MP Board Class 12th Special English Grammar Articles and Determiners
What is a Determiner?
“To determine’ means ‘to mark’, ‘to fix’ or ‘to limit’. Therefore, a determiner’ is a word which limits or fixes the meaning of a noun.
‘To Determine’ का अर्थ है ‘इंगित करना’, ‘निर्धारित करना’ या ‘सीमित करना’। इसलिए ‘Determiner’ एक ऐसा शब्द होता है जो किसी Noun (संज्ञा) के अर्थ को निर्धारित या सीमित करता है।
For Examples :
(i) He helped his friend.
(ii) The man gave me a pen.
In sentence (i) ‘his’ is a determiner. It tells us that he helped only his friend and none else.
In sentence (ii) the words ‘the’ and ‘a’ are determiners. ‘The’ shows that it was a specific man.
The word ‘a’ shows that it was one pen and not two or more.
Kinds of Determiners :
There are following five types of Determiners:
- Articles (a, an, the). These are the determiners which make a general or particular reference to a noun.
- Possessives (my, our, your, his, her, their, its, etc.). These determiners show the relationship of possession.
- Numerals (one, two, first, second, etc.). These determiners mention the number of a noun.
- Quantitative (all, any, little, a little, much, some, etc.). These are used to denote quantity or degree.
- Demonstratives (this, that these, those). These determiners draw our attention to a noun.
Classes Of Determiners
|a||my||one, two etc.||all||this|
There are two types of articles :
Articles दो प्रकार के होते हैं-
(a) Indefinite article = a, an
(b) Definite article = The
The Indefinite Article
A और के प्रयोग निम्नलिखित हैं-
(a) It is used before a singular noun which is countable when it is mentioned for the first time. I see a bird on that tree. A cow has a tail.
(b) Before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of the class of things or species. A horse is an animal. A cow has horns. A pine tree grows very tall.
(c) In the numerical sense of the word ‘one’. He gave me a pen. Not a word was spoken.
(d) In expression of price, speed, etc. a/an are used in the sense of “per’. ‘. Milk sells eight rupees a kilo. He drives at sixty miles an hour.
(e) The names of professions and occupations take the indefinite article. My father is an engineer. He grew up to be a politician.
(f) Sometimes ‘a’ can be used before Mr./Mrs./Miss + surname. Then it means a man/woman/girl of that name. A Mr. Kapoor came to see you when you were away. (This sentence means : ‘A man called Mr. Kapoor came ____’)(यदि vowels consonant (व्यंजन) की आवाज देते हैं तो उनसे पहले a का प्रयोग होता है।)
The cow is a useful animal. (यूजफुल)
I saw a one-eyed man. (वन)
I have a European friend. (यूरोपियन)
His brother is a university student. (यूनिवर्सिटी)
(g) Use of ‘a’ before few and little :
(i) a few and a little mean a small number or a small amount (‘few’ stands for number and ‘little’ for amount.)
(ii) ‘few’ and ‘little’ without article have an almost negative meaning I am thirsty but I am afraid there is little water in the pitcher. But there is a little water in the fridge. The college reopened today but there were few students in the classes. A few senior students came to the college but remained away from the classes.
(h) To attribute the qualities of a man (usually someone famous) to another person. He is a Shakespeare (He is a genius like Shakespeare).
The Definite Article
(a) ‘The’ is used before a noun which has become definite as it has been mentioned a second time. When it is introduced the first time, it takes ‘a/an’. A man is going on a road. The man has a bag. The bag contains clothes. The road goes to Sirhind.
(b) It is used before nouns of which there is only one, or which are considered as one. The earth, the sky, The weather, The North Pole.
(C) It is also used with a noun of which there is only one example in some given situation. The Principal is on leave. ‘. Has the postman not come yet?
(d) The definite article is placed before the superlative degree of adjectives. He is the best teacher I have known. She is the most intelligent girl in the class.
(e) When the nouns like English, Russian, French and Greek mean ‘language’, no article is placed before them. But when they stand for People (Nations), they are preceded by the definite article. The English ‘ruled India for a long time. They introduced English as a medium of education in India.
(f) The nouns like hospital, school, college, church, temple, prison, cinema, bed, table, market, office, etc. denote their primary function, if no article is placed before them. The use of ‘the’ before them makes them definite and particular. He met with an accident and was taken to hospital. When I came to know of it. I went to the hospital to meet him.
(g) It is used before singular nouns to represent a class of things. The donkey is lazy. (All donkeys are lazy).
(h) Before an adjective, it is used to represent a class of things. The rich should not exploit the poor. Today a gap exists between the old and the young.
(i). “The’ is used when we refer to a particular thing or a person. In that group, the boy in red shirt is my son.
(j) The definite article is used before ‘first/second’, etc and ‘only’. He was the first man to reach the party. Sunita was the second.
(k) Before the plural names of countries. The United States of America, The West Indies.
(l) Before special dinner, a feast means; as I take dinner at 9.00 p.m. (usual dinner) but Are you attending the dinner being given by Mohan?
(m) The का प्रयोग निम्नलिखित वस्तुओं के नामें से पहले किया जाता है:
- Mountain ranges : The Himalayas, The. Alps, The Pyrenees, etc.
- Rivers : The Ganga, The Brahmputra, The Thames, etc.
- Islands : The Andamans, The West Indies, etc.
- Holy Books : The Geeta, The Quran, The Bible, etc.
- Newspapers : The Indian Express, The Times of India, etc.
- Magazines : The Reader’s Digest, The Competition Master, etc.
- Historical Buildings : The Parliament, The White House, etc.
- Historical events : The First Battle of Panipat, The First/Second World War.
- Trains, Ships, Planes : The Shatabdi Express, The Vikrant, The Ashoka, etc.
- Oceans : The Indian Ocean, The Pacific, The Antarctic, etc.
The possessives are personal pronouns in their possessive use. They are used before nouns to show the idea of possession, e.g.,
This is my book.
Our team has won the match.
Your father is a kind man.
His brother is an engineer.
I met her teacher at school.
This is Rohan’s bag.
Numerals are words relating to number. There are three types of numerals, e.g.,
(a) Definite Numerals. They refer to a definite or exact number. 1. The definite numerals are further divided into two kinds:
(i) Cardinals. One, two, three, five, etc. are called cardinals. These words can be used before nouns which are countable. Please bring one pen for me.
He have him ten coins.
(ii) Ordinals. First, second, third, etc. are called ordinals.
These words are used to indicate order.
The first book was very boring.
He was the last man to come.
(b) Indefinite Numerals. They refer to a vague or indefinite number such as man, a few, several, any, all etc.
Is there any letter for me?
Several people witnessed the accident.
(c) Distributive Numerals. These words refer to each of a group, such as each, every either, neither, etc.
Each of us must work hard.
Each of the boys must do his duty.
Either Gurpreet or Harpreet has won the prize.
Determiners of Quantity
Words like some, any, little, much, no etc, are the determiners, of quantity.
Uses of ‘some’ and ‘any :
(a) Some is used in affirmative sentences.
There are some books on the table.
There is some milk in the glass.
(b) Any is used in negative sentences..
There are not any books on the table.
There isn’t any milk in the glass.
(c) In interrogative sentences when we expect a negative
answer, we use any. Is there any milk in the glass?
Are there any books on the table?
(d) In those interrogative sentences when we expect a.
positive answer, we may use some.
Don’t you have some money?
Weren’t there some boys in the room?
(e) In those sentences in which forbidding or prohibition is implied, we use any. In such sentences, we generally use such words as ‘prevent’, ‘without’, hardly/scarcely, etc.
There is hardly any water in the pitcher.
We reached there without any difficulty.
(f) Any is used in such phrases as mean ‘no matter which’, for example : in any case, at any rate, on any day, at any hour.
You can come any day you like.
I can meet him any hour of the day.
Uses of ‘few and ‘little’ :
- Few एक संख्यात्मक शब्द है। ___Little एक मात्रावाचक शब्द है।
- Few और Little दोनों Negative शब्द हैं, इनका अर्थ है ‘ज्यादा नहीं’ या ‘न के बराबर’।
- A few और A little affirmative विशेषण हैं इनका अर्थ है ‘कुछ’ थोड़े से या थोड़ा/थोड़ी सी।
- The few और The Little का अर्थ है, विशेष थोड़े से या थोड़ा सा। इससे Negative और Affirmative दोनों का बोध होता है।
He makes few mistakes.
He made a few mistakes in the essay.
The few mistakes which he made were minor.
I have little money.
But Mohan has a little money in his pocket.
The little money which I had was spent on food.
The words this, that, these, those are known as demonstratives. ‘This’ is used for a singular thing lying near. “These’ is a plural of this. “That is used for a singular thing lying away. “Those’ is the plural of ‘that’.
For example :
This is a good book.
These books are very useful.
That fan does not work.
Those boys are very intelligent.
Fill in the blanks with ‘some’ or ‘any’ :
1. There isn’t ________ boot-polish in this tin.
2. Please give ________ more pudding. I’m sorry but there isn’t
3. You have ________ fine flowers in your garden.
4. Go and ask him for ________ more paper. I haven’t ________ in my desk.
5. I have ________ more letters for you to write.
6. I like those roses; please give me. ________ What a pity, there aren’t ________ red ones !
7. I can’t eat ________ more potatoes, but I should ________ more beans.
8: I don’t think there is ________ one here who can speak French
9. I must have ink and ________ paper, or I can’t write a thing.
10. We had ________ tea, but there wasn’t sugar to put in it.
2. some; any
4. some; any
6. some; any
7. any; some
9. some; some; any
10. some; any.
Fill in the blanks with little, a little, few and a few :
1. Since there were ________ boys in the class, the teacher went back.
2. I have ________ money in the bank which is not going to be enough.
3. Satish is a boy of ________ words (a rare quality)
4. I regret to say that there is ________ I can do in this matter.
5. Art movies are appreciated only by ________
6. ________ boys were caught using unfair means in the examination.
7. You can master English with ________ effort.
8. is known about unidentified flying objects.
9. ________ words of appreciation yield rich reward.
10. You can learn swimming if you have ________ patience.
2. a little
5. a few
6. a few
7. a little
9. A few
10. a little.
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with ‘a, an, the’:
1. Diamond is ________ hardest of all minerals.
2. He struck me on ________ back.
3. Sheela is ________ intelligent girl.
4. He bought ________pen.
5. ________ Ramayana is ________ sacred book.
6. My friend is ________ teacher.
7. He is : ________ European.
8. She is ________ M.L.A.
9. He will leave by ________ next train.
10. Ram is ________ most intelligent boy in the class.
5. The, a
Fill in the blanks with ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ :
Principal gave him _________ warning.
sun rises in _________ east.
3. I have pain in _________ back.
4. He remained here _________ whole day.
5. _________ eagle is a bird of prey.
6. Do not make _________ noise here.
7. _________ rich are not always happy.
8. _________ Ganges flows into _________ Bay of Bengal.
9. Gardening is _________ usefu hobby.
10. Who is _________ head of your family.
1. The, a
2. The, the
8. The, the
Fill in the blanks with suitable articles :
1. Gold is ______________ precious metal.
sun rises in the east and sets in _________ west.
3. Sham is ______________ pride of his parents.
4. Kalidas is ____________ Shakespeare of India.
5-. Delhi is __________ London of India.
6. __________ umbrella is essential at ___________ hill station.
7. They fought to ____________ last.
8. He is __________ M.P.
9. I have sent him ____________ message.
10. Charan Dass is ____________ loyal servant.
11. You are late by ____________ hour.
12. Punjabi is _________ official language of_______ Punjab.
13. He is ___________ only son of his parents.
14. He is _____________ man who stole my purse.
15. ________ little knowledge is _________ dangerous thing.
2. Then, the
6. An, a
12. then, the
15. A, a
Fill in the blanks with any one of the two given alternatives in each case :
1. I want to buy _________ mangoes. (this, these)
2. Ram has bought _________ house. (this, those)
3. _________ mangoes are a bit too high. (this, those)
4. You should love _________ country. (your, our)
5. Our teachers sit in _________ room. (these, this)
6. The Hindus burn _________ dead. (his, their)
7. He ordered me to mind _________ own business. (my, your)
8. India is _________ country. We are proud of her. (our, their)
9. She is a nice lady. We like _________ behaviour. (your, her)
10. _________ bicycle is mine. (this, these)
Fill in the blanks with either of the two suggested determiners:
1. We must do _________ duty. (our, your)
2. I have _________ books with me. (some, any)
3. There is not _________ letter for me. (some, any)
4. Is there _________ letter for me? (some, any).
5. _________ statement is correct. (neither, nor)
6. _________ girl in the group got the prize. (each, every)
7. _________ team won the match? (which, who)
8. _________ persons know the truth. (few, the few)
9. _________ children passed the test. (any, many)
10. He gave me _________ books he had. (a few, the few)
10. the few.
Fill in the blanks with either of the two suggested determiners:
1. _________ flower fades away. (each, every)
2. I sold _________ books I had. (a few, the few)
3. Manjula gave away _________ coins she had. (several, all the)
4. Is there _________ tea in the pot? (some; any)
5. _________ time has passed now. (much, many)
6. I can write with _________ pen. (either, or)
7. I have written _________ sentences. (a few, the few).
8. Please wait _________ longer. (little, a little)
9. I have eaten too _________ apples. (much, many)
10. There is not _________ truth in it. (much, many)
2. the few
3. all the
7. a few
8. a little