MP Board Class 11th General English Grammar Compound Sentences
Basic Sentence Patterns IT Negatives a Interrogatives at 37 of Simple Sentences के बारे में हम विस्तृत चर्चा कर चुके हैं। हमने देखा कि simple sentences में एक subject व एक predicate होता है। Predicate में एक verb phrase में एक predicate की आन्तरिक संरचना में अहम भूमिका निभाता है : साथ ही उसमें (verb phrase में) एक finite verb होती है जो subject से number a person में agree करती है। अब हम देखेंगे कि दो या दो अधिक simple sentences को जोड़ कर किस प्रकार compound complex sentences बनाए जाते हैं। जोड़ने का यह काम conjunctions द्वारा किया जाता है। जोड़कर बनाए गए complex sentences में simple sentences का जो रूप रहता है उन्हें clauses कहा जाता है। Simple sentence के समान ही प्रत्येक clause में एक subject तथा एक predicate होता है तथा predicate के verb phrase में एक finite verb होती है जो अपने subject से number और person में agree करती है।
Clause के status (प्रतिष्ठा) व जोड़ने वाले conjunction के आधार पर इस प्रकार बने sentences को compound या complex के रूप में वर्गीकृत किया जाता है :
- Compound sentences में clauses को co-ordinate conjunction जिन्हें coordinators भी कहते हैं-द्वारा जोड़ा जाता है तथा इसमें clause का status बैराबरी का होता है और उन्हें co-ordinate clauses कहा जाता है।
- Complex sentences A clauses ont sub-ordinate conjunction for sub ordinators भी कहते हैं द्वारा जोड़ा जाता है तथा इनमें clause का status बराबरी का नहीं होता। Clauses में से एक main clause तथा बाकी के subordinate clauses कहलाते हैं।
इस अध्याय में हम केवल compound sentences की चर्चा करेंगे। Complex sentences की चर्चा अगले अध्याय में करेंगे।
जैसा हमने ऊपर कहा है compound sentences में clauses को जोड़ने वाले conjunction को co-ordinate conjunctions या co-ordinators कहा जाता है। इन्हें दो समूहों में बाँट सकते हैं :
- Simple Co-ordinators, तथा
- Correlative Co-ordinators प्रमुख Simple Coordinators है : and, but, or तथा nor प्रमुख Correlative Co-ordinators हैं :
- either ……… or
- neither ……… nor
- not only…….. but also.
अब हम simple co-ordinators का एक एक करके अध्ययन करेंगे
AND = Bits
And का उपयोग positive polarity (समान ध्रुवीयता) clauses को जोड़ कर उनकी अन्तर्वस्तु के बीच निम्न सम्बन्धों की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए किया जाता है :
- Mohan bought a new shirt.
Sohan bought a new tie.
Mohan bought a new shirt and Sohan bought a new tie.
and = similarly (इसी प्रकार)
- He has a small family
He gets a good salary. He has a small family and he gets a good salary.
and = also (साथ ही)
- Sunil worked very hard.
He got a first division. Sunil worked very hard and he got a first divişion.
and = therefore (इसीलिए इसी कारण से)
- He wrote the address on the envelope.
He posted the letter. He wrote the address on the envelope and he posted the letter.
and = then (तब)
- Give them sufficient time.
They will print it well. Give them sufficient time and they will print it well.
and = then only (उसी स्थिति में)
Note : जब clauses को co-ordinating conjunctions से जोड़ा जाता है तो अधिकतर पुनरावृत्ति वाले शब्दों को delete (विलोपित) कर दिया जाता है:
1. जब दोनों clauses में verb के subjects या objects वही हों तो एक को विलोपित
He went to the market and (he) bought a new tie.
She typed (the letter) and (she) signed the letter.
2. जब दोनों clauses में auxiliary verb भी हो तो एक को विलोपित किया जाता है :
You could have come and (you could have) told me.
3. जब दोनों clauses में main verb भी हो तो एक को विलोपित किया जाता है :
He typed these letters and (he typed) those certificates.
4. Deletion के बाद,यदि आवश्यक हो तो वाक्य में अन्य परिवर्तन किये जाते है :
Rajesh is a hard-working boy.
Brijesh is a hard-working boy.
Rajesh and Brijesh are hard-working boys.
अत: (ii), (iii) व (iv) के compound sentences सामान्यतः इस रूप में होंगे :
(ii) He has a small family and gets a good salary.
(iii) Sunil worked very hard and got a first division.
(iv) He wrote the address on the envelope and posted the letter.
Exercise : 1
Join the following pairs of sentences to make compound sentences using and. Pay attention to the meaning as well as delete those parts which need to be deleted :
1. He is popular with the boys.
His teachers like him.
2. The boys heard the bell.
They rushed to the class.
3. She washed the shirt.
She ironed the shirt.
4. Do these exercises carefully.
You will get good marks.
5. Swapnesh is intelligent.
Swapnesh is hard-working.
6. Ravi sings well.
Sunita sings well.
7. He heard somebody knock. ,
He went to open the door.
8. The soldier walked to the Captain.
The soldier handed him the letter.
9. She will telephone you.
She will see you later.
10. Rita is an intelligent girl.
Mona is an intelligent girl.
Note : When we join more than two clauses of positive polarity the conjunction and is used before the last clause and commas are used between the others :
The Principal opened the envelope. He took out the question papers.
He counted the question papers. The Principal opened the envelope, took out the question papers and counted them.
BUT = किन्तु
But का उपयोग clauses की अन्तर्वस्तु में विषमता की अभिव्यक्ति करता है, अतः इसका प्रयोग ऐसे clauses को जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है जिनकी अन्तर्वस्तु में opposite polarity (विपरीत ध्रुवीयता) हो या जब एक clause की अन्तर्वस्तु के अनुसार दूसरे clause की अन्तर्वस्तु अनेपक्षित हो :
He is poor.
He is happy.
He is poor but (he is) happy.
दूसरे clause में जो अभिव्यक्ति है वह आज की मान्यताओं के अनुसार पहले clause की अभिव्यक्ति को देखते हुए अनपेक्षित है।
Exercise : 2
Join the following pairs of sentences to make compound sentences using but. Pay attention to the meaning as well as delete those parts which need to be deleted :
1. You accepted our invitation.
You did not come to the party.
2. Our team played extremely well.
Our team could not win the match.
3. Our forwards moved skilfully.
Our forwards moved slowly.
4. The queen fought very bravely.
She could not defend the fort.
5. He wrote the letters.
He did not post them.
6. Our land is rich.
Our people are poor.
7. A glider is a machine with wings.
It is without engine.
8. At school I used to play football.
I don’t play any games now.
9. Ashish used to walk to school.
Now he goes to school by bus.
10. I phoned you yesterday. You were not at home. 
OR = या अन्यथा
Or का उपयोग एसे clauses को जोड़ने के लिये किया जाता है जिनकी अन्तर्वस्तु द्वारा अभिव्यक्त विकल्पों में से एक चुनाव किया जाना हो :
You can write in ink. You can write in pencil.
You can write in ink or (you can write) in a pencil.
Or का उपयोग negative condition की अभिव्यक्ति के लिए भी किया जाता है:
You must hurry up.
You will miss the train.
You must hurry up or you will miss the train.
Now pay attention to these examples :
(a) Work hard.
You will pass the examination.
Work hard and you will pass the examination.
(b) Work hard.
You won’t pass the examination.
Work hard or you won’t pass the examination.
Exercise : 3
Join the following pairs of sentences to make compound sentences using or. Pay attention to the meaning as well as delete those parts which need to be deleted :
1. You should buy a copy of this book.
You should borrow it from the library.
2. They can take a bus.
They can go in a taxi.
3. You must learn English well.
You won’t get a good job.
4. They should come to school on time.
They would be marked absent.
5. Say something worthwhile.
6. Return my money.
‘I will file a suit against you.
7. Cut the grass.
Plant the plants.
8. Shut the windows.
Mosquitoes will enter.
9. You should begin the work.
The boss will fine you.
Nor = न ही
Nor का उपयोग दो negative polarity (नकारात्मक ध्रुवीयता) वाले clauses को जोड़ने के लिए किया जाता है। दूसरे clause में, जिसके पूर्व nor आता है, Yes/No Type question के समान subject और finite verb को invert करना आवश्यक होता है :
They did not look at him.
They did not talk to him.
They did not look at him nor did they talk to him.
Note : क्योंकि nor स्वयं नकारात्मक अर्थ अभिव्यक्त करता है, अत: दूसरे वाक्य की polarity बदलकर positive करनी होती है।
Now pay attention to these examples :
(a) She washed the dishes.
She dried them.
She washed the dishes and (she) dried them.
(b) She washed the dishes.
She did not dry them.
She washed the dishes but (she) did not dry them.
(c) She did not wash the dishes.
She did not dry them.
She did not wash the dishes nor did she dry them.
Exercise : 4
Join the following pairs of sentences to make compound sentences using nor. Pay attention to the meaning :
1. They did not return the books.
They did not deposit their cost.
2. He did not do his homework.
He did not bring his notebook.
3. I won’t let you have this book.
I won’t give you my notes.
4. He does not play any outdoor games.
He is not interested in watching them.
5. The clerk did not come in time.
He did not type all the letters.
6. We do not lend anything.
We do not borrow anything.
7. He did not say ‘Yes’.
He did not say ‘No’.
8. The wife did not cry.
She did not shed tears.
9. You do not take food.
You do not eat fruits.
10. The officer did not come.
He did not send any message.
Correlative co-ordinators का उपयोग अभिव्यक्ति को emphatic बनाने के लिये किया जाता है। जैसा हम ऊपर कह चुके हैं, निम्न चार pairs of conjunction को correlative coordinators के अंतर्गत रखा जाता है:
- both ……. and
- not only ……. but also
- either …… or
- neither …….. nor.
Correlative co-ordinators का उपयोग अभिव्यक्ति को emphatic बनाने के लिए किया जाता है।
1. अर्थ की ओर ध्यान दें तो both …. and तथा not only ….. but (also) conjunction and के समान दो अभिकथनों को emphatic ढंग से जोड़ने का काम करते हैं और either …. or तथा neither …. nor conjunction or के समान विकल्पों के बीच चुनाव को emphasize करते हैं।
2. Correlative co-ordinators के द्वारा जोड़े गये clauses में balance (सन्तुलन) रखना पड़ता है अर्थात् पहले element के बाद जिस प्रकार का grammatical structure आता है उसी प्रकार का grammatical structure दूसरे element के बाद भी आना चाहिए
He does both, keeps long hair and wears jeans. (predicate)
She speaks not only French but also German. (noun phrase)
You can write either in ink or in pencil. (prep. phrase)
I can neither drive a car nor ride a scooter. (main verb)
(i) जब either और neither का main verb के पूर्व उपयोग किया जाता है तब or और nor के द्वारा introduce किये जाने वाला clause full clause हो सकता है :
They can either write in ink or they can write in pencil.
I can neither drive a car nor can I ride a scooter.
(ii) इस स्थिति में nor के बाद आने वाले clause में Yes/No type question के समान subject और finite verb को invert करना आवश्यक होता है जैसा ऊपर किया गया है।
3. Either…..or तथा not only….but (also) पूरे-पूरे clauses को जोड़ने के लिए भी काम में आते हैं। बाकी दो, both….and तथा neither….nor, केवल similar structure के phrases को जोड़ने के काम में आते हैं :
(i) Either she comes in time or she loses her job.
She either comes in time or loses her job.
(ii) Not only is he a good artist but he is also an excellent teacher.
He is not only a good artist but also an excellent teacher.
जब not only का उपयोग clause के शुरू में किया जाता है तब उस clause Yes/No type questions के समान subject और finite verb को invert करना आवश्यक होता है, जैसा, ऊपर (ii) के पहले वाक्य में किया गया है।
4. जबcorrelative coordinators द्वारा जोड़े गये sentence का subject both….and से जुड़ा हो तो verb के plural form का उपयोग किया जाता है :
Rajesh is playing for our team.
Suresh is playing for our team.
Both Rajesh and Suresh are playing for our team.
जब इस प्रकार का subject either….or अथवा neither…..nor से जुड़ा हो तो verb अपने पास वाले noun phrase के person और number से agree करती है :
(a) Neither his father nor his friend was allowed to see him.
(b) Neither his parents nor his friends were allowed to see him.
(c) Neither his father nor his friends were allowed to see him.
(d) Neither his friends nor his father was allowed to see him.
Note- यदि सम्भव हो तो (d) के स्थान पर (c) के समान वाक्य जिसमें verb के पहले plural noun आता है, का उपयोग किया जाना चाहिए।
जब subject के second element के बाद personal pronoun आता है तब verb अपने पास वाले pronoun के person से agree करती है :
Neither Hari nor I have to go there.
Neither you nor he has to go there.
Neither you nor I have to go there.
अब हम एक-एक करके इनका अध्ययन करेंगे।
BOTH ….. AND = दोनों …… और
Both….. and conjunction and के समान दो अभिकथनों को जोड़ने का काम करता है। तब इसके द्वारा sentence के subject noun phrases को जोड़ा जाता है तो इसके बाद verb के plural form का उपयोग किया जाता है :
- He is intelligent.
- He is hard-working.
- He is both intelligent and hard-working.
- Sita was present.
- Gita was present.
- Both Sita and Gita were present.
Exercise : 5
Join the following pairs of sentences using both …. and :
1. The new clerk comes punctually.
The new clerk takes interest in her work.
2. They have time to spare.
They have money to spare.
3. The storm destroyed the crops.
The storm damaged the houses.
4. Sunil speaks English well.
His friend speaks English well.
5. You are going to get good marks.
He is going to get good marks.
6. They were criticised by their friends.
They were criticised by their enemies.
Not Only ………………. But (Also) = न केवल …………….. बल्कि (यह भी)
Not only…..but (also) भी conjunction and के समान दो अभिकथनों को जोड़ने का काम करता है। जब not only……..but (also) दो ऐसे clauses को जोड़ते subjects भिन्न हों तो not only पहले clause के शुरू में आता है तथा उसमें subject और finite का inversion :
Our team played well. Luck favoured them.
Not only did our team play well but luck also favoured them.
जब not only……but (also) दो ऐसे clauses को जोड़ता है जिनके subjects same extra emphasis के लिये not only को पहले clause के शुरू में रखा जा सकता है किन्तु तब उसमें subject और finite का inversion किया जाता है :
They come to school in time.
They do their homework regularly.
They not only come to school in time but they also do their homework regularly.
Or Not only do they come to school in time but they also do their homework regularly.
Exercise : 6
Join the following pairs of sentences using not only….but also :
1. He protested.
He refused to pay his taxes.
2. She is arrogant.
She is selfish.
3. The BBC reported the demonstration.
The BBC announced it in advance.
4. They must come to school in time.
They must do their homework regularly.
5. The statement is very unfair.
The statement is quite untrue.
6. My brother works hard.
His colleagues help him.
Either ….. OR = या तो…….या
Either…..or conjunction or के समान दो विकल्पों के बीच चुनाव को emphasize करता है। जब इसके द्वारा sentence के subject noun phrases को जोड़ा जाता है तो verb अपने पास वाले noun phrase से number तथा person में agree करती है :
(a) He is responsible for this mess.
His friends are responsible for this mess.
Either he or his friends are responsible for this mess.
(b) They are responsible for this mess.
Their father is responsible for this mess.
Either they or their father is responsible for this mess.
Exercise : 7
Join the following pairs of sentences using either…..or :
1. They must come to the class in time.
They must stay out for the whole period.
2. They must come to the class in time.
I will make them stay out for the whole period.
3. His father is coming to visit him.
His brothers are coming to visit him.
4. I left it on the table.
I left it in the drawer.
5. The pump is broken.
There is a blockage in the pipe.
6. We can meet this evening.
We can discuss the matter at dinner.
Neither………NOR = न तो ……. न ही
Neither…..nor conjunction or के समान दो नकारात्मक विकल्पों को emphasize करता है। जब इसके द्वारा sentence के subject noun phrases को जोड़ा जाता है तो verb अपने पास वाले noun phrase से number तथा person में agree करती है :
(a) The teacher does not like him.
The boys do not like him.
Neither the teacher nor the boys like him. 
(b) His colleagues do not have a good word for him.
His boss does not have a good word for him. Neither his colleagues nor his boss has a good word for him.
Exercise : 8.
Join the following pairs of sentences using neither….nor :
1. You don’t have to tell him about it.
She doesn’t have to tell him about it.
2. He hasn’t answered the queries.
You haven’t answered the queries.
3. The old man could not read.
He could not write. 
4. The inspector did not accept any bribe.
The inspector did not show undue favour to anybody.
5. His doctor doesn’t allow him to drink.
His doctor doesn’t allow him to smoke.
6. Sita does not sing well.
She does not dance well. 
Now look at these examples :
1. They are coming by bus.
They are coming by taxi.
(a) They are either coming by bus or they are coming by taxi.
(b) They are neither coming by bus nor are they coming by taxi.
2. He keeps long hair.
He wears jeans.
(a) He either keeps long hair or he wears jeans.
(b) He neither keeps long hair nor does he wear jeans.
जब पहले clause में either या neither का उपयोग main verb के पहले किया जाता है तो दूसरे clause में or या nor के बाद पूरे clause (subject और यदि auxiliary verbs हैं तो वे भी) का उपयोग किया जा सकता है। लेकिन nor के बाद clause में subject और finite का inversion किया जाता है, जैसा ऊपर 1(b) तथा 2(b) में।
Exercise : 9
Rewrite the following sentences using neither….. nor in place of either…..or making other necessary changes :
1. You can either bring your relatives or you can bring your friends.
2. She either works in an office or she teaches in a school.
3. They will either go there by a taxi or they will take their own car.
4. People either go there by air or they go there by sea.
5. We can either visit the fort or we can visit the dam.
Exercise : 10
Combine each set of simple sentences into compound sentences with suitable conjunction :
(i) God made the country. Man made the town. 
(ii) She is rich. She leads an unhappy life.
(iii) I called on you yesterday. You were not at home.
(iv) The sun rose. The fog disappeared.
(v) He works in a shop. He studies in a college.
(vi) The bell is about to go. We should go to our classes.
(vii) She will come here on Monday. If she cannot she will come on Tuesday.
(viii) I will not go to Mussorie. I will not go to Nainital.
(ix) Keep quiet. I shall turn you out of the class.
(x) We do not borrow money. We do not lend money,
(v) but also not only,
(vi) but also,