MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions

Biotechnology and its Applications Objective Type Questions 

Question 1.
Choose the correct answer:

Question 1.
Restriction endonuclease is employed for cutting :
(a) A single stranded DNA
(b) Double stranded DNA
(c) RNA fregment
(d) m – RNA.
(d) m – RNA.

Question 2.
Which enzyme is helpful in genetic engineering:
(a) RNA polymerase
(b) DNA polymerase
(c) Restriction endonuclease
(d) Nuclease.
(c) Restriction endonuclease

Question 3.
Extrachromosomal DNA used as vector in gene cloning is :
(a) Transposon
(b) Intron
(c) Exon
(d) Plasmid.
(d) Plasmid.

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Question 4.
The most extensively used bacteria in genetic engineering is :
(a) Bacillus
(b) Clostridium
(c) Escherichia
(d) Salmonella.
(c) Escherichia

Question 5.
Hybridomas are:
(a) Antibodies
(b) Hybrid swarms
(c) Hybrid cultures
(d) Hybrid zone.
(c) Hybrid cultures

Question 6.
Vaccine can not protect us from :
(a) Malaria
(b) Polio
(c) Small pox
(d) Tuberculosis.
(a) Malaria

Question 7.
Humulin is:
(a) A type of chitin
(b) New digestive enzyme
(c) Powerfull antibiotic
(d) Human insuline
(a) A type of chitin

Question 8.
Which is not used in the form of bio weapons :
(a) Bacillus anthrasis
(b) Bacillus thuringiensis
(c) Botulinum toxin
(d) Small pox.
(b) Bacillus thuringiensis

Question 9.
Super bug is called :
(a) Pseudomonas pulida
(b) Xanthomonas citrae
(c) Bacillus anthresis
(d) Streptococcus pneumoniae

Question 10.
Biopiracy affected plants are :
(a) Neem
(b) Basmati rice
(c) Turmeric
(d) All of these.
(d) All of these.

Question 11.
Golden rice will help in :
(a) Producing petrol like fuel
(b) Pest resistance
(c) Herbicide tolerance
(d) Alliviation of Vit – A deficiency
(d) Alliviation of Vit – A deficiency

Question 12.
During gene cloning which is called as “gene taxi” :
(a) Vaccine
(b) Plasmid
(c) Bacterium
(d) Protozoa.
(b) Plasmid

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Question 13.
In transgenics, expression of transgene in target tissue is determied by.
(a) Transgene
(b) Promoter
(c) Reporter
(d) Enhancer.
(b) Promoter

Question 2.
Fill in the blanks :

  1. Bt is a ………………………..
  2. Bt toxin is formed from ……………………….. by the bacillus.
  3. The prooduct of Cry – 1 gene is used for ………………………..
  4. RNA interpritation is the method of cellular conservation in ……………………….. genes.
  5. Both peptide chains are joined by the ……………………….. in insuline.
  6.  ……………………….. is the found in proinsuline which is not found in muture insulin.
  7.  ……………………….. is found in transgenic cow ‘Rosi’, it is not found in commen cow’s milk.
  8. Flavr savr tomato is a transgenic veriety of ………………………..
  9.  ……………………….. has two polypeptide chain and 51 amino acids.
  10.  ……………………….. gene which found in Rhizobium is converted from nitrogen into nitrates.
  11.  ……………………….. is the reason of male infertility in maize.
  12. First transgenic organism is petant in ………………………..
  13. Monoclsonal antibody is produce with the help of ……………………….. technology.


  1. Bio Toxin
  2. Protoxin
  3. Corn bores
  4. Eukaryotic
  5. Three sulphaid bundles
  6. Peptide ‘c’
  7. Human α – heredity lectalbumen
  8. Tomato
  9. Insulin
  10. Nif gene
  11. Cytoplasmic heredity
  12. 1989
  13. Hybridoma.

Question 3.
Match the followings:
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions 1

  1. (e)
  2. (d)
  3. (a)
  4. (b)
  5. (c)

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions 2

  1. (d)
  2. (a)
  3. (b)
  4. (c)

Question 4.
Write the answer in one word/sentances:

  1. Write the full name of RNAi.
  2. Bt Toxic is encrypted by this gene.
  3. Is our blood has proteoses and nucleases.
  4. Who produce Bt toxin protein?
  5. What is humulin?
  6. What is SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficienay)?
  7. Which is controled by Trycoderma?
  8. Name the organism which bear the other organism obtained gene?
  9. Bt. cotton and Golden rice is the examples of.
  10. Name the gene which controles the cell cycle?


  1. RNA interference
  2. By Cry genes
  3. No
  4. Bacillus thuringiensis
  5. Human insulin
  6. Hereditary disease
  7. Biological fungal disease
  8. Transgenic organism
  9. Transgenic crop
  10. p53 gene.

Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of r – DNA technology and chemistry of oil?
To remove oil from seeds using recombinat DNA technology would involve:

  1. Identifying the genes that code for oil production.
  2. Deleting these genes from the seed genome.
  3. Splicing back together the remaining DNA.
  4. Putting it back into the cell.

It will be not be very easy because the oils are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. Since, fatty acids are important components of cell membrane system, deleting or switching off of its genes might affect the cell structure itself.

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Question 2.
Find out from internet what is golden rice?
Golden rice is a variety of rice produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesize β – carotene, a precursor of vitamin ‘A’ in the edible parts of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin ‘A’.

Question 3.
Does our blood have proteases and nucleases?

Question 4.
Name the organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO).

Question 5.
Name the crops which are prepaired with the help of biotechnology.
Bt cotton, Bt maize, paddy, tomato, potato and soyabeen.

Question 6.
Through whom Bt toxin protein originates?
By Bacillus thuringiensis.

Question 7.
By which Bt toxin is coded?
By Cry genes Bt toxin is coded.

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Question 8.
Full form ofRNAi.
RNA interference (RNAi).

Question 9.
Name the therapy which is help of missing of defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
Gene therapy.

Question 10.
Name the scientific name of bacteria in which be form organism toxin.
Bacillus thuringiensis.

Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is genetically modified (GM) food? Give two examples.
Genetically Modified (GM) food:
The food substances produced from genetically modified crops or transgenic crops is called GM food. This food differ from conventionally developed varieties in the following aspects :

  1. GM food contains antibiotic resistance gene itself.
  2. It contains protein produced by transgene, example Cry protein in insect resistance varieties.
  3. These GM foods contain enzyme produced by the antibiotic resistance gene that was used during gene transfer by recombinant DNA technology.

Examples of GM Crops, Food and Fruits:

1. Flavr Savr Tomato:
It is the first food containing genetically engineered DNA. These tomatoes contain genes for antibiotic resistance for kanamycin.

2. Maize:
GM maize has a bacterial gene which increases its resistance to pests and diseases. It also has a gene for ampicillin resistance which is harmful for us, therefore introduction of GM maize is opposed by many European countries.

3. Rape oil seed:
It is a new type of plant that contain genes for resistance to the herbicide Basta. It has for more potential, dangers and can become a weed and would be impossible to control with Basta. It could cross fertilize with relatives such as wild mustard, thus, spreading the resistance to wild plants. Such type of environmental risks could occur with genetically modified rapeseed crop. They might also effect food chains in unpredictable ways.

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Question 2.
Write down the advantage of GM Crops.
Advantages of GM Crops:

  • Genetic modification has made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, heat, salt.)
  • Viral resistance can be introduced.
  • Over ripening losses can be reduced. Example : Flavr Savr Tomato.
  • Enhanced nutritional value of food. Example : Golden Rice.
  • Reduced reliance on chemical pesticides.

Disadvantages of GM crops:

  • Transgenes in crop plants can endanger native species. Example : The gene for Bt toxin expressed in pollen may end natural pollinators such as honeybees.
  • Weeds also become resistant.
  • Products of transgenes may be allergic or toxic.
  • They cause damage to the natural environment.

Question 3.
What is perfect agriculture? How is this method better than traditional method? Explain.
Perfect agriculture is a method of agriculture which is sustainable, perfect and harmless. Green revolution and there after the production of agricultural crops has definately increased due to use of new and high yielding varieties, development of irrigation facilities, increased irrigated area, use of fertilizers etc. but it results many problems such as loss of soil fertility, pollution of food and water and diseases. The resistance power of plants and human beings falls slowly.

Food and water borne diseases affecting the health of human beings and animals. All of these conditions and events taking place due to the modem commercial agriculture. ( Therefore, it would become necessary to develop a method of agriculture which would be free from above mentioned demerits. This kind of agriculture is called to be as perfect or sustainable agriculture. Organic agriculture is the best example of perfect agriculture.

Question 4.
What is organic cropping? What are its basis?
Organic agriculture:
Organic agriculture is a method of agriculture which does not allow the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, weedicides, plant growth regulators, substances of animal origin and genetically modified bacteria. In this method biofertilizers, crop rotation methods are used to increase crop production and biopesticides are used to control insects and weeds. Thus, organic farming is a holistic way of agriculture which tries to bridge the widening gap between man and nature.

If has the commitment of meeting production needs on one hand and sustaining resources and ecosystem function on the other hand. Thus, organic farming is an alternative agriculture production system which avoid or largely excludes the use of synthetic chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides and growth regulating hormones and live stock additives.

Basics of organic agriculture:

  1. Organic agriculture is based on improvement of soil, plants, animals, man and global scinery and make it sustainable.
  2. Organic agriculture is based on those ecosystems and biocycles which utilize that organisms which would be promoted.
  3. It is based on the principle which are related with making pollution free environment and possibilities of life.
  4. It is also based on saving environment and health of present and future generations.

Question 5.
What is eugenics? Write importance of eugenics.
Eugenics: The branch of biology which deals with the study of improvements of human race is called eugenics.


  1. Development of selective reproduction in similar species.
  2. Transfer of genetic materials in various organisms.
  3. Development ofGM food and GM crops.
  4. Gene cloning.
  5. Gene therapy, etc.

Question 6.
Crystals of Bt toxin produced by some bacteria do not kill the bacteria themselves because:
(a) Bacteria are resistant to the toxin,
(b) Toxin is immature
(c) Toxin is inactive
(d) Bacteria enclose toxin in a special sac.
(c) Toxin is inactive : In bacteria, the toxin is present in an inactive form called prototoxin. This gets converted into the active form when it enters the salivary gland of insects having alkaline medium.

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Question 7.
What are transgenic bacteria ? Illustrate using any one example.
The becteria whose DNA is manipulated to carry and express a foreign DNA is called transgenic bacteria. These microbes are used for producing important bio – chemicals. They have been synthesizing alcohol, enzymes, steroids and antibiotics. Example  Bacillus thuringiensis for Bt cotton, hirudin from transgenic Brassica napus seed. Hirudin is a protein which prevents blood clotting. Its gene was chemically synthesized and introduced in Brassica napus, in which hirudin accumulates in the seed from where it is extracted, purified and used as a medicine.

Question 8.
Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of production of genetically modified crops.
Advantages of GM Crops:

  1. Genetic modification has made crops more tolerant to abiotic stresses (cold, drought, heat, salt.)
  2. Viral resistance can be introduced.
  3. Over ripening losses can be reduced. Example : Flavr Savr Tomato.
  4. Enhanced nutritional value of food. Example : Golden Rice.
  5. Reduced reliance on chemical pesticides.

Disadvantages of GM crops :

  1. Transgenes in crop plants can endanger native species. Example : The gene for Bt toxin expressed in pollen may end natural pollinators such as honeybees.
  2. Weeds also become resistant.
  3. Products of transgenes may be allergic or toxic.
  4. They cause damage to the natural environment.

Question 9.
What are Cry proteins? Name an organism which produces it. How has man exploited this protein for his benefit?
Cry proteins are toxic proteins (insecticidal proteins) secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis in crystal form during a particular phase of their growth. The toxin is coded by a gene called Cry. The genes encoding cry proteins called Bt toxin genes were isolated from B. thuringiensis and incorporated into several crop plants such as Bt cotton, Bt com etc. to provide resistance against insect pests.

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Question 10.
What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA).
It is a collection of methods which allows correction of a gene defect that has been diagnosed in a child or embryo. In gene therapy, normal genes are inserted into a person’s cells or tissues to treat a hereditary defect. Gene therapy is being tried for sickle cell anaemia and Severe Combined Immuno Deficiency (SCID).

In some children, ADA deficiency can be cured by bone marrow transplantation. In others, it can be treated by enzyme replacement therapy, in which functional ADA is given to the patient by injection. ( However, both of these approaches are not completely curative. In gene therapy, lymphocytes from the blood of the patient are grown in culture outside the body.

A functional ADA cDNA (using a retroviral vector) is then introduced into these lymphocytes, which are subsequently returned to the patient. Because these cells are not immortal, the patient requires periodic infusion of such genetically engineered lymphocytes. However, if the gene isolated from marrow cells producing ADA is introduced into cells at early embryonic stages, the disease could be cured permanently.

Question 11.
Consult internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharma – eeutical What is the major problem to be encountered?
For making any oral drug or nutritional supplement, the action of digestive enzymes has to be taken into account. Most of the antibiotics and vitamin supplements are made in capsule form to prevent the action of HC1 in the stomach. For protein preparation, the major source is groundnut shells. The protein extracted from the source is predigested so, as to make it absorbable by the digestive system.

Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions Long Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Diagrammatically represent the experimental steps in cloning and expressing a human gene (say the gene for growth hormone) into a bacterium like E. coli.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions 3

Question 2.
Explain the following in brief:

  1. Biopiracy
  2. Biopatent

1. Biopiracy:
Some organisations and multinational companies exploid biological resources and genetical resources indegenous to a country without proper authorisation. This is called biopiracy. In fact it is illegal removal of biological material. The process of biopyracy involves collection of samples of biological sources, which can be done unnoticed. This biological material is then subjected to product development for use on a commercial scale.

Today a range of biological resources are facing biopiracy. It includes plants and animals, microorganisms genetic materials etc. Western companies are getting great benefits from using the knowledge and biological resources of the third world communities. ( While the companies stand to make huge revenue from this process, the local communities are unrewarded and infact, may have to buy the products of these companies at high prices.

To check illegal exploitation of biological resources Government of India has signed the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which opens country natural resources for foreign exploitation.

2. Biopatent:
The protection given by government to an inventor of biological material to secure him for a specific time the exclusive right of manufacturing, exploiting, using and selling of an invention is called biopotent.

Today manufacturing companies are being granted patents for products and technologies that make of biological resources, such as plants and animals, genetic materials which was identified developed and used by farmers and indegenous peoples.

There is growing worldwide opposition to the granting of patents on biological materials such as genes, plants, animals and human. Farmers and indegenous peoples are outaged that plants that they developed are being ‘hijacked’ by companies. Groups are diverse as religious leaders, parliamentarians and environment NGOs are intensifying campaign against corporate patenting of living things.

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Question 3.
What is gene library?
Gene library:
Several clones of cells, each clone containing one or a few foreign genes representing almost all the genes of an organism is referred to as genes library. From this gene library it is possible to identify a clone containing gene of interest. In order to obtain gene library of an organism, its genome is first cut into smaller DNA fragments containing one or a few genes such as fragments can be cloned into a cell which may be that of bacteria, yeast, insects, plant or animal cell.

When such a cell multiplies to form a group of cells, all cells will contain the same foreign DNA fragment which was introduced initially. ( These cells which have similar foreign DNA fragment are referred to as a clone of cells. Several clones of cells each clone containing one or a few foreign genes are finally obtained and is called gene library.

Question 4.
What is genetic engineering? Describe the application of genetic engineering in the field of Agriculture and Medicine.
The branch of biology by which important and permanent changes are created in plants and animals by increasing or decreasing manipulation and transplantation of genetic units is called genetic engineering.

(A) Application of Genetic engineering or Biotechnology in Agriculture: Genetic engineering is found to be very beneficial in agriculture. Its important use in agriculture are:

1. Increase in photosynthetic efficiency:
An increase in photosynthetic efficiency of crop plants can be achieved by introducing suitable Carbon dioxide Fixation Gene (cfx) from any plant into the crop plants.

2. Transfer of nitrogen fixing ability:
Number of symbiotic and non-symbiotic micro¬organism have capacity of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Nitrogen fixers are found to possess nitrogen fixing gene (nif genes) which are located on chromosomes or plasmids. Introduc¬tion of nif gene in crop plants results in ability in crop plants to fix atmospheric nitrogen and reduction in the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers.

3. Disease resistance in crop plants:
Plant breeders at present are developing high yield varieties by transferring gene for disease resistance through conventional breeding.

4. Plant tissue in crop improvement:
Some of the areas of plant improvement where tissue culture has been applied with success are as follows :

  • Rescuing hybrids through embryo culture.
  • Multiplication of germplasm.
  • Production of disease free plants.
  • Production of haploid through another culture.
  • Somaclonal variation.
  • Somatic hybridization.
  • Cryopreservation of germplasm.

5. VAM (Vesicular – Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) fungi with Rhizobium can boost the yields: Recently there has been a new dimension to this farm practice by the way of increasing Rhizobium inoculation effect by simultaneous inoculating seeds with VAM as well as Rhizobium culture.VAM are structural modification of hyphae helping in absorption and storage of phosphorus.

(B) Application of Genetic engineering in Medical field:

1. The hereditary diseases like colour – blindness, haemophilia which are caused by recessive genes and also many inborn metabolic disorders due to defective genes as alkaptonuria, phenylketonuria can be cured with the gene therapy.

2. Substances like vitamins, hormones, amino acids and antibodies can be synthesized in bacteria by introducing the genes which code these substances. In this way bacteria can be used as biofactories for the synthesis of these substances.

3. Production of insulin: Insulin is medicine used for the treatment of diabetes.
Initially it is derived from animals (pig and cows) but today it is produced by gene splicing.

4. Hepatitis-B vaccine : Hepatitis-B is a viral disease of liver. Today this vaccine is prepared with the help of genetic engineering.

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Question 5.
What is forensic science? Explain DNA fingerprinting method of forensic science.
Forensic science : Forensic science is the application of scientific knowledge and methodology to criminal investigations and legal problems.

DNA figerprinting : DNA fingerprinting is a hybridization technique used to identify the similarities of DNA molecule of two individuals.

Procedure of DNA fingerprinting : The DNA fingerprinting involves the following steps:

1. First of all, the DNA of the organism which has to be tested in isolated. It is host DNA. The DNA may be obtained from blood, semen, vaginal swabs and bone marrow. The amount of DNA needed for developing fingerprints is very small.

2. The isolated host DNA is then digested with a suitable restriction enzyme (example Restriction endonucleases) and the digest is subjected to gel electrophoresis (Southern hybridization). This enzyme cut the host DNA into small fragments.

3. The fragments of double stranded DNA (ds DNA) are denatured to produce single stranded DNA’by alkali treatment.

4. The DNA fragments are separated by gel electrophoresis.

5. The electrophoresed DNA is then transferred from gel into a nitrocellulose filter paper where it is fixed by baking the filter at 80°C for 2 hours.

6. A known sequence of single stranded DNA is prepared. It is called probe – DNA. The probe is obtained from organisms or prepared by DNA preparation method.

7. The probe DNA is labelled with radioactive isotopes such as P32 and then probe is added to the nitrocellulose filter paper containing host DNA.

8. The single stranded probe DNA base pair with complementary strands of the host DNA. As a result DNA – DNA hybrids are formed on nitrocellulose paper.

9. The nitrocellulose paper is then washed to remove unbound DNA probes from the paper.

10. The nitrocellulose filter paper is photographed on X-ray film through autoradiography. The film is analyzed to determine the presence of hybrid nucleic acid.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions 4

A schematic representation of DNA fingerprinting of a person accused of rape, and of the semen stain recovered from the clothes of rape victim. The fingerprints match perfectly; the probabillity of this being due to chance is extremely low. DNA samples from a close relative of the accused and from an unrelated person are also included for comparisons (not shown here).

In case of disputed parentage, the DNA fingerprints of the child, the mother and the suspected father are compared. As a rule, the bands present in a child’s fingerprint must be accounted for by those in the mother’s and the fathers’s fingerprints. ( Therefore, the child’s fingerprint is compared with that of the mother and their common bands are marked. The remaining bands in the child’s fingerprint must be present in that of the child’s father.

Applications of DNA Fingerprinting:

  1. Identification of criminals in forensic laboratories and legal pursuits.
  2. Settlement of disputed paternity i.e., who is the biological father or mother of the child.
  3. It is useful in restoring health of patients suffering from leukemia or blood cancer.
  4. It can explore the evolutionary pathway of a species.
  5. It can verify the kinship of an individuals with another.

On the basis of DNA fingerprints, the killer of Shri Rajiv Gandhi, the former Prime Minister of India was identified as ‘Dhanu’. The sexual relationship of Bill Clinton, the former President of USA with Monika Levinski, a working staff of White House was also concluded to be true on the basis of DNA fingerprinting.

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Question 6.
Explain stem cell technique with example and give its uses.
Stem Cell Technology:
Stem cell technology is a rapidly developing field that combines the efforts of cell biologists, geneticists, and clinicians and offers hope of effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases using stem cells.

Stem cell:
A stem cell is a non – specialized,undifferentiated generic cell which can make exact copies of itself indefinitely and can differentiate and produce specialized cells such as a liver cells, muscle cells, blood cells, and other cells with specific functions. The process of changing into a specific cell type is known as differentiation. Stem cells are found in multicellular organisms.
Stem cells divide regularly to renew and repair the existing tissue.

The bone marrow and gastrointestinal tract in which stem cells function to renew and repair tissue.
MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Applications Important Questions 5
Uses of stem cell:

  1. Due to capacity of regeneration it is useful for treatment of injured cells by replacement of deflective tissue, teeth, retina, cochlear cells.
  2. It is used to treat diseases including spinal cord injury, stroke, bums, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  3. Treatment of diabetes.

MP Board Class 12th Biology Important Questions

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