
(d) Banyan.

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Rose is a ……………………….. plant.
  2. In cactus leaves are modified into ………………………..
  3. Vegetables such as carrot, beetroot and radish that you eat are modified …………………………..
  4. Roots provide support to plants and also absorb and ………………………..
  5. Leaves are green because they have a pigment called ……………………………
  6. Plants synthesis food through the process of ………………………….
  7. Climbers have ………………………….. structure to climb up.
  8. The plants whose stem is soft and tender are called as …………………………
  9. The plants whose stem is hard but can be broken easily are called …………………………….
  10. The plants whose stem is thick and strong (wooden) are called ………………………………..
  11. The plants which have tendrils are called ………………………….
  12. The plants which grow and land horizontally are called ……………………………

Answer:

  1. Mesophytes
  2. Spines
  3. Roots
  4. Water, mineral
  5. Chlorophyl
  6. Photosynthesis
  7. Tendrils
  8. Herbs
  9. Shrubs
  10. Tress
  11. Climbers
  12. Creepers.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. Roots absorb minerals and water from the soil.
  2. The wheat plant has fibrous root system.
  3. Supporting roots are found in all plants.
  4. The stems of all plants can stand erect.
  5. Plants can synthesise their food without carbon dioxide.
  6. Leaves can manufacture their food without sunlight.
  7. Food is stored only in fruits in plants.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. False
  4. False
  5. False
  6. False
  7. False.

Question 4.
Match the items in Column A with the Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 5
Answer:

(i) – (e)
(ii) – (a)
(iii) – (b)
(iv) – (d)
(v) – (f)
(vi) – (c).

Question 5.
Find out odd one from the following:

  1. Mongra, butterfly, lily, rose
  2. Wheat, paddy, maize, peepal.
  3. Rose, cactus, sunflower, mehendi.

Answer:

  1. Lily
  2. Peepal
  3. Rose.

Getting to Know Plants Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Sort out from the following plants which have fibrous roots: Tulsi, sugarcane, mango, ashok, onion, maize, garlic?
Answer:
Tulasi, sugarcane, onion, maize and garlic.

Question 2.
Name the parts of plants?
Answer:
The parts of the plants are root, stem, leaves, flower, fruits and seed.

Question 3.
Where does root system grow?
Answer:
Root system grows under the ground.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
What are the different types of root system?
Answer:
The root system are of two types:

  1. Tap root system
  2. Fibrous root system.

Question 5.
What are the functions of roots?
Answer:

  1. To fix the plant in the soil.
  2. Absorb water and minerals from soil.

Question 6.
Which is the smallest flower?
Answer:
Wolffia. It is the microscopic in size.

Question 7.
Which is the largest flower?
Answer:
Rofflosia. It is about 1 metre in size.

Question 8.
What is the function of flowers?
Answer:
Flowers produce reproductive cells which take part in reproduction.

Question 9.
Give two examples of modified root?
Answer:
Carrot and Radish which we eat are modified roots.

Question 10.
Give two examples of stems?
Answer:

  1. Stem holds the plant upright.
  2. Stem carries water from roots to leaves and flowers and supplies food from leaves to all parts of plant.

MP Board Solutions

Question 11.
What is bark?
Answer:
Most of trunks are covered with outer layer called bark. It protects the inner parts of the tree.

Question 12.
Where can you see the largest plant of world?
Answer:
Largest plant of world (General Sherman) is in United States of America in California.

Question 13.
Why are leaves green in colour?
Answer:
Leaves are green in colour due to the presence of green pigment in it, called chlorophyll.

Question 14.
What name is given to the process of making food by leaves?
Answer:
It is called photosynthesis.

Question 15.
What are the conditions necessary for green leaves to prepare food?
Answer:
Green leaves make food with the help of carbon – dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight.

Question 16.
Give an example of each in which:

  1. Leave are modified as spines.
  2. Leaves are modified as tentricles.

Answer:

  1. Cactus leaves are modified as spines.
  2. In sea plant – leaves are modified as tentricles.

MP Board Solutions

Question 17.
Name two plants that have supporting roots?
Answer:

  1. Banyan tree
  2. Maize plant
  3. Sugar cane.

Question 18.
What is the role of spines in cactus tree?
Answer:
The spines protect the plants from animals, in cactus plant it reduces the loss of water, ft works as a defence device for the plant.

Question 19.
Give an example of a plant with stem tendrils?
Answer:
The cucurbit (kakri/lauki) plant has tendrils which help the plant to climb and support the weight of the plant.

Question 20.
Name some modified stems and roots which you eat?
Answer:
Modified stem: Onion, potato, ginger, garlic, colocassia. Modified root: Sugarbeet, sweet potato, turmeric, carrot, radish.

MP Board Solutions

Question 21.
Why is stem of cactus thick and green?
Answer:
Cactus plant has modified stem which conserves water in the green fleshy stem which is photosynthetic. Its stem is thick and green due to the
presence of chlorophyll in it. It helps in photosynthesis.

Question 22.
What are the special features of red wood tree?
Answer:
It is largest tree. It is 80 metre high. It is about 30 metres at its base. It may live for 3500 years.

Question 23.
Which part of the flower becomes seed? Name the parts of a seed?
Answer:
The ovules of the flower turn into seeds after fertilization of ovules. A seed consists of a seed coat. It has many other parts like cotyledons, radical and plumule.

MP Board Solutions

Question 24.
What are nodes and internodes?
Answer:
In some plants like bamboos and sugarcane their stems have some joints where leaves and branches arise. These joints are called nodes. The part of the stem between two nodes in called internode. The lengths of internodes vary from plant to plant.

Question 25.
What are additional functions for stems can be modified?
Answer:

  1. Stems can be modified into leaf like structure as in causes to conserve water
  2. Stem can be modified for storage of food e.g. potato.

Getting to Know Plants Short Answer Types Questions

Question 1.
Write five examples of each food storing roots, fibrous roots and tap roots?
Answer:
Food storing roots:
Turnip, carrot, radish, potato and onion.

Firbrous roots:
Wheat, maize, tulasi, garlic and grass.

Tap roots:
Mango, peepal, neem, pea and gram.

Question 2.
What is fruit? How does it differ from a seed?
Answer:
After the pollination the ovary part of the flower converts itself into a fruit. Fruit is generally made up of fruit walls and the seed. The ovule of flower converts itself into seed. The seed after drying can be used to grow a new plant.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Differentiate between climber and creepers?
Answer:
Differentiate between climbers and creepers.
Climbers:

  1. The stems of these plants are very weak and weak.
  2. They can not stand straight on land.
  3. Example: Bitter gourd, grape, Vine.

Creepers:

  1. Their stem is tender and weak.
  2. They can not stand by themselves.
  3. Example: Duphariya

Question 4.
Draw a labelled diagram of flowers?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 6

Question 5.
Label these pictures?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 7
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 8

Getting to Know Plants Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Draw a labelled diagram of the tap root and the fibrous root?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 9

Question 2.
Differentiate between root and stem?
Answer:
Difference between Root and Stem:
Root:

  1. The part under the ground is called root system.
  2. There is no node and inter nodes.
  3. They also contain root cap.

Stem:

  1. The portion of plant is called root system above the ground is called shoot system. In shoot system there is stem, branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
  2. They have node and nodes inter node.
  3. They do not contain root cap.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Draw a picture of a leaf and explain it?
Answer:
The green structure growing on stem is called leaf. Take branch of hibiscus and to know the different parts of leaf, compare it with the picture given below. The green pigment called chlorophyll imparts green color on leaf. The chlorophyll helps in preparing food Lamina in presence of sunlight.

Leaf blade or lamina:
The flat green portion of leaf is called leaf blade or lamina.

Petiole:
The leaf blade is attached to the stem by short stalk is called petiole.

Midrib:
Petiole continues in the leaf as the midrib, it has a network of veins.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 10

Question 4.
Differentiate between herbs, shrubs and trees?
Answer:
Difference between Herbs, shrubs and trees:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 11

Question 5.
Draw the diagram how to cut the ovary of a flower?
Answer:
Take two ovaries from different flowers. Cut them in two different ways as shown in Figure. To prevent them from drying, put a drop of water on each of the two pieces of the ovary, you have cut.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 12

Question 6.
Define ovules and draw a labelled diagram to show the inner structure of an ovary?
Answer:
Observe the inner parts of the ovary using a lens as shown in figure. You see some small bead like structures inside the ovary. They are called ovules.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 7 Getting to Know Plants img 13

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out

Garbage In, Garbage Out Textbook Exercises

Question 1.

  1. Which kind of garbage is not converted into compost by the redworms?
  2. Have you seen any other organism beside redworms, in your pit? If yes, try to find out their names. Draw pictures of these?

Answer:
1. Garbage such as pieces of polythene bags, cloth, nails, old shoes, broken glass, broken toys and aluminimum wrappers etc. are not into compost by the red worms.

2. Yes, there are some other organisms in a pit of composting such as fungi and bacteria which decompose the biodegradable wastes.

Question 2.
Discuss:

  1. Is garbage disposal the responsibility only of the government?
  2. Is it possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage?

Answer:
1. No, it is also our responsibility. Because fresh air, water and locality helps us to make healthy. So, every citizen should care for waste disposal. We should not throw the wastes carelessly. We collect all the garbage carefully in dustbins and should save environment to pollute.

2. Yes, it is possible to reduce the problems relating to disposal of garbage by using re – cycleable materials.

Question 3.

  1. What do you do with the left over food at home?
  2. If you and your friends are given the choice of eating in a plastic plate or a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?

Answer:

  1. Preserve properly the left over food and reuse. Convert it to some other food preparation and consume.
  2. In a party I and my friends choose to eat in a banana leaf platter, due to the following reasions.
    • It is easy disposal,
    • It can be recycled,
    • It is more environment friendly.

Question 4.

  1. Collect pieces of different kinds of paper. Find out which of these can be recycled?
  2. With the help of a lens look at the pieces of paper you collected for the above question. Do you see any difference in the material of recycled paper and a new sheet of paper?

Answer:
1. We collected the pieces of old newspapers, used envelopes, notebooks, magazines, any other paper like shiny, plastic coated paper. Except plastic coated and shiny papers, all other papers can be recycled.

2. When we see the recycled paper with the help of lense, we find that there is a difference in quality of paper. The recycled paper is more thick and more rough as compared to new sheet of paper.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.

  1. Collect different kinds of packaging material What was the purpose for which each one was used? Discuss in groups.
  2. Give an example in which packaging could have been reduced?
  3. Write a story on how packaging increases the amount of garbage.

Answer:
(a)

  • Paper pakcet : Light food items
  • Wooden boxes : Delicate items
  • Card board : Crockery
  • Glass covers : Show pieces
  • Plastic covers : Dresses and clothes.

(b) The shopkeepers should buy large amount of goods like sugar, dal, nuts, etc. By doing so they reduce the waste and packaging materials. They should buy goods in bulk and bigger quantities in a single package. This type of shopping will reduce the wastages.

(c) Packing increases the amount of garbages. Every good or things are sold in small packets of plastic materials which are thrown out after use. This increases the garbage. Cans, small aluminium foils, plastic bags and many other packaging materials are used and thrown out after use. These packaging materials also increase garbage.

Now – a – days every goods and things such as soaps, detergents, ghee, refined oil and many more eatable goods are generally sold in small pockets. This also increase the garbage upto a large extent. In this way we can say that packaging materials increases the amount of garbage.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Do you think it is better to use compost instead of chemical fertilizers? Why?
Answer:
We think that compost is better to use instead of chemical fertilizers. Compost fertilizers are those in which plants and animal extracts etc. are used. These fertilizers usually contain all nutrients in varying proportions. These fertilizers are not made in factories. They are prepared by the farmers themselves using indigenous methods.

They contain a large measure of organic matter. No special precautions are required while using them. In this category includes gobar khad, compost or the mixture made out of organic waste and human excreta, green manure and oil cakes etc.

Chemical fertilizer are manufactured artificially in factories with the use of chemicals. These contain large amounts of plant nutrients. These contain only one and two or three nutritional elements. For examples, Urea, Ammonium Sulphate, Super Phosphate, Potassium Sulphate, Sodium Nitrate, Calcium Sulphate etc.

Projects and Activity

Activity 1.
Make a comfortable home for our redworms in the pit or the box.
Answer:
Let us dig a pit about 30 cm deep or keep a wooden box at a place, which is neither two hot nor too cold. Spread a net or chicken mesh at the bottom of the pit or the box. You can also spread 1 or 2 cm thick layer of sand as an alternative. Now, spread some vegetable wastes including peels of fruits over this layer of sand.

One can also use green leaves, pieces of dried stalks of plants, husk or pieces of newspaper or carboard to spread over the layer of sand. However, shiny or plastic coated paper should not be used for this purpose. Dried animal dung could also be used as a spread over sand or wire mesh. Sprinkle some water to make this layer wet.

Take care not to use excess of water. Do not press the layer of waste. Keep this layer loose so that it has sufficient air and moisture. Now, your pit is ready to welcome the redworms. Buy some redworms and put them in your pit [Fig.]. Cover them loosely with a gunny bag or an old sheet of cloth or a layer of grass.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Garbage In, Garbage Out 1

Garbage In, Garbage Out Text Book Questions

Question 1.
Paheli did wonder as to what could be useful garbage? Why was it thrown away in the first place? Is there some garbage that is not actually garbage?
Answer:
The useful garbage are ped of vegetables and fruits, egg shell, tea leaves, paper bags, pieces of paper, etc. Any garbage that can be recycled is not actually a garbage.

Question 2.
Paheli would like to suggest that containers used for storing poisonous substances should be recycled separately and that such recycled plastics are not used to make plastic bags.
Answer:
It is absolutly correct.

Garbage In, Garbage Out Additional Important Questions

Garbage In, Garbage Out Objective Type Questions Question

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Disposal of all types of solid wastes resulting in increasing …………………..
  2. Domestic wastes is ………………….. wastes.
  3. The wastes have different physical, chemical and ………………….. characteristics.
  4. In vermicomposting ………………….. are added to the compost.
  5. Open dump are not a good method of disposal of …………………..
  6. Today ………………….. education is necessary in view of the crisis involves.
  7. Paper can be recycled to get useful …………………..
  8. All kinds of plastics give out harmful ………………….. upon heating or burning.

Answer:

  1. Spoilage of land
  2. Biodegradable
  3. Biological
  4. Earth worms
  5. Wastes
  6. Environmental
  7. Products
  8. Gases.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. Wastes are the materials which are generally discarded by human beings.
  2. The wastes generated in hospitals are non – hazardous in nature.
  3. Organic waste is mostly biodegradable.
  4. Organic matter can be decomposed and made into manure.
  5. Open dump are a good method of disposal of wastes.
  6. Polythene bags create a big problem in garbage disposal.
  7. Garbage has both useful and non – useful components.
  8. Waste is a uniform material in terms of its constituents.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False
  6. True
  7. True
  8. False.

Garbage In, Garbage Out Very Short Answer Type Questions 

Question 1.
What type of garbage are used for composting?
Answer:
Garbage of air kitchen like vegetable peels, egg cells, fruits peels and waste food are used for composting.

Question 2.
What type of garbage are not used for composting?
Answer:
Garbage like broken glass, old shoes, polythene bags, aluminium wrappers are not used for composting.

Question 3.
Should we burn the dried leaves?
Answer:
No.

Question 4.
How redworms grind the food?
Answer:
Redworms do not have teeth for grinding food. They have a structure called gizzards for grinding their food.

Question 5.
Can you recycle paper?
Answer:
Yes.

Question 6.
Can you recycle polythene?
Answer:
Some kind of plastics can be recycled, but not all of them.

Question 7.
List some items, we use, that are made of plastic.
Answer:
Combs, Toys, Shoes, Bags, Pens, Buckets, Bottles, Tooth brushes and Water pipes, etc.

Question 8.
Define land fill?
Answer:
Safai Karmcharis collect the garbage in trucks and take it to a low lying open area, called a landfill.

Question 9.
Who collects the garbage?
Answer:
Safai Karmacharis.

Question 10.
Name a few items that we throw as garbage almost everyday?
Answer:
Tins, paper, wrappers, plastic bags and peels of fruits, etc.

MP Board Solutions

Question 11.
Define garbage?
Answer:
Any materials which is discarded by us or which is of no use for us is called garbage.

Question 12.
Define composting?
Answer:
The rotting and conversion of some materials into manure is called composting.

Question 13.
Define vermicomposting?
Answer:
The method of preparing compost with the help of redworms is called vermicomposting.

Question 14.
What is domestic wastes?
Answer:
The wastes include garbage, kitchen waste and sewage are called domestic wastes.

Garbage In, Garbage Out Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
In how many group we can group the garbage of our house?
Answer:
We separate the garbage of our house into two groups. These are:

Group 1:
Garbage from the kitchen like fruit and vegetable peels, egg shells, waste food, tea leaves. Include newspapers, dry leaves and paper bags in this group.

Group 2:
Piece of cloth, polythene bags, broken glass, aluminium wrappers, nails, old shoes and broken toys.

Question 2.
Why is it not advised to burn the dried leaves and husk?
Answer:
Burning of dried leaves, husk and part of some crop plants produces smoke and gases that are harmful to our health. So we should try to stop such practices and convert these wastes into useful compost.

Question 3.
List the various steps practiced in waste management?
Answer:
Various steps practiced in waste management are broadly divided into four steps:

  1. Collection of wastes
  2. Segregation of wastes
  3. Reduction and resource recovery
  4. Treatment and disposal.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Why earthworms are called farmer’s friends?
Answer:
Earthwarms are called farmer’s friends because they help to increase the fertility of soil. They eat dust and make soil fertile. They are used to perpare vermicompost, which gives many nutrients to soil and ultimately to crop plants.

Question 5.
Why plastic bags are harmful to us?
Answer:
The plastic bags thrown away carelessly on roads and other places get into drains and the sewer system. As a result, drains get choked and the water spills on the roads. During heavy rains, it might even create a flood like situation. There is a lot of harm that too much use of plastics can do.

Also, people fill garbage in plastic bags and then throw it on road. When stray animals looks for food in these bags, they end up swallowing these. Sometimes, they die due to this.

Garbage In, Garbage Out Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Why is it necessary for us to separate waste into two separate dustbins provided by municipalities?
Answer:
In some cities and towns municipalities provide separate dustbins for collecting two kinds of garbage. Usually one is coloured blue and the other green. The blue bin is for materials that can be used again such as plastics, metals and glass. The green bins are for collecting kitchen and other plant or animal wastes. You may have noticed that this type of wastes rot completely when buried in the soil.

Question 2.
How recycling of paper is done?
Answer:
Tear the paper into small pieces. Put them in a tube or a bucket and pour water in it. Let the pieces of paper remain submerged in water for a day. Make a thick paste of paper by pounding it. Now, spread the wet paste on the wire mesh fixed to the frame. Pat it gently to make the thickness of layer of the paste as uniform as possible. Wait till water drain off. If required spread an cld cloth or a sheet of newspaper on the paste to let it soak up the extra water.

Now, carefully remove the layer of paste from the frame, spread it on a sheet of newspaper in the sun. Keep the corners of the newspaper sheet pressed by putting some weights to that these do not curl up. We can add food colour, pieces of dry leaves or flower petals or pieces of coloured paper in the paste before spreading it. It would help us to get a recycled paper with beautiful patterns on it.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
What can we do to minimise over use of plastics and deal with garbage?
Answer:

  1. We make a minimum use of plastic bags. We re – use the bags whenever it is possible to do so without any adverse affects.
  2. We do not use plastic bags to store eatables.
  3. We do not throw plastic bags here and there, after use.
  4. We insist shopkeepers use paper bags. We carry a cloth or a jute bag when we go out for shopping.
  5. We do not put garbage in plastic bags and throw it away.
  6. We never burn plastic bags and other plastic items.
  7. We recycle paper.
  8. We use both sides of the paper to write. We use a slate for rough work. We use blank sheets of paper left in our notebooks for rough work.
  9. We use vermicomposting at home and deal with our kitchen waste usefully.
  10. We make our family, friends and others to follow proper practices for disposing different kinds of wastes.

The most important point to know and think about it that more garbage we generate, more difficult it will be to get rid of it.

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

 

 

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us

Air Around Us Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
What is the composition of air?
Answer:
The composition of air is:

  • Nitrogen: 78.08%
  • Oxygen: 20.95%
  • Carbon dioxide: 0.034%
  • Argon: 0.93%
  • Helium: traces
  • Water vapours: Traces

Thus, we see that air contains mostly nitrogen and oxygen. From above, it is clear that these two geses together make up 98% of the air.

Question 2.
Which gas in the atmosphere is essential for respiration?
Answer:
Oxygen gas in the atmosphere is essential for respiration.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
How will you prove that air supports burning?
Answer:
This can be shown by following experiment:
Take a candle. Fix it on a table. Now light it. It starts burning. Then cover it with a glass cover so that all air supply is stopped. We will see that it stops burning after some time. As soon as air inside the glass is used up, the candle stops burning. This shows that air is necessary for burning.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 1

Question 4.
How will you show that air is dissolved in water?
Answer:
Take some water in a glass vessel or beaker. Heat it slowly on a tripod stand. We see that tiny bubbles are sticking on it. These bubbles came from the air dissolved in water. When we heat water, the air dissolved in water escapes out in the form of bubbles. This shows that air is dissolved in water.

Question 5.
Why does a lump of cotton wool shrink in water?
Answer:
A lump of cotton wool shrink in water because the air inside cotton wool is driven out by water. They layers stick together and hence the lump of cotton wool shrinks.

Question 6.
The layer of air around the earth is known as?
Answer:
Atmosphere.

Question 7.
The components of air used by green plants to make their food, is?
Answer:
Carbon – dioxide.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
List five activities that are possible due to the presence of air.
Answer:
The some activities that are possible due to the presence of air:

  1. Windmill
  2. Winnowing
  3. Respiration
  4. Flying of aeroplanes, birds, etc.
  5. Transpiration.

Question 9.
How do plants and animals help each other in the exchange of gases in the atmosphere?
Answer:
Plants use carbon – dioxide to make their food and give out oxygen. The animals take oxygen for respiration and give out carbon – dioxide. This makes the balance of oxygen and carbon – dioxide in atmosphere. But if the green plants do not take in carbon – dioxide and give out oxygen, after some times there will no more oxygen on the earth and all living beings will die. That means, say, no life on earth. Thus, we can say that plants and animals help each other in the exchange of gases in the atmosphere.

Air Around Us Text Book Questions

Question 1.
Boojho is asking you, why do you think, the policeman in figure is wearing a mask?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 2
Answer:
Policemen is wearing a mask to save his mouth and nose from dust particles and smoke due to the fuel burning in vehicles.

Question 2.
Paheli wants to know, why the transparent glass of windows, if not wiped off regularly, appears hazy?
Answer:
The transparent glass of windows wiped off regularly because the dust particles settle down on the glass.

Question 3.
Boojho want to know, why during an incident of fire, one is advised to wrap a woollen blanket over a burning object.
Answer:
Woollen blanket do not pass oxygen which supports burning. Hence, the burning will stop.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Here is a question from Paheli, “Will the tiny air bubbles seen before the water actually boils, also appear if we do this activity by reheating boiled water kept in an air tight bottle?” If you do not know the answer you may try doing it and see for yourself.
Answer:
No, in this case tiny air bubbles will not seen before the water actually boils.

Air Around Us Additional Important Questions

Air Around Us Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Chose the correct answer:

Question (i)
Which of the following gases is not found free in air –
(a) Oxygen
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Hydrogen
(d) Carbondioxide.
Answer:
(c) Hydrogen

Question (ii)
The most abundant constituent of air is –
(a) Nitrogen
(b) Oxygen
(c) Carbondioxide
(d) Water vapour.
Answer:
(a) Nitrogen

Question (iii)
The percentage of oxygen by weight in the air is about –
(a) 78%
(b) 21%
(c) 23%
(d) 19%
Answer:
(b) 21%

Question (iv)
Air is –
(a) A compound
(b) A mixture
(c) An element
(d) An electrolyte.
Answer:
(b) A mixture

MP Board Solutions

Question (v)
The constituent of air that is essential for life but does not support combustion is –
(a) Nitrogen
(b) Oxygen
(c) Carbondioxide
(d) Water vapor.
Answer:
(a) Nitrogen

Question 2.
Fill in the Blanks:

  1. The cover of air around the earth is called ……………….
  2. Air occupies ………………. and has
  3. Air is ………………. of gases.
  4. The major components of air are ………………. and ……………….
  5. Air is a ………………. of gases.
  6. Lime water is ………………. dissolved in water.
  7. Lime water turns ………………. when carbon – dioxide is passed through it.
  8. Carbon – dioxide is formed when is burned.
  9. Candle burns in the atmosphere due to ……………….
  10. ………………. does not support burning.

Answer:

  1. Atmosphere
  2. Space, mass
  3. Mixture
  4. Nitrogen, oxygen
  5. Mixture
  6. Lime
  7. Milky
  8. Fuel
  9. Oxygen
  10. Nitrogen.

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. Air is necessary for burning.
  2. Air helps in dispersal of seeds.
  3. Compressed air is used in the break system for stopping trains.
  4. Fan circulates the air.
  5. Birds can fly without air.
  6. Air helps in pollination of seeds.
  7. Animals can prepare food by photosynthesis.
  8. Fishes can even breathe in water.
  9. Plants do not use oxygen.
  10. Oxygen is less on mountains.
  11. Patients get oxygen from clyinders in case of any breathing problem.
  12. Wind energy can be harnessed by a wind mill.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False
  6. True
  7. False
  8. True
  9. False
  10. True
  11. True
  12. True.

Question 4.
Match the items in Column A with the Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 3
Answer:

(i) (e)
(ii) (c)
(iii) (a)
(iv) (b)
(u) (d).

Air Around Us Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is air ?
Answer:
Air is gaseous substance.

Question 2.
What is atmosphere?
Answer:
The cover of air all around earth is called atmosphere.

Question 3.
What is the height of atmosphere above earth?
Answer:
Height of atmosphere is many hundred km above earth surface.

Question 4.
What is the height of clouds?
Answer:
Clouds are about 16 km above the earth surface.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
When there is no food in your lunch – box, what is present in it?
Answer:
Only air is present.

Question 6.
Can you compress air?
Answer:
Yes, we can compress air. When we fill football with air we compress air.

Question 7.
At what height, generally the jet planes fly?
Answer:
Jet planes fly above clouds that mean at the height of more than 16 km from earth surface.

Question 8.
Name the components of air?
Answer:
Components of air are:

  1. Oxygen
  2. Nitrogen
  3. Carbon – dioxide
  4. Water vapours and
  5. Dust particles.

Question 9.
What percentage of notrogen is present in air?
Answer:
Nearly 78% of air is nitrogen.

Question 10.
Which gas of air we use during respiration?
Answer:
Oxygen is used during respiration.

Question 11.
Give some examples where carbon dioxide is formed.
Answer:
Carbon – dioxide is formed when

  1. Fuel burns,
  2. Animals respire.

Question 12.
Who established for the first time that air contains more than one gases?
Answer:
The French scientist, Antoine Laurent Lovoisier in 1789.

Question 13.
Which gas is necessary for all living organisms?
Answer:
Oxygen.

Question 14.
How do fish respire in water?
Answer:
The fish take dissolved oxygen from water for respiration.

Question 15.
Which gas is given out during photosynthesis?
Answer:
Oxygen.

Question 16.
What is respiration?
Answer:
In respiration oxygen is taken up by all living organisms and used to break down food to give carbon – dioxide and energy.

Question 17.
How much air does a person take in per day?
Answer:
16 kg of air per day.

Question 18.
How does the air reduce harmful effects of smoke?
Answer:
Air spreads the smoke to a large area. Thus the smoke layer becomes thin and its harmful effect is decreased.

Question 19.
Why do clothes dry faster in wind?
Answer:
Rate of evaporation increases in wind and thus clothes dry faster in wind.

Question 20.
Why do we have gaps in firewood chulha?
Answer:
These gaps make air available all around the wood for continuous burning.

Question 21.
Why do factories have chimneys?
Answer:
Chimneys take smoke to a height. Air speeds is all over and effect of smoke decreases.

Question 22.
Why does a man sitting under a fan feel cooler?
Answer:
Fan circualtes the air and makes the evaporation of sweat rapid. Evaporation causes cooling and thus man feels cooler.

Question 23.
Why do we fill compressed air in tyres?
Answer:
Such tyres make transport smooth and easier.

MP Board Solutions

Question 24.
What makes air impure?
Answer:
The presence of dust particles, dirt, increase percentage of carbon-dioxide, sulphur dioxide and smoke make the air impure.

Question 25.
Mention three objects which are inflated by air and are used commonly.
Answer:
Following objects are inflated by air:

  1. Tyres of vehicles
  2. Balloons
  3. Footballs.

Air Around Us Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Mentions five uses of air.
Answer:
Uses of air are:

  1. All living things use air for respiration.
  2. Air is necessary for burning.
  3. Air is necessary for decay of waste material.
  4. Air can be used to produce energy by wind mill.
  5. Air helps in the dispersal of seeds from one place to other place.

Question 2.
Define a wheather cock.
Answer:
A wheather cock is a device which shows the direction of flow of air at that place.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 4

Question 3.
What is photosynthesis?
Answer:
Process of making food by the green leaves of plant with the help of carbon – dioxide, water and sunlight is known as photosynthesis.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 5

Question 4.
Who maintains the balance of oxygen and carbon – dioxide in nature?
Answer:
Plants and animals maintain the balance of oxygen and carbon – dioxide in nature. It follows as:

  1. We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon – dioxide.
  2. Plants use up carbon-dioxide when they produce food and oxygen.
  3. Plants also use oxygen but they produce more than they use.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
How will you show that air is a matter?
Answer:
To show that air is a matter, we have to show that air occupies space and air has mass. Take a balloon. Blow air in it. The size of ballon increases. This shows that air occupies space. Take another balloon. Weight it empty. Then fill it with air. Again weight. We will see after filling air the weight of balloon is more. This shows that air has mass. These two experiments show that air is a matter.

Question 6.
How will you show the presence of carbon – dioxide in air?
Answer:
Take a bottle filled with lime water. Then blow air from your mouth with the help of a pipe. The lime water will turn milky after some time. The carbon – dioxide present in air (from mouth) makes the lime water milky. This shows that carbon-dioxide is present in air.

Question 7.
When you finish your work in a laboratory you put the lid back on the spirit lamp. What happens then? Why?
Answer:
When we put the lid back on the spirit lamp it stops burning because on putting the lid air does not reach to lamp. It thus puts out spirit lamp.

Question 8.
Why do mountaineers and divers carry oxygen cylinders with them?
Answer:
At high altitudes on the mountains and deep in the sea the oxygen becomes very less. Due to less oxygen breathing becomes difficult. So mountaineers and divers carry oxygen cylinder with them.

Question 9.
Plants use carbon – dioxide for making their food. Where does this carbon – dioxide come from in the atmosphere?
Answer:
Plants use carbon – dioxide for making their food. But animals use oxygen for respiration and gives out carbon – dioxide. So this makes the balance of oxygen and carbon – dioxide in atmosphere.

Question 10.
How will you show that air is present in a lump of soil?
Answer:
The presence of air in a lump of soil can be shown by following experiment:
Take a lump of soil and put it into a plastic trough, half filled with water. We will see the bubbles of air coming out. These bubbles show that air is present in the lump of soil.

Question 11.
When you set fire to pieces of paper, it burns well. But when you set fire to a crumpled ball of paper, it burns only at the edge. Why is it so?
Answer:
Air is essential for burning. A piece of paper burns easily because it gets good supply of air. But in a crumbled ball of paper, it burns only at the edge. The inner layer does not get air.

MP Board Solutions

Question 12.
Discuss the role of plants in the environment?
Answer:

  1. Plants maintain balance between carbon – dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere.
  2. They act as noise and light filters.
  3. They tend to lower down the atmosphere.

Question 13.
Draw a pie diagram showing the composition of air?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 6

Air Around Us Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How will you show that an empty bottle is filled with air?
Answer:
We perform the following experiment to show that empty bottle is filled with air:
Take a glass trough. Fill half of it with water. Introduce an inverted glass bottle into the water. We will see that water does not enter it. Now tilt the bottle slightly. We will find that bubbles of air escape through water and water starts filling in the bottle. This shows that water in the bottle is filled only when air comes out of bottle. This shown that even empty bottle is filled with air.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 7

Question 2.
How will you show that air contains water vapours?
Answer:
Air has water vapours. It can be shown by following experiment:
Take half glass of water. Then add five pieces of ice in it. After some time we will see some water drops on outside surface of the glass.

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 8

These water drops have come by the condensation of water vapours present in air. This shows that air contains water vapours.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Explain wind mill with neat diagram?
Answer:
The wind makes the windmill rotate. The windmill is used to draw water from tubewells and to run flour mills. Windmils are also used to generate electricity. Air helps in the movements of sailing yachts, gliders, parachutes and aeroplanes. Birds, bats and insects can fly due to the presence of air. Air also helps in the dispersal of seeds and pollen of flowers of several plants. Air plays an important role in water cycle.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 15 Air Around Us 9

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

 

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us

Changes Around Us Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
To walk through a waterlogged area, you usually shorten the length of your dress by folding it. Can this change be reversed?
Answer:
Yes, this change can be reversed.

Question 2.
You accidentally dropped your favourite toy and broke it This is a change you did not want Can this change be reversed?
Answer:
No, this charge can not be reversed.

Question 3.
Some changes are listed in the following table. For each change, write in the blank column, whether the change can be reversed or not?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 1
Answer:

  1. No
  2. Yes
  3. Yes
  4. No
  5. No
  6. No.

Question 4.
A drawing sheet changes when you draw a picture on it. Can you reverse this change?
Answer:
If the picture is drawn with a pencil, then it can be erased, hence the change can be reversed. But if the picture is drawn with colours, the change cannot be reversed.

Question 5.
Give examples to explain the difference between changes that can or cannot be reversed?
Answer:
A change is said to be reversible or reversed when it can occur in both the forward and backward directions. For example, melting of ice in water and then its condensation into ice again; filling water with jug; opening or closing the door, etc. A change is said to be irreversible or cannot be reversed when it occurs only in one direction. For example, burning of match – stick repening of fruit; curdling of milk, etc.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
A thick coating of a paste of Plaster of Paris (POP) is applied over the bandage on a fractured bone. It becomes hard on drying to keep the fractured bone immobilised. Can the change in POP be reversed?
Answer:
No, the change in POP cannot be reversed.

Question 7.
A bag of cement lying in the open gets wet due to rain during the night. The next day the sun shines brightly. Do you think the changes, which have occurred in the cement, could be reversed?
Answer:
No, the changes which have occurred in the cement cannot be reversed.

Projects and Activities

Activity 1.
Make a table to show some common changes?
Answer:
Some common changes
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 2

Question 2.
Paheli wants to know if you have ever seen a blacksmith making some tools. How does a blacksmith change a piece of iron into different tools? A piece of iron is heated till it becomes red – hot. It then becomes soft and is beaten into a desired shape. What change has taken place in iron, on being heated?
Answer:
Expansion.

Changes Around Us Additional Important Questions

Changes Around Us Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question (a)
Which of the following is not reversible change?
(а) Burning of a piece of paper
(b) Ploughing a field
(c) Pulling of rubber string
(d) Melting of wax.
Answer:
(а) Burning of a piece of paper

Question (b)
From the following which is an irreversible change?
(а) Leaves turn yellow:
(b) Falling of leaves from tree
(c) Leaves turn into manure
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

MP Board Solutions

Question (c)
Chemical changes are:
(a) Always reversible
(b) Sometimes reversible
(c) Irreversible
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Always reversible

Question (d)
All chemical changes are necessarily:
(a) Irreversible
(b) Reversible
(c) Fast
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(v) None of these.

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Changes that repeat after a certain interval of time are called ……………………..
  2. Changes that lead to the formation of new substances are called ……………………………
  3. Burning of wood in a chulha is a …………………….. change but forest fire is an
  4. Melting of candle wax is a …………………….. change but its burning is a …………………….. change.
  5. Energy is ……………………… in the formation of curd from milk.

Answer:

  1. Periodic changes
  2. Chemical changes
  3. Desirable change, undesirable change
  4. Physical, chemical
  5. Liberated.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. Cooking of rice is a physical change.
  2. Breaking of a china dish is a chemical change.
  3. Rusting of iron is an irreversible change.
  4. Eruption of a volcano is a periodic change.
  5. Formation of clouds is a fast change.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. False.

Question 4.
Match the items in Column A with items in Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 3
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 4

Changes Around Us Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Is picking of mango a desirable change? Why?
Answer:
Picking of mango is always a desirable change. We pickle mango according to our taste and desire.

Question 2.
Is printing a reversible or an irreversible change?
Answer:
Printing is irreversible change because printed matter cannot be easily erased.

Question 3.
Can you obtain wood from sawdust?
Answer:
We cannot obtain wood from sawdust because it is an irreversible change.

Question 4.
Why we classify the changes taking place around us?
Answer:
We classify the changes taking place around us to have better understanding of these changes. We classify changes according to the nature of the change.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
What is a slow change? Give examples?
Answer:
A change which occurs slowly and completes in days, months or years is a slow change. For example, rusting of iron, change of seasons, ageing, growth of a tree, weathering of rocks, etc.

Question 6.
What is a fast change? Give examples?
Answer:
A change which occurs rapidly and completes in seconds or a minutes is a fast change. For example, breaking of glass tumbler, burning of a match – stick, beating of heart, explosion of a pracker, etc.

Question 7.
What change takes place when an iron rod is heated up and cooled down?
Answer:
It is an irreversible change.

Question 8.
Can we say that ironing of clothes is a reversible change? Answer with reason?
Answer:
Yes, in the sense that ironing of cloth does not make a permanent change in the cloth fibre yet we can say it may be called as an irreversible change because ironing affects the upper surface of cloth which is consumed.

Changes Around Us Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a physical change? Give examples?
Answer:
A change is said to be a physical change when it involves the change only in the physical properties of a substance. The chemical properties are retained. For example, melting of ice, heating of water, moulding of clay, magnetization of iron piece, etc.

Question 2.
What is a chemical change? Give examples?
Answer:
A change is said to be a chemical change when it involves the change both in the physical and chemical properties of a substance. For example, curding of milk, burning of magnesium ribbon to form magnesium oxide, rusting of iron, to form oxide, burning of fuels to form ash and carbon dioxide, etc.

Question 3.
Formation of clouds is a physical change; Explain?
Answer:
The formation of clouds is a physical change because water from rivers, lakes or oceans evaporates, then it is converted into water vapours it is a temporary change. The change is reversible. There is no change in composition.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Explosion of a cracker is a chemical change. Explain?
Answer:
In the explosion of a cracker the mixture of sulphur, nitrate and other substances burn. There is an evolution of energy. The change is not reversible and the smoke and other gases cannot be converted back into the cracker.

Question 5.
Give two examples of changes in which energy is given out?
Answer:
The two examples of changes in which energy is given out are:

  1. Burning of magnesium ribbon to form magnesium oxide.
  2. Addition of sulphuric acid in water produce heat.

Question 6.
Give two examples of changes in which energy is absorbed?
Answer:
The two examples of changes in which energy is absorbed are:

  1. Evaporation of alcohol.
  2. Dissolution of ammonium chloride in water.

Question 7.
What are natural and man – made changes? Give examples?
Answer:
The changes which occurs in nature are called natural changes. For example, change of seasons, growth of child, germination of seed, weathering of rocks, flowering of plants, etc. The changes which do not occur in nature but are carried out including by man are called man – made changes. For example, burning of fuel, melting of wax, breaking of stones, making of ice – cream, etc.

Question 8.
Is burning always a desirable change? Explain?
Answer:
Burning of wood or coal in our homes is a desirable change as it is useful to us. Burning of wood or charcoal will become an undesirable change if burning of wood produces smoke and pollutes the air. Similarly burning of wood unnecessarily should be avoided as it is wastage of costly wood. Burning of petrol, kerosene oil is a source of pollution of air in cities.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
Is falling of trees always an undesirable change? Give reasons?
Answer:
Falling of trees for making furniture or timber is a desirable change. Though falling of trees can be undesirable because forest wealth will be lost when falling of trees is taken on a large scale.

Question 10.
Sort out reversible changes from the following:

  1. Melting of ice
  2. Wheat turn into flour
  3. Melting of wax
  4. Making of ice – cream from milk
  5. Growing old.

Answer:
Reversible changes are:

  1. Melting of ice
  2. Melting of wax.

Question 11.
Classify the following as physical or chemical changes:

  1. Melting of glass
  2. Burning of agarbatti
  3. Tearing of cloth
  4. Formation of seed from flower
  5. Cooking of food
  6. Formation of cloud.

Answer:
Physical change:

  1. Melting of glass.
  2. Tearing of cloth.
  3. Cooking of food.

Chemical change:

  1. Burning of agarbatti
  2. Formation of seed from flower.
  3. Formation of cloud.

Question 12.
Classify the following as reversible or irreversible changes:

  1. Growth of a plant
  2. Ploughing a field
  3. Melting of wax
  4. Falling of rain
  5. Pulling of rubber string
  6. Breaking of a glass rod
  7. Cooking of food.

Answer:
Reversible change:

  1. Ploughing a field
  2. Melting of wax
  3. Pulling of rubber string

Irreversible change:

  1. Growth of a plant
  2. Falling of rain
  3. Breaking of glass rod
  4. Cooking of food.

MP Board Solutions

Question 13.
See the picture and tell, in the candle:

  1. Which type of change is melting wax? Explain?
  2. Which type of change is burning wax? Explain?

Answer:

  1. The melting of wax is a physical change, because during this process of melting, it is changing into liquid state and after cooling down, again it becomes solid.
  2. The burning of wax is a chemical change because when the cotton wick embeded in the candle is burnt, ash and smoke is formed. It is not possible to make a wick from this ash and smoke.

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 5

Question 14.
Most physical changes are reversible, give reasons?
Answer:
In physical changes there is no change in the composition of substances. There may be a change in size, shape of the substances where a physical change takes place. Hence it is possible to produce the reactants from the products easily. The physical changes are mostly reversible.

Changes Around Us Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How metal rim is fixed on the wooden wheel of a cart?
Answer:
The metal rim is made slightly smaller than the wooden wheel. On heating, the rim expands and fits onto the wheel. Cold water is then pouted over the rim, which contracts and fits tightly onto the wheel.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 6

Question 2.
How wooden handle is fixed in the ring of the iron tool?
Answer:
The iron blade of these tools has a ring in which the wooden handle is fixed. Normally, the ring is slightly. smaller in sir e than the wooden handles fix the handle the ring is heated and it becomes slightly larger in size (expands) Now, the handle easily fits into the ring. When the ring cools down it contracts and fits tightly on to the handle.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 6 Changes Around Us IMG 7

Question 3.
Give reason of:

  1. Rotation of fan is a periodic change.
  2. Rusting of iron is a chemical change.
  3. Ripening of fruit is an irreversible change.

Answer:

1. Rotation of fan involves the movement of the blade, takes place at a fixed speed This movement is repeated after definite interval, hence the rotation of fan is a periodic change.

2. Rusting of iron is a chemical change because when the iron comes in contact with moist air, then it reacts with oxygen present in the air and starts rusting. Rusting of iron cannot be changed back into pure iron.

3. Ripening of fruit produces a change in the composition of the fruit. Ripened fruit cannot be changed back into the unripened fruit. It is an irreversible change. Hence this change is a chemical change.

Question 4.
What are desirable and undesirable changes? Give example?
Answer:
The changes which are useful to us are desirable changes. The changes which are not useful to us are called undesirable changes. We like the desirable changes to happen again but not the undesirable changes. The desirable changes include growth of a tree, undesirable changes. The desirable changes include growth of a tree, flowering of a plant, germination of seeds, formation of manure from cow – dung etc. The undesirable changes include breaking of glass tumbler, rusting of iron, rottening of food – stuffs, etc.

Question 5.
Give two examples of changes which are both desirable and undesirable?
Answer:

1. The burning of fuels like wood, coal or petrol is both desirable and undesirable change. The burning of fuels produce heat which is desirable but the burning also produce smoke. It pollutes the atmosphere and is undesirable.

2. The cutting of tree for wood is both desirable and undesirable change. The cutting provides wood for making furniture is desirable. At the same time the cutting of tree is undesirable because it destroys the natural balance.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Mention any three undesirable changes from your daily life?
Answer:
The three undesirable changes are:

  1. The burning of wood because on burning wood produces ash and smoke. Ash pollutes water and land, and smoke pollutes air.
  2. Rottening of food – stuff by bacteria or fungi. It spoils the food and makes it undesirable for eating purposes.
  3. Rusting of iron because iron after rusting corrodes and cannot be welded.

Question 7.
Differential between physical and chemical change?
Physical change:

  1. It involves change in the physical properties.
  2. It is temporary.
  3. It does not involve formation of new substance.
  4. It does not involve any energy change is substance.

Chemical change:

  1. It involves change both in the physical and chemical properties.
  2. It is permanent.
  3. It involves the formation of new substance.
  4. It involves energy changes as the chemical reactions are either exothermic or endothermic.

Question 8.
Classify the following changes in as many ways as you can:

  1. Breaking of a brick with hammer.
  2. Beating of heart.
  3. Germination of seed.
  4. Burning of an incense stick (agarbatti).
  5. Occurrence of solar eclipse.

Answer:

  1. Breaking of a brick with hammer is a fast, irreversible, undesirable, unperiodic and a physical change.
  2. Beating of heart is slow, periodic, irreversible and a desirable change.
  3. Germination of seed is slow, irreversible, unperiodic, desirable and a chemical change.
  4. Burning of an incense stick (agarbatti) is a slow, irreversible, desirable, periodic and a chemical change.
  5. Occurrence of solar eclipse is a non – periodic, an irreversible and a physical change.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
State the criterion/reason for each of the following:

  1. Cooked food is stored in a refrigerator,
  2. Iron sheet is coated with tin before making a can,
  3. Common salt is stored in ari airtight container during the rainy season?

Answer:

1. Cooked food is stored in a refrigerator to prevent it from rotting. In the refrigerator the temperature of the food is lowered and degeneration of food material does not take place. It remains worth eating for many days. It gets preserved.

2. Iron sheet is coated with tin before making a can because coating with tin projects iron from rusting. This protects the can and it can be used for a longer time than the can which is not coated with any protecting metal.

3. Common salt is a substance which absorb water from the atmosphere. It gets wet and corrodes the container made of iron or aluminium. To prevent the absorption of water by the common salt we have to store it in an air it tight container during rainy season.

Question 10.
Choose appropriate alternative and give reason for your choice in the following statements?

  1. Occurrence of an eclipse of moon is a periodic/non – periodic change.
  2. Catching cold is a periodic change/non-periodic change.
  3. Arrival of a comet is a periodic/non-periodic change.

Answer:

  1. Occurrence of eclipse of moon takes place when moving earth comes in between the sun and the moon is a non – periodic change because eclipses of the moon do not occur after specific intervals.
  2. Catching cold is not a periodic change because it is not at all necessary that common cold may inflict a person at specific intervals of time.
  3. Arrival of comet is also a non – periodic change because comets do not arise after specific time. They form occasionally and may not occur for many years.

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water

Water Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks in the following:

  1. The process of changing of water into its vapour is called ……………….
  2. The process of changing water vapour into water is called ………………
  3. No rainfall for a year or more may lead to ……………… in that region.
  4. Excessive rains may cause ………………..

Answer:

  1. Evaporation
  2. Condensation
  3. Draught
  4. Flood.

Question 2.
State for each of the following whether it is due to evaporation or condensation:

  1. Water drops appear on the outer surface of a glass containing cold water.
  2. Steam rising from wet clothes while they are ironed.
  3. Fog appearing on a cold winter morning.
  4. Blackboard dries up after wiping it.
  5. Steam rising from a.hot girdle when water is sprinkled on it.

Answer:

  1. Condensation
  2. Evaporation
  3. Condensation
  4. Evaporation
  5. Evaporation.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are “true”?

  1. Water vapoure is present in air only during the monsoon.
  2. Water evaporates into air from oceans, rivers and lakes but not from the soil.
  3. The process of water changing into its vapour, is called evaporation.
  4. The evaporation of water takes place only in sunlight.
  5. Water vapour condenses to form tiny droplets of water in the upper layers of air where it is cooler.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. True
  4. True
  5. True.

Question 4.
Suppose you want to dry your school uniform quickly. Would spreading it near and anghiti or heater help? If yes, how?
Answer:
Yes, if we want to dry our school uniform quickly, we should spread our clothes near a anghiti or heater. The reason is that near anghiti or heater, temperature is more so water evaporation from the clothes will be faster, hence the clothes dry quickly.

Question 5.
Take out a cooled bottle of water from refrigerator and keep it on a table. After some time you notice a puddle of water around it Why?
Answer:
When we keep a cooled bottle of water taking out from a refrigerator we notice some puddles of water around it. This is due to the water – vapour near the surrounding atmosphere, condenses and deposites around the cooled water bottle. Water vapour always remains in the atmosphere.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
To clean their spectacles, people often breathe out on glasses to make them wet. Explain why the glasses become wet.
Answer:
When we breathe on the spectacles, water vapour comes out from our breathe, and they condenses into water droplets when they come in contact of glass, because the glasses are cooler that the water vapours. Hence, the glasses becomes wet due to water puddles.

Question 7.
How does clouds formed?
Answer:
There is a continuous evaporation of water from surfaces of sea, rivers, lakes, etc. As we go higher from the surface of the earth, it gets cooler. When the air moves up, it gets cooler and cooler.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 6
At sufficient height, the air becomes so cool that the water vapour present in it condenses to form tiny drops of water called droplets. It is these tiny droplets that remain floating in air and appear to us clouds.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
When does a drought occur?
Answer:
If it does not rain in a region for a year or more. The soil continues to lose water by evaporation and transpiration. Since it is not being brought back by rain, the soil becomes dry. The level of water in wells and in ponds of the region goes down and some of them may also became scarce. This may lead to drought.

Projects and Activities

Activity 1.
List all the activities for which you use water in a day?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 5 - Copy

Activity 2.
Write a slogan of your own on the topic ‘save water”?
Answer:
“Save Every Drop of Water”.

Water Text Book Questions

Question 1.
Boojho wonders whether people living in different regions of our country get the same amount of water. Are there regions where people not get adequate amount of water? How do they manage?
Answer:
The people living in different areas or regions of our country do not get the same amount of water. There are so many places in Rajasthan, where people do not get adequate amount of water. They manage their needs by storing the water.

Question 2.
Paheli wants to tell you that about two glasses of water are required to produce each page of a book.
Answer:
Yes.

Question 3.
Boojho wants you to imagine a day in your life when water supply through taps is not available. So, you have to fetch it yourself from a far away place. Would you use the same amount of water as on any other day?
Answer:
No, on such a day we will use less amount of water.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Paheli has noticed dew on leaves of grass on winter mornings. Did you notice something similar on leaves or metal surfaces like iron grills and gates on a cold morning? Is this also due to condensation? Do you see this happening on hot summer mornings?
Answer:
Yes, it is due to condensation. This does not happening on hot summer mornings.

Question 5.
Boojho has noticed fog near the ground in winter mornings. He wonders if this is also condensation of water vapour near the ground. What do you think?
Answer:
Yes, it is condensation of water vapour near the ground.

Water Additional Important Questions

Water Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question (i)
Water is –
(a) A mixture
(b) A compound
(c) An element
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(b) A compound

Question (ii)
The purest form of natural water is –
(a) River
(b) Sea
(c) Rain
(d) Spring.
Answer:
(c) Rain

Question (iii)
Salinity of sea water is about –
(a) 1.5%
(b) 2.5%
(c) 15%
(d) none of these.
Answer:
(b) 2.5%

Question (iv)
The major source of water on the earth is –
(a) Ground water
(b) Rain water
(c) Sea water
(d) Surface water.
Answer:
(b) Rain water

MP Board Solutions

Question (v)
Drinking water is known as –
(a) Soft water
(b)Hard water
(c) Fresh water
(d) Potable water.
Answer:
(d) Potable water.

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks –

  1. Water is one of the basic constituents of all ………………… things.
  2. Water is required in the home for …………………. and ……………………
  3. ………………… is essential for germination of seeds.
  4. Water is essential for all animals and ………………….
  5. Electricity can be generated by ………………….
  6. In cold countries ………………….. water is used to worm their houses.
  7. A car radiator is filled with water to keep the engine …………………
  8. Pure water has ……………….. taste.
  9. When water is boiled it changes to …………………
  10. The boiling point of water is ………………………

Answer:

  1. Living
  2. Drinking, washing, bathing
  3. Water
  4. Plants
  5. Water
  6. Hot
  7. Cool
  8. No
  9. Vapours
  10. 100°C.

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true: (T) or false (F):

  1. Water from all sources is fit for drinking.
  2. Chemicals are added in water to kill the germs present in it.
  3. Sea water is a saline water.
  4. Rain water is present form of water.
  5. Water obtained from different.sources have same taste.
  6. Pure water is blue in colour.
  7. Water dissolved many substances, therefore it is a good solvent.
  8. Water cycle deals with the circulation of water on the earth.
  9. Whole of rain water goes to sea.
  10. Water cycle makes the balance of water on the earth.
  11. In atmosphere, temperature decreases with height.
  12. Rain forms due to evaporation of clouds.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. True
  5. False
  6. False
  7. True
  8. True
  9. False
  10. True
  11. False
  12. False.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Match the items in Column A with Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 4 - Copy
Answer:

(i) (c)
(ii) (d)
(iii) (b)
(iv) (a).

Water Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What part of earth is covered with water?
Answer:
Three – fourth of earth is covered with water.

Question 2.
How much water is present in a –

  1. Tree
  2. Man
  3. Elephant

Answer:
They have following percentage of water:

  1. Tree – 60%
  2. Man – 70%
  3. Elephant – 80%.

Question 3.
How does a plant get water for living?
Answer:
A plant gets water from soil through its roots.

Question 4.
How does a plant lose it extra water absorbed by roots?
Answer:
Leaves of a plant has tiny pores in it. It loses extra water through these tiny pores.

Question 5.
What is transpiration?
Answer:
Plants lose their extra water continuously from the tiny openings present in their leaves. This process is known as transpiration.

Question 6.
Mention three sources of water.
Answer:

  1. River
  2. Lakes
  3. Springs.

Question 7.
Which is the largest sources of water on earth?
Answer:
The largest source of water is ocean.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
What chemicals would you use to kill the germs present in water?
Answer:
Chlorine is added to water to kill the germs present in water.

Question 9.
What are the different methods to make water fit for use?
Answer:
Water can be made fit for use by the following methods:

  1. Boiling
  2. Filtering
  3. Treating water with chemicals like chlorine.

Question 10.
What is the saline water?
Answer:
Water which contains large amount of dissolved salts is called saline water.

Question 11.
Is water obtained from pond or lake fit for drinking?
Answer:
No, water obtained from pond or lake is not always fit for drinking. It may contain some impurities.

Question 12.
Why can’t we use sea water for drinking?
Answer:
Sea water is salty and hence cannot be used at home and in agriculture.

Question 13.
State three physical properties of water?
Answer:
Water is colourlesss, odourless, tasteless and transparent liquid.

Question 14.
What do you mean by water cycle in nature?
Answer:
The change of water from one form to another over and over in makes the water cycle in nature.

Question 15.
Is water obtained from every source fit for drinking?
Answer:
No, it is not safe for drinking. Before drinking it should be purified.

Question 16.
Why should water be conserved?
Answer:
Water is a natural resource. Once it is polluted it is difficult and expensive to purify it. Therefore, it should not be wasted but conserved.

Question 17.
How does forest help us?
Answer:
Forests increase in rainfall which increases the water level in wells, lakes and rivers.

MP Board Solutions

Question 18.
Which is the purest form water?
Answer:
Rain water is the purest form of water.

Question 19.
What problems are faced by the people in drought areas?
Answer:
In drought areas, people face many problems. It is difficult to get food and fodder. Animals and plants will die in the absence of water.

Question 20.
Why should we protect our forest and grow more trees?
Answer:
We should protect our forest and also grow more trees because they help in rainfall. They increase rainfall. So we should grow more trees.

Question 21.
Name two pollutants.
Answer:
Water pollutants are household waste and industrial waste like detergents, chemicals like nitrates, phosphates etc.

Water Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Define ground water.
Answer:
The ground water is actually rain water which mainly comes from seepage of water accumulated under the ground. Rain water percolates into the soil and reaches under the ground where water quantity increases and air decreases. This reserve water under the ground is called ground water. Open wells are fed by ground water. Ground water is the source of many lakes as well The more land pumps or tubewells that are used in an area, the deeper we need to dig to find this ground water.

Question 2.
What makes the sea water so saline?
Answer:
Rivers flowing from different places bring water containing dissolved salts and minerals into the sea. Sea water is continuously evaporated by the heat of sun. This evaporated water forms clouds and again fall on the earth as rain. This rain water again dissolves salts into it and goes into the sea. Thus the amount of salts in sea water goes in increasing.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Why is the water cycle important?
Water cycle is important to us because of the following:

  1. It restores the supply of water in nature.
  2. It regulates the temperature of atmosphere.
  3. It regulates the weather or reasons.

Question 4.
Mention five uses of water?
Water is useful in many ways like:

  1. For drinking, washing, cooking and other household works.
  2. It is used for generation of energy in dams.
  3. It is used for irrigation of fields for proper crop yield.
  4. It is used in industries.
  5. It is used in car to cool radiators.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
Why is conservation of water essential?
Answer:
Water is essential for life. There are many sources of water, but water obtained from these sources are not fit for drking. To make it safe for drinking, it has to undergo many methods of purification, which is a long process. So water must be conserved. It means, it should be carefully and economically used.

Water Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
How will you show that water is essential for the germination of seeds?
Answer:
The following experiment shows that the water is essential for the germination of seeds:
Take two petrydishes. Put some gram seeds (say 20) in both the dishes. Add some water in dish 1 and keep dish 2 dry. Keep them for 6 hours. Now remove the water and keep wet cotton wool in dish 1, and dish 2 should be remained as such. Keep them for two days. After two days we will see that only moist seeds have been germinated while dry seeds remain as such. This shows that water is essential for germination.

Question 2.
Briefly describe water cycle in nature.
Answer:
The change of water from one form to another over and over again makes the water cycle in nature. Water cycle involves evaporation, condensation and precipitation. The water from the surface of sea, river, lakes or ponds is evaporated in the form of water vapours. Water is also evaporated from the surface of plants as transpiration.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 3 - Copy
These vapours rise high up in air and condense in the form of clouds. When temperature is low, the water precipitates in the form of rain, hails or snow to restore the supply of water back to the earth to repeat the cycle.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
How can water wastage be minimised?
Answer:
The water which is safe for drinking is not available in plenty. Thus everyone should make efforts to save water. We should also minimise the water pollution.
We can minimise water wastage by following methods:

  1. Pollution of water at sources should be minimised.
  2. By using water carefully.
  3. By growing forest. It helps in more rainfall and hence the excess of water will be available.
  4. More number of dams on rivers will also help in wastage of rain water.
  5. Rain water may also be collected.

Question 4.
What if it rains heavily? Discuss a scene of a flood area?
Answer:
The time, duration and the amount of rainfall varies from place to place. In some parts of the world it rains throughout the year while there are places where it rains only for a few days.
In our country, most of the rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. Rains bring relief especially after hot summer days. The sowing of many crops depends on the arrival of monsoon.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 2
However, excess of rainfall may lead to many problems [see figure (a)]. Heavy rains may lead to rise in the level of water in rivers, lakes and ponds. The water may then spread over large areas causing floods. The crops fields, forests, villages, and cities may get submerged by water [Fig. (b)]. In our country, floods cause extensive damage to crops, domestic animals, property and human life.

During floods, the animals living in the water also get carried away with the waters. They often get trapped on land areas and die when floodwater recedes. Rains also affect the animals living in the soil.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
What is rain water harvesting? How is it done? Discuss any two techniques of rainwater harvesting.
Answer:
One way of increasing the availability of water is to collect rainwater and store it for later use. Collecting rainwater in this way is called rainwater harvesting. The basic idea behind rainwater harvesting is “Catch water where it falls”. It flows into the drains, isn’t it? From roads and buildings water goes to rivers or lakes, which could be far away. A lot of effort will then be required to get this water back into our homes as the water did not seep into the ground.

The two techniques of rainwater harvesting are:
1. Rooftop rainwater harvesting:
In this system the rainwater is collected from the rooftop to a storage tank, through pipes. This water may contain soil from the roof and need filtering before it is used. Instead of collecting rainwater in the tank, the pipes can go directly into a pit in the ground. This then seeps into the soil to recharge or refill the ground water.

2. Another option is to allow water to go into the ground directly from the roadside drains that collect rainwater.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Water 1

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets

Fun with Magnets Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks in the following:

  1. Artificial magnets are made in different shapes such as …………….. , …………….. and ……………..
  2. The materials which are attracted towards a magnet are called ……………..
  3. Paper is not a …………….. material.
  4. In olden days, sailors used to find direction by suspending a piece of ……………..
  5. A magnet always has …………….. poles.

Answer:

  1. Bar magnet, horse – shoe magnet, cylindrical.
  2. Magnetic material
  3. Plastic,
  4. Suspended magnet
  5. Two.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
State whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F):

  1. A cylindrical magnet has only one pole.
  2. Artificial magnets were discovered in Greece.
  3. Similar poles of magnet repel each other.
  4. Maximum iron filings stick in the middle of a bar magnet when it is brought near them.
  5. Bar magnets always point towards North – South direction.
  6. A compass can be used to find East – West direction at any place.
  7. Rubber is a magnetic material.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True
  6. False
  7. False.

Question 3.
It was observed that a pencil sharpener gets attracted by both the poles of a magnet although its body is made of plastic. Name a material that might have been used to make some part of it.
Answer:
Iron.

Question 4.
Column I shows different positions in which one pole of a magnet is placed near that of the other. Column II indicates the resulting action between them for each situation. Fill in the blanks.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 17
Answer:

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 16

Question 5.
Write any two properties of a magnet.
Answer:
The properties of a magnet are:

  1. It attracts the objects made of iron, cobalt and nickle.
  2. When it is suspended freely then it stands always in North – South direction.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Where are poles of a bar magnet located?
Answer:
On the two ends of the bar magnet.

Question 7.
A bar magnet has no markings to indicate its poles. How would you find out near which end is its north pole located?
Answer:
Take a bar magnet. Put a mark on one of its ends for identification. Now, tie a thread at the middle of the magnet so that you may suspend it from a wooden stand [Fig.]. Make sure that the magnet can rotate freely. Let it come to rest. Mark two points on the ground to show the position of the ends of the magnet when it comes to rest. Draw a line joining the two points. This line shows the direction in which the magnet Was pointing in its position of rest. Now, rotate the magnet by gently pushing one end in any direction and let it come to rest. Again, mark the position of the two ends in its position of rest.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 15
Rotate  the magnet in other directions and magnet always comes to rest note the final direction in which it in the same direction comes to rest. We find that a freely suspended bar magnet always comes to rest in a North –  South direction. The end of the magnet that points towards North is called its North seeking end or the North pole of the magnet.

Question 8.
You are given an iron strip. How will you make it into a magnet?
Answer:
Take the iron strip and place it on the table. Now take a bar magnet and place one of its poles near one edge of the bar of iron. Without lifting the bar magnet, move it along the length of the iron bar till you reach the other end. Now, lift the magnet and bring the pole (the same pole you started with) to the same point of the iron bar from which you began (fig.) Move the magnet again along the iron bar in the same direction as you did before.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 14
Repeat this process about 30 – 40 times. Bring a pin or some iron filings near the iron bar to check whether it has become a magnet. If not, continue the process for some more time. Remember that, the pole of the magnet and the direction of its movement should not change. In this way, an iron strip can be converted into a magnet.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
How is a compass used to find directions?
Answer:
Magnetic Compass.
Magnetic compass consists of a small magnetized needle which is enclosed in a small round box made of aluminium. The box consists of a small pointed vertical axis (pivot) on which the magnetized needle rotates freely. The aluminium box is covered by thin glass cover.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 13
The magnetized needle rotates freely and points towards geographic north from which true north can be calculated. This magnetic compass is used to find the direction at any place. Sailors and navigators also use this compass to find the direction during their journey.

Question 10.
A magnet was brought from different directions towards a toy boat that has been floating in water in a tub. Affect observed in each case is stated in Column I. Possible reasons for the observed affects are mentioned in Column II. Match the statements given in Column I with those in the Column II

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 12
Answer:

(i) (d)
(ii) (e)
(iii) (b)
(iv) (a)
(v) (b).

Projects and Activities

Activity 1.
collect various objects of day – to – day use from your sourroundings. Test these with the “Magnes stick”. You can also take a magnet, touch these objects with it and observe which objects stick to the magnet. Prepare a table and record your observations.
Answer:
Table: Finding the objects attracted by magnet
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 11

Fun with Magnets Text Book Questions

Question 1.
Boojho has this question for you. A tailor n was stitching buttons on his Shirt. The needle has slipped from his hand on to the floor. Can you help the tailor to find the needle?
Answer:
Yes, with the help of magnet.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Paheli has this puzzle for you. You are given tow indentical bars which look as if they might be made of iron. One of them is a magnet, while the other is a simple iron bar. How will you find out, which one is a magnet?
Answer:
The magnet has two poles where attraction is maximum. But in iron bar there is no pole, so attraction is same everywhere.

Fun with Magnets Additional Important Questions

Fun with Magnets Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:
Question (i)
North pole of a magnet –
(a) Attracts north pole
(b) Remains inactive
(c) May attract or repel
(d) Repels north pole.
Answer:
(d) Repels north pole.

Question (ii)
Which one is natural magnet –
(a) Ferrite
(b) Carbon
(c) Iron
(d) Magnetite.
Answer:
(b) Carbon

Question (iii)
Which of the following is non – magnetic –
(q) Iron
(b) Nickel
(c) Cobalt
(d) Aluminium.
Answer:
(d) Aluminium.

Question (iv)
An electrolyte is a –
(a) Solid that conducts electricity
(b) Liquid that does not conduct electricity
(c) Solid that does not conduct electricity
(d) Liquid that conducts electricity and breaks up chemically in the process.
Answer:
(d) Liquid that conducts electricity and breaks up chemically in the process.

MP Board Solutions

Question (v)
Strength of a magnet is –
(а) Maximum at centre
(b) Maximum at poles
(c) Minimum at poles
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(а) Maximum at centre

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Iron and nickle are …………….. materials whereas copper and aluminium are …………….. materials.
  2. The regions of strongest magnetism in a magnet are known as the ………………
  3. Like poles ………………. whereas unlike poles
  4. The molecular magnets in a magnet are arranged in groups called ……………..
  5. Steel is used to make …………….. magnets.
  6. The shaving blade is an inexpensive ………………

Answer:

  1. Magnetic, non – magnetic
  2. Ends
  3. Repel, attract
  4. Domains
  5. Permanent
  6. Magnet.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) false (F):

  1. The magnetite is mainly composed of oxides of iron.
  2. Like poles of a magnet attract each other,
  3. Plastic is a non – magnetic material.
  4. A magnet looses its magnetism on striking voilently with hammer.
  5. Magnets point towards East – West when freely suspended.
  6. Earth behaves like a huge magnet.
  7. Orested a Danish scientist noticed that a compass needle was affected by the electric current flowing in the neighbouring coil of wire.
  8. The most important property of magnet is to attract iron pieces.
  9. A horse – shoe magnet.can have only one pole.
  10. A magnet can have two north poles.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True
  6. True
  7. True
  8. Ture
  9. False
  10. False.

Question 4.
Match the items of Column A with Column B:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 10
Answer:

(i) (b)
(ii) (c)
(iii) (d)
(iv) (a).

Fun with Magnets Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
When was magnetite discovered?
Answer:
Magnetite was discovered in 800 B. C.

Question 2.
From where a mineral magnetite was discovered first.
Answer:
It was discovered in the town of Magnesia.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Why was magnetite named Londestone?
Answer:
It was named so because this mineral can align itself in the same direction it left to rotate freely.

Question 4.
Which is the North Pole of a bar magnet?
Answer:
It is the tip of a bar magnet which points towards the north direction.

Question 5.
Which is the South Pole of a bar magnet?
Answer:
It is the tip of a bar magnet which points towards the south direction.

Question 6.
What is a temporary magnet?
Answer:
It is piece of magnet only for a short period. This magnetism is lost as soon as the source of magnetisation is removed.

Question 7.
How should we store magnets?
Answer:
We should store magnets by joining opposite poles of two magnets preferably with a piece of iron in between.

Question 8.
Who discovered the magnetic effects of electric current?
Answer:
Danish Scientist H. C. Uersted discovered the phenomenon in 1820.

Question 9.
What are domains?
Answer:
When we study a magnet in microscope, it consists of small regions. These regions are called domains.

Question 10.
How is magnet and electric current similar in property?
Answer:
Because wires having electric current behave like a magnet. In electric current also like charges repel and unlike charges attract

.MP Board Solutions

Question 11.
What is a magnetic needle?
Answer:
This needle moves a pivot fixed at the centre of a round frame box. It is used by navigators for finding out the direction in the sea.

Question 12.
Name some non-magnetic materials.
Answer:
Plastic, cloth, paper and leather, etc. are non – magnetic materials.

Question 13.
What are the ends of a magnet called?
Answer:
Poles.

Question 14.
What is natural magnet called?
Answer:
Magnetite.

Question 15.
Which iron is used for making a permanent magnet?
Answer:
Hard steel and alloys.

Question 16.
What is the instrument in which directive property of a magnet is used?
Answer:
Mariner’s compass.

Fun with Magnets Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is a magnet? How is a temporary magnet different from a permanent magnet?
Answer:
Any material that has the property of attracting iron is called a magnet.
Difference between temporary and permanent magnet:

Temporary magnet:

  • It is magnet for a short period.
  • Its magnetism is lost if source of magnetisation is removed.
  • It is made up of soft iron.

Permanent magnet:

  • It is magnet for ever.
  • It remains magnet even if the source of magnetisation is removed.
  • It is made up of steel.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Can you make out the south and north direction with the help of bar magnet. How?
Answer:
Yes, we can make out the south and north directions with the help of bar magnet. Suspend a magnet from a string tied to its middle so that it can rotate freely. The tip of the bar magnet which point north will rest to the north direction and the tip bearing south will rest to point towards south direction.

Question 3.
Define magnetism. Also give the name of magnetic and non – magnetic substance.
Answer:
Magnetism:
Magnet has the property of attracting various substances towards itself. This property of magnet is called magnetism.

Magnetic substances:
Those substances which are attracted by a magnet are called magnetic substances. For examples-, nickel, iron steel, cobalt and alloys of these substances are magnetic in nature.

Non – magnetic substances:
Those substances which are not attracted by a magnet are called non-magnetic substances. For examples, glass, cloth, wood, cloth, etc.

Question 4.
How can you make your personal compass?
Answer:
Magnetise an iron needle using a bar magnet. Now, insert the magnetised needle through a small piece of cork or foam. Let the cork float in water in a bowl or a tub. Make sure that the needle does not touch the water (Fig.). Your compass is now ready to work.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 9

Question 5.
What is an electromagnet? Give two applications of electromagnets?
Answer:
When an electric current flows through a coil of wire, the coil behaves like a permanent magnet. When this current carrying coil is brought near a suspended bar magnet, one end of the coil repeals the north pole of the magnet. The other end of the coil attracts the north pole of the magnet. Thus, a current carrying coil has both a north and south pole like a magnet, such a magnet is called electromagnet.

Applications of electromagnet:

  1. They are used in electric bells, telephones, telegraphps, etc.
  2. They are used to separate magnetic substances like nickel, cobalt and iron from non – magnetic substances like brass, copper, zinc and plastics.

Fun with Magnets Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What happens when the north pole of a magnet is brought near (i) the north pole, (ii) the south pole of a freely suspended magnet?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 8
Answer:
Suspend a bar magnet with a string. This bar magnet should be marked with north and south pole.

  1. Hold another magnet in hand and bring its north pole close to each pole one by one. North pole of two magnet will repel each other as they are like poles.
  2. While north of magnet, in hand comes close to south of suspended magnet, it will show attraction because they are unlike poles.

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 7

Question 2.
Can we have an isolated north pole or south pole?
Answer:
An isolated magnetic pole is not possible. Two magnetic poles of a magnet cannot be separated.
If a magnet is broken into two pieces, each piece is a magnet having north and south pole. If these pieces are further broken into more smaller pieces, each piece consists the two poles (i.e., north pole and south pole) at its ends.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 6
Dividing a magnet infinitely would still produce tiny magnets each having its own poles at two ends. This shows that two poles of a magnet cannot be separated and an isolated magnetic pole does not exist.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Explain the process by which a permanent magnet can magnetise an ordinary piece of iron?
Answer:
A piece of iron can be magnetised by two methods:

1. By single touch method. Put a piece of iron on the table:
Hold a bar magnet on it vertically with north pole touching. Now move the magnet along the length. By repeating this practice many times makes that iron piece a magnet.

2. By double touch method:
Put a piece of iron on the table. Hold two bar magnets on it vertically with north and south pole of two magnets. Put them in the middle first. Move the magnets in opposite direction as shown in figure. Repeating this process converts the piece of iron into a magnet.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 5

Question 4.
Why does a freely suspended magnet always come to rest in the north – south direction?
Answer:
This is because the earth itself behaves like a huge bar magnet with its magnetic poles near the geographical north and south poles. The south pole of this bar magnet is near the geographical north pole, whereas the north pole of the bar magnet is near the geographical south pole.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 4
In a freely suspended magnet, therefore, the north pole points towards the geographical north pole since it is attracted by the earth’s magnetic south pole. Similarly, the south pole of the suspended magnet is attracted by the earth’s magnetic north pole and, therefore, points towards the geographical south pole.

MP Board Solutions

Question 5.
Write a short note on the cautions of magnets?
Answer:
Magnets loose their properties if they are heated, hammered or dropped from some height [Fig. (a)]. Also, magnets become weak if they are not stored properly.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 3
To keep them safe, bar magnets should be kept in pairs with their unlike poles on the same side. They must be separated by a piece of wood while two pieces of soft iron should be placed across their ends [Fig. (b)]. For horse-shoe magnet, one should keep a piece of iron across the poles.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 2
Keep magnets away from cassettes, mobiles, television, music system, compact disks (CDs) and the computer. [See Fig. (c)]
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 13 Fun with Magnets 1

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits

Electricity and Circuits Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. A device that is used to break an electric circuit is called ……………… terminals.
  2. An electric cell has ……………… terminals.

Answer:

  1. Switch
  2. Two.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Mark ‘True’ or ‘False’ for following statements:

  1. Electric current can flow through metals.
  2. Instead of metal wires, a jute string can be used to make a circuit.
  3. Electric current can pass through a sheet of thermo Col.

Answer:

  1. True
  2. False
  3. False.

Question 3.
Explain why the bulb would not glow in the arrangement show in Fig?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 1
Answer:
The bulb will not glow because the circuit is not completed due to the presence of an insulator between the circuit. Here insulator is screw driver.

Question 4.
Complete the drawing shown in figure to indicate where the free ends of the two wires should be joined to make the bulb glow.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 2
Answer:
The complete diagram in shown below:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 3

Question 5.
What is the purpose of using an electric switch? Name some electrical gadgets that have switches built into them.
Answer:
An electric switch is used to open or close the circuit. Electric gadgets that have switches built into them are freezer, washing machines, microwaves, toaster, heaters, electric – bulb, tube – light, electric iron, etc.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
Would the bulb glow after completing the circuit shown in Figure of Question 4 above if instead of safety pin we use an eraser?
Answer:
No.

Question 7.
Would the bulb glow in the circuit shown in Fig.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 4
Answer:
No, because both of the terminal of battery is connecting with one terminal of bulb.

Question 8.
Using the “conduction tester” on an object it was found that the bulb begins to glow. Is that object a conductor or an insulator? Explain.
Answer:
That object is a conductor because electricity can pass through a conductor and not through an insulator. If the object is an insulator then bulb could not glow.

MP Board Solutions

Question 9.
Why should an electrician use rubber gloves while repairing an electric switch at your home? Explain.
Answer:
An electrician use rubber gloves while repairing an electric switch because rubber is a bad conductor of electricity or in other words rubber is an insulator.

Question 10.
The handles of the tools like screwdrivers and pliers used by electricians for repair work usually have plastic or rubber covers on them. Can you explain why?
Answer:
Because plastic and rubber, both are the bad conductor of electricity. Hence, they protect electricians against electric shock.

Projects and Activities

Activity 1.
Make a table to show different materials allows current to pass through it or not.
Answer:
Conductors and Insulators:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 5

Activity 2.
Describe a simple experiment to test whether a given material is a conductor or an insulator.
Answer:
To identify given material is a conductor or an insulator.

Requirements:
Pencil, matchstick, alpin, rubber tube, cell wire, bulb.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 6
Procedure:
Take a small bulb, a battery and a length of wire and connect them in a circuit as show in figure. This circuit is not closed and no current will pass through it. Close the gap between the points A and B by inserting the graphite of your pencil between them. Repeat this by successively replacing the graphite by rubber tube, alpin and matchstick. Record the observations in the table given below.
Table
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 7

Electricity and Circuits Additional Important Questions

Electricity and Circuits Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question (i)
S.I. unit of electic current is –
(a) Farad
(b) Volt
(c) Ampere
(d) Coulomb.
Answer:
(c) Ampere

Question (ii)
The types of charges are –
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Two

Question (iii)
Voltaic cell was invented by –
(a) Alessandro Volta
(b) J. F. Volta
(c) Georges Leclanche
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Alessandro Volta

MP Board Solutions

Question (iv)
The principle of a voltaic cell was used by –
(a) J. F. Daniel
(b) Alessandro Volta
(c) Georges Leclanche
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) J. F. Daniel

Question (v)
The primary cells are –
(a) Voltaic cell
(b) Daniel cell
(c) Dry cell
(d) All of these.
Answer:
(d) All of these.

Question (vi)
Electric current is the flow of particles with –
(a) A negative charge
(b) A positive charge
(c) Both positive and negative charges flowing opposite to each other.
(d) Either positive or negative charge depending on the material.
Answer:
(a) A negative charge

Question (vii)
The conductors of electricity are –
(a) mica
(6) wood
(c) glass
(d) none of these.
Answer:
(d) none of these.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Flow of ………….. through a conductor, when a potential difference is applied across its terminals, is called electric current.
  2. The actual direction of current flowing through a circuit is from negative to positive electrode, whereas the …………….. direction is from negative to positive.
  3. S.I. unit of electric current is ……………..
  4. …………….. is used to measure current flowing through a conductor and voltmeter is used to measure ……………. difference across the ends of a conductor.
  5. The bulb with broken filament is called a …………… bulb.
  6. The thin tiny wire inside the glass cover in a bulb is called ……………….
  7. The bulb does not glow when the ……………. is open.

Answer:

  1. Free electrons
  2. Conventional
  3. Ampere,
  4. Ammeter, potential difference
  5. Fused
  6. Filament
  7. Switch.

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. Materials which do not allow an electric current to flow through them are called conductors.
  2. In an electric press which effect of electric current used is heating effect.
  3. Rate of flow of charge is called electric current.
  4. Electric cell converts chemical energy to mechanical energy.
  5. Voltaic cell was invented by Volta.
  6. Dry cell is portable.
  7. An electric cell cannot to be used in a wrist watch.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True,
  6. True
  7. False.

Electricity and Circuits Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What are the essential components of an electric circuit?
Answer:
The essential components of an electric circuit are battery or cell, conductor and a key.

Question 2.
What is an electric circuit?
Answer:
The path of an electric current is referred to as electric circuit.

Question 3.
Can we see electricity?
Answer:
No, we cannot see electricity but can observe its effects.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Name two sources of electric current?
Answer:
The two sources of electric current are Voltaic cell and Daniel cell.

Question 5.
What is a conductor? Give two examples.
Answer:
Substances, such as metals, that can conduct electric current are called conductors. For examples, Copper, Aluminium.

Question 6.
What is an insulator? Give three examples.
Answer:
The materials that do not allow current to pass through them are called insulators. For examples, Mica, Wood and Rubber.

Question 7.
Make a list of materials around you which conduct electricity and a list of those that do not.
Answer:
Conductors of electricity are:
All metals, acid base and salt solutions, aluminium, iron, copper and nickel.

Do not conduct electricity are:
Paper, rubber, wool, nylon, polythene and backelite.

Question 8.
Who supplies electricity to tourch bulb?
Answer:
Electric cell supplies electricity to torch bulb.

Question 9.
What are the ready sources of electric current?
Answer:
The ready sources of electric current are dry cell and battery. Every dry cell and battery had got two terminals or connection points marked (+) and (-).

Question 10.
Which scientist made earliest attempts to obtain an electric current?
Answer:
The earliest attempts to obtain electric current was made in the year 1790 by Alessandro Volta an Italian scientist.

MP Board Solutions

Question 11.
What is a fused bulb?
Answer:
When the filament is broken in a bulb, it is called the fused bulb.

Question 12.
Define an open circuit?
Answer:
When there is a gap between two terminals, it is called an open circuit.

Question 13.
Define a closed circuit?
Answer:
A circuit where there is no gap between two terminals is called a closed circuit.

Question 14.
Draw symbol of (i) a cell, (ii) battery and (iii) a key.
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 8

Question 15.
Name two insulators?
Answer:
Plastics and rubber.

Question 16.
Who discovered the dry cell?
Answer:
Georges Leclanche discovered the dry cell.

MP Board Solutions

Question 17.
What is meant by battery?
Answer:
The positive terminal of one cell is kept in contact with the negative terminal of the other cell. When two or more then two cells are joined together in this way, we get a battery.

Question 18.
What energy is converted to electrical energy in an electric cell?
Answer:
The chemicals in a cell produce chemical energy. This chemical energy is converted to electrical energy in a cell.

Question 19.
What are the uses of storage batteries?
Answer:
Storage batteries are used where electric current is needed for longer time of more voltage. For examples, in cars, trucks, buses. It is also used in submarines, radars and satellites.

MP Board Solutions

Question 20.
Give some uses of dry cells?
Answer:
Uses of dry cells. In radio, transistor, tourches, remote, camera and calculator.

Question 21.
What is filament of a bulb?
Answer:
The thin wire that gives off light is called the filament of the bulb.

Electricity and Circuits Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is current?
Answer:
The rate of flow of electric charge through a conductor per unit time is called electric current. In other words, we can say that the amount of electric current is the ratio of charge flowing through a conductor to the time taken in the flowing of the charge.

Question 2.
List the appliances around you that depend on electricity for their operation. List the appliances that do not use electrical energy?
Answer:
Appliances that depend on electricity are:
Electric press, geyser, washing machine, television, radio, fan, cooler etc.

Appliances that do not depend on electricity are:
Cooking gas, stove, solar cooker, sewing machine, cycle, rickshaw, etc.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
We selectively choose certain materials to make a path and reject others. Why?
Answer:
Some materials do not allow an electric current to pass through them. Such materials are called insulators. Materials which allow electric current to pass through them are called conductors.

Question 4.
What happens when a charged electroscope is connected to a uncharged electroscope by a wire? What is that called?
Answer:
When a charged electroscope is joined to an uncharged electroscope by a wire, charges flow from the charged to the uncharged electroscope through the wire till they are equalised. This flow of charges forms an electric current. It is measured in ampere.

Question 5.
What is the nature of electric current?
Answer:
As water flows from higher level to lower level in a pipe, electric current also flows from the source of electric current to the target where it is needed through metal wires.

Question 6.
Define an electric switch?
Answer:
A switch is a simple device that either breaks the circuit or completes it. When the switch is open, the circuit is not complete and the current does not flow. In the other position, when the switch is closed, the circuit is complete and current can flow through the circuit.

MP Board Solutions

Question 7.
On what principle scientist Volta made his cell?
Answer:
The principle was that when two strips of different metals are dipped in an acid solution an electric current begins to flow through them. Such a simple source of current, or a cell is called as a voltaic cell in honour of its inventor.

Question 8.
What are the draw backs in voltaic cell? Who then improved the design?
Answer:
Voltaic cell is not a good source of current as the flow through the wire in such a cell is not smooth and steady. J. F. Daniel (1790 – 1845) made an improved design of voltaic cell in the year 1836.

Electricity and Circuits Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain an electric cell with suitable diagram and their construction.
Answer:
Electricity to the bulb in a torch is provided by the electric cells. Electric cells are also used in alarm clocks, wristwatches, transistor, radios, cameras and many other devices. In an electric cell their is a small metal cap on one side and a metal disc on the other side. The metal cap is the positive terminal of the electric cell while the metal disc is the negative terminal.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 9
All electric cells have two terminals one positive and another negative terminal. An electric cell produces electricity from the chemical stored inside it. When the chemicals in the electric cell are used up, the electric cell stops producing electricity. The electric cell then has to be replaced with a new one.

MP Board Solutions

Question 2.
What is meant by an electric circuit?
Answer:
When we connect the two ends of a cell to a bulb using copper wires, the bulb lights up. This is because we have provided a path for electrons to flow the negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal through a bulb. Such a path of an electric current is known as a electric circuit.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 10

Question 3.
Find the various ways in which two batteries and two bulbs can be connected in a working circuit.
Answer:
Two batteries and two bulbs can be connected in working circuit in two ways.
1. In series as shown in figure.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 11
2. In parallel as shown in figure.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 12

Question 4.
Draw a diagram of a torch bulb?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 13

Question 5.
Draw a neat diagram to show the inside view of a torch?
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 12 Electricity and Circuits 14

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections

Light, Shadows and Reflections Textbook Exercises

Question 1.
Rearrange the boxes given below to make a sentence that helps us understand opaque objects?
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 1
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 2

Question 2.
Classify the objects or materials given below as opaque, transparent or translucent and luminous or non -luminous? Air, water, a piece of rock, a sheet of aluminium, a mirror, a wooden board, a sheet of polythene, a CD, smoke, a sheet of plane glass, fog, a piece of red hot iron, an umbrella, a lighted fluorescent tube, a wall, a sheet of carbon paper, the flame of a gas burner, a sheet of cardboard, a lighted torch, a sheet of cellophane, a wire mesh, kerosene stove, sun, firefly, moon.
Answer:
Obaque objects:
A piece of rock, a sheet of aluminium, a mirror, a wooden board, a CD, a wall, a sheet of cardboard.

Transparent objects:
Air, water, sheet of plane glass.

Translucent objects:
A sheet of polythene, smoke, fog, a sheet of carbon paper, a sheet of cellophone.

Luminous objects:
A piece of red hot iron, a lighted fluorscent tube, the flame of a gas burner, a lighted torch, sun, firefly, kerosene stove.

Non – luminous Objects:
An umberela, a wire mesh, moon.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Can you think of creating a shape that would give a circular shadow if held in one way and a rectangular shadow if held in another way?
Answer:
Yes, we can think of creating a shape that would give a circular shadow if held in one way and a rectangular shadow of held in another way.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 3

Question 4.
In a completely dark room, if you hold up a mirror in front of you, will you see a reflection of yourself in the mirror?
Answer:
No, in a completely dark room, we cannot see our right – left inverted image in the mirror, because there is no source of light.

Projects and Activities:

Activity 1.
Look around you and collect as many objects as you can an eraser, plastic scale, pen, pencil, notebook, single sheet of paper, tracing paper or a piece of cloth. Try to look at something far away, through each of these objects. Is light from a far away object able to travel to your eye, through any of the objects?
Record your observations in a table.
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 4

Activity 2.
Describe an experiment which shows that light propagates in a straight line?
Answer:
In a homogeneous medium, light travels in a straight line path. This is called rectilinear propagation of light. This can be demonstrated with the help of three card – board pieces A, B and C with a fine hole at their centres. A candle or a bulb is placed on one side and the boards are arranged such that the holes are in straight lines as shown in figure. Looking from the other side, it is found that the fight from the candle is received only when the three holes are in a straight fine. If one of the card board pieces is displaced, the fight is no longer seen. This clearly demonstrates that the fight travels in a straight fine path.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 5

Things to Think About:

Question 1.
Opaque objects cast shadows, isn’t it? Now, if we hold a transparent object in the Sun, do we see anything on the ground that gives us a hint that we are holding something in our hand?
Answer:
Yes, it gives us a fuzzy shadow on the ground, which gives us a hint that we are holding some thing in our hand.

Question 2.
We saw that changing colour of opaque objects does not change the colour of their shadows. What happens if we place an opaque object in coloured light? You can cover the face of a torch with a coloured transparent paper to do this. (Did you ever noticed the colours of evening shadows just as the Sun is setting?)
Answer:
Yes, the colour of shadow depends upon the colour of the objects. If we can change the colour of opaque objects, the same colour will be seen in shadow.

Light, Shadows and Reflections Additional Important Questions

Light, Shadows and Reflections Objective Type Questions

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question (i)
A pinhole camera forms an image of a building on its screen. Compared to the building, its image would be –
(а) Larger and inverted
(b) Larger and upright
(c) Smaller and inverted
(d) Smaller and upright.
Answer:
(c) Smaller and inverted

Question (ii)
The transparent object out of the following is –
(a) Water
(b) Moon
(c) Rubber sheet
(d) None of these
Answer:
(a) Water

Question (iii)
Which of the following objects allow more light to pass through –
(a) Translucent
(b) Opaque
(c) Transparent
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Translucent

MP Board Solutions

Question (iv)
The objects which do not allow the light to pass through them at all are called –
(a) Opaque
(b) Translucent
(c) Transparent
(d) None of these.
Answer:
(a) Opaque

Question (v)
In a room lighted by an electric bulb, it is found that the shadow of the ceiling fan hung in the centre is falling on a wall opposite to the door. What can you say about the position of the bulb –
(a) On the wall on your right as you enter the room.
(b) On the wall on your left as you enter the room.
(c) On the wall facing the door.
(d) On the wall on which the door is fixed.
Answer:
(b) On the wall on your left as you enter the room.

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks:

  1. Opaque objects cast shadow.
  2. The shadow is longest during and
  3. The totally dark portion of a shadow is called
  4. Surfaces act like mirrors.
  5. Solar eclipse occurs only on moon days.
  6. Lunar eclipse occurs only on moon days.
  7. A pin – hole camera is based on propagation of light.
  8. Surfaces act like mirrors.

Answer:

  1. Dark
  2. Sunset, sunrise
  3. Umbra
  4. Polished,
  5. New
  6. Full
  7. Straight
  8. Luminous.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Which of the following statements are true (T) or false (F):

  1. A fire fly is a hot source of fight.
  2. The sun is a natural source of fight.
  3. The tourch is a man – made source of fight.
  4. The partially dark portion of a shadow is called umbra.
  5. Formation of a sharp shadow of an object in sunlight is an evidence of the rectilinear propagation of fight.
  6. We do not see the shadow of the aeroplane flying high in the sky because the Sun is a point source of fight.
  7. Fluroscent tube is an extended source of light.
  8. If we keep 100 sheets of transparent paper one above the other, the heap of paper would behave as an opaque body.
  9. If we keep 100 sheets of translucent paper one above the other, the heap would behave as an opaque body.
  10. Regular reflection obeys only one law, namely, the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
  11. Light does not interact with the living matter.
  12. Image formed in a convex mirror is shorter anti real. (xii) Concave mirror always forms a real image.

Answer:

  1. False
  2. True
  3. True
  4. False
  5. True
  6. False
  7. True
  8. True
  9. True
  10. False
  11. False
  12. True
  13. False.

Light, Shadows and Reflections Very Short Answer Type Questions.

Question 1.
Name any four man – made sources of light?
Answer:
The man – made sources of light are:

  1. An electric bulb
  2. A torch
  3. A candle
  4. A lamp.

Question 2.
Why do objects in a room become visible even if sunlight does not enter it?
Answer:
The objects in a room become visible during the day because of reflection of sunlight by the several non – luminous objects around us.

Question 3.
Give the names of four different sources of light.
Answer:
The four different sources of light are:

  1. Sun
  2. Stars
  3. Moon
  4. Firefly.

Question 4.
How does light travel from one point to the other?
Answer:
Light travel from one point to the other in straight line.

Question 5.
Why is the image formed in a pinhole camera inverted?
Answer:
The image formed in a pinhole camera is inverted because light travels in straight lines.

Question 6.
What is luminous objects?
Answer:
Objects like the sum that give out or emit light of their own are called luminous objects.

Question 7.
Does the flame of a gas stove emit light?
Answer:
Yes.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
Give one example of living thing, which emits light?
Answer:
Firefly (Jugnu) is a living source of light.

Question 9.
Why translucent objects cast feeble shadow?
Answer:
Translucent objects cast feeble shadows because they allow the partial light to pass through them. So, every light or feeble shadow is formed behind the object.

Question 10.
State the conditions when annular solar eclipse occurs?
Answer:
An annular solar eclipse occurs when only the tip of the umbra of the moon falls on the earth.

Question 11.
Tube light is a cold source of light. Is this statement correct? If yes, then why?
Answer:
Yes, this statement is correct because tube light gives light only. It does not produce any heat. This is why tube light is called a cold source of light.

Question 12.
Classify the following into transparent, opaque and translucent objects: Wax, spectacles, a heap of salt, a stone, dense smoke, wood, skin, balloon, rubber, membrane of a table, blood and milk?
Answer:
Transparent objects:
Spectacles, membrane of a tabla.

Opaque objects:
Wax, wood, a heap of salt, a stone.

Translucent objects:
Dense smoke, skin, balloon, rubber, blood and milk.

Question 13.
What is the meaning of shadow?
Answer:
When any obstacte comes in the way of light then the portion on the screen where light does not reach is called shadow.

MP Board Solutions

Question 14.
Why is the shadow of edges of a blade not clear?
Answer:
Because at the edges of the blade, the light is diffracted, i.e., bent slightly in the shadow region. Hence the edges of shadow of blade are not sharp.

Question 15.
Is the medium required for the propagation of light?
Answer:
No, the light can travel in vacuum.

Light, Shadows and Reflections Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is light?
Answer:
Light is the external physical reason which makes things visible. Light makes it possible to see the objects but light itself cannot be seen. When light falls on any body, it gets reflected and reaches our eyes and we feed the presence of that body. Light is also a form of energy. It can be converted to other form of energy. Light is propagated in the form of electromagnetic waves. Its wavelength is about 4000 A0 to 8000 A0. It can travel through vacuum with velocity of 3 x 108 m/see.

Question 2.
What do you mean by luminious and non – luminious bodies?
Answer:
The bodies which themselves are a source of light, and emit light they are called luminious. For examples, the sun, a burning candle, a light bulb, etc. Those bodies which do not emit light but are made visible by light falling from some luminious object on them are called non – luminious bodies. For examples, the earth, the moon, the table, etc.

MP Board Solutions

Question 3.
Give the definitions of

  1. Transparent bodies
  2. Translucent bodies
  3. Opaque bodies.

Answer:

1. Transparent bodies are those through which light can pass freely and through which things can be distinctly seen. For example, air, water, glass, etc.

2. Translucent bodies are those which allow only a part of the light to pass through them and things cannot be seen distinctly. For example, butter-paper, ground glass, etc.

3. Opaque bodies are those which do not allow any light to pass through them and so we cannot through them. For example, stone, iron, wood, etc.

Question 4.
Give the differences between transparent and opaque objects.
Answer:
The differences between the transparent and opaque objects are:
Transparent Object:

  • The light passes through these objects.
  • They cast no shodow.

Opaque Object:

  • The light cannot pass through these objects.
  • They cast dark shadows.

Question 5.
State the differences between transluscent and opaque objects.
Answer:
Difference between transparent and transluscent materials:
Transparent Materials:

  • The light pass through easily.
  • Through it objects can. be seen clearly.

Transluscent Materials:

  • It allows a part of light to pass through it.
  • Through it objects can only be seen dimly.

MP Board Solutions

Question 6.
How can you see a solar eclipse?
Answer: Solar eclipse can be seen by using a glass. There is another alternative method to see the sun. Take a piece of cardboard having a hole in the centre. This cardboard forms an image of sun on the wall. Thus the solar eclipse can be seen by this image safely.

Question 7.
Mention some of the uses of plane mirror.
Answer:
Uses of plane mirror are:

  1. In hair cutting saloons, shops and at home.
  2. For constructing periscope.
  3. For constructing kelidoscope.

MP Board Solutions

Question 8.
State two properties each of umbra and penumbra.
Answer:
Properties of Umbra:

  1. The darkest part of the shadow is called umbra.
  2. The light in umbra does not reach from any source of light.

Properties of Penumbra:

  1. In this region light reaches from one part of the source.
  2. This region is not completely dark.

Question 9.
What is regular reflection?
Answer:
When the light falls on the smooth surface the scattered light rays move in a definite direction. This gives the clear image of the object. This. is called regular reflection.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 6

Question 10.
State the difference between umbra and penumbra.
Answer:
Difference between umbra and penumbra:
Umbra:
The region of the space where the light does not reach from any source, is the darkest. This darkest part of the shadow is called umbra.

Penumbra:
The dark circular path is surrounded by a less dark portion. This shadow part is called penumbra.

Light, Shadows and Reflections Long Answer Type Question

Question 1.
Draw a diagram to show the position of the screen so that no umbra is formed on it if the source of light is bigger than the obstacle.
Answer:
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 7

Question 2.
Describe clearly the event of partial lunar eclipse and explain is cause.
Answer:
The ray diagram shows the various positions of the Moon as it passes through the penumbra and the umbra of the earth during a lunar eclipse. At position A, the moon is yet to enter the penumbra and it looks bright as usual. At position B, it has entered the penumbra. At this position, the moon looks pale, as if it has gone behind the clouds. After some time, a part of the moon enters the umbra. This part is then not visible from the earth, but the remaining part of the moon is still visible. This is called a partial lunar eclipse. Lunar eclipse, always takes place on full moon day but not on all full moon days.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 8

Question 3.
How can you make a pin hole camera? Describe.
Answer:
Take two boxes so that one can slide into another with no gap in between them. Cut open one side of each box. On the opposite face of the larger box, make a small hole in the middle [Fig. (a)]. In the smaller box, cut out from the middle a square with a side of about 5 cm to 6 cm. Cover this open square in the box with tracing paper (translucent screen) [Fig. (b)]. Slide the smaller box inside the larger one with the hole, in such a way that the side with the tracing paper is inside [Fig. (c)]. Your pin hole camera is ready for use.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 9
Holding the pin hole camera look through the open face of the smaller box.# You should use a piece of black cloth to cover your head and the pinhole camera. Now, try to look at some distant objects like a tree or a building through the pinhole camera. Make sure that the objects you wish to look at through your pinhole camera are in bright sun. shine. Move the smaller box forward or backward till you get a picture on the tracing paper pasted at the other end.

MP Board Solutions

Question 4.
Describe the working of a its uses?
Answer:
A principle is an obtical instrument which is used to see the overhead objects. In a principls there are two mirror. A and B fixed at the two ends of a vertical tube whose reflecting surfaces are parallel and face each other.

Principle:
It is based on the principle of reflection of plane mirrors which are placed parallel. Light rays are coming through an object and entering from the apperture C. These rays strike on the mirror A at an angle of incidence 45° and is reflected along the axis of the tube striking the mirror at 45° again. This is then finally reflected parallel to their original path and reach is to the eyes of observer.
MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions Chapter 11 Light, Shadows and Reflections 10

MP Board Class 6th Science Solutions