MP Board Class 12th Special English Grammar Tenses
Tense verb के उस form को कहते हैं जो समय के अनुसार बनता है जिस समय कार्य सम्पन्न होता है। Tense से उस कार्य, प्रक्रिया और अवस्था का बोध होता है जो Present, Past या Future में सम्पन्न होता है। ना है. इसे तीन अवस्थाओं में देखा जा सकता है:
- Present Tense,
- Past Tense,
- Future Tense.
इन तीनों अवस्थाओं में verb के अलग-अलग निम्नलिखित रूप बनते हैं:
Each of these three main tenses has four forms :
- Simple or Indefinite
- Continuous or Progressive
- Perfect Continuous.
I. The Simple Present
(or The Present Indefinite)
Simple Sentences – S + V1 + O या S + V1 + s/es + O.
Negative Sentences – S + do not + V1 + या S+does not + V1 + O.
Interrog!tive Sentences – Do + S + V1 + O? या Does + S + V1 + O?
S = Subject, V = Verb, O = Object.
यदि Subject (he, she, it, singular Noun हो तो V, के साथ s/es लगाते हैं;
My mother goes to temple daily.
My mother does not go to temple daily?
Does your mother go to temple daily?
I play cricket.
They work in a factory.
इन वाखों daily, every, always, often, usually, generally शब्द लगो होते हैं
(a) To describe habitual actions.
Ram gets up early in the morning.
Then he goes for awalk.
He always speaks the truth.
(b) To express a general universal or scientific truth.
The Sun rises in the east.
The rain falls from the clouds.
(c) To express a fact which is true at the time of speaking.
Krishna lives in Mumbai.
The Express train does not stop at this station.
(d) In describing running commentaries.
Raman passes the ball to Kamal and he hits it into the goal.
II. The Present Continuous Tense
Simple Sentences – S + ls/Am/Are + V1 + ing + O
Negative Sentences – S + Is/Am/Are + not + V1 + mg + O
Interrogative Sentences – Is/Am/Are + S + V1 + ing + O
I के साथ am का प्रयोग करते हैं।
He, She, It और singular noun के साथ is का प्रयोग करते हैं।
We, you, they और Plural Noun के साथ are का प्रयोग करते हैं;
Look ! the two boys are fighting.
I am doing my work.
Are you not wasting your time?
Is he playing? No, he is not playing.
(a) It shows what is happening now, at the time of writing or speaking.
Shubham is studying in his room, but his brother Arun is playing in the garden.
(b) To express an action which may not be actually going on at
the time of speaking, but it is going on in general.
She is writing a book on Economics.
He is building a new house.
(c) To express an action which is likely to happen in near future.
My brother is coming next week.
I am going to Delhi tomorrow.
Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present tense or the present continuous tense :
1. Suman generally (wear) a white suit but today she (wear) a blue one.
2. Sugar (cost) sixteen rupees a kilo.
3. Rain (fall) from the clouds.
4. Crime never (pay).
5. The workers (repair) the road at present.
6. People (wear) new clothes at Diwali.
7. My children generally (go) to their uncle during the holidays. But they (not go) this summer as we all (go) to Shimla.
8. I usually (drink) coffee but now I (drink) tea.
9. We (have) our lunch at the Ashoka Restaurant this .. afternoon.
10. As it is good weather, children (play) in the garden.
11. The doctor (examine) the patient in the next room.
12. Do not make a noise. The baby (sleep) in the cradle.
13. I (hear) a noise from the next home. Vijay is beating his wife again.
14. Going to war (mean) killing a lot of people.
1. wears; is wearing
5. are repairing
7. go are not going; are going
8. drink; am drinking
9. are having
10. are playing
11. is examining
12. is sleeping
III. The Present Perfect Tense
Simple Sentences – S + has/have + V3 + O
Negative Sentences – S + has/have + not + V3 + O
Interrogative Sentences – Has/Have + S + V3 + O?
He, She, It और singular noun के साथ has का प्रयोग करते हैं। I, We, You, They और plural noun के साथ have का प्रयोग करते हैं;
The Bell has gone. I have learnt my lesson.
Have you returned the library books?
(a) To express an action which has just been completed.
Have you written a letter?
Yes, I have just completed it.
(b) To express an action which began in the past and has continued upto the present. For this use of the tense, for and since can be used to denote the length of time.
For is used to show the lenth of time and since to show the point of time.
He has been a teacher since 1985.
I have known him for the last ten years.
(c) To express an action which happened in the past at an Indefinite time.
We either don’t know the time of its happening or we don’t mention it.
I have seen the Taj Mahal.
I have met the author of this book.
(d) In the sentences having ‘yet negative sentences of this are formed.
The match has not started yet. He has not come yet.
They have not visited us yet.
IV. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Simple Sentences – S + has/have + been + V1 + ing + O
Negative Sentences – S + has/have + not been + V1 + ing + O
Interrogative Sentences – Has/Have + S + been V1 + ing + O?
I have been living here only for five years.
No, I have not been living here since long.
Have you been living here for a long time?
(a) To express an action which began in the past but is still continuing.
Since and For are used to denote the length of time.
It has been raining since morning.
We have been waiting for the rain to stop.
(b). To express an action, which has just finished, but whose effect or result still continues
I am tired; I have been watering the plants since morning.
I am late because I have been washing my car.
Put the verbs in the present perfect or present perfect continuous tense :
1. He (take) his meal and is playing in the garden now.
2. Please give me your pen. I (forget) mine at home.
3. I (ring) the bell for five minutes, but nobody (come) to answer.
4. This woman (visit) the shop five times, but so far she (not purchase) anything.
5. He is a famous player. He (play) football since he was ten years old.
6. I (wait) for you for the last one hour.
7. Mohan (live) in this town since 1935.
8. You cannot meet Rajesh. He (just go) out.
9. Geeta went to Delhi six months ago, but I (not hear) from her so far.
10. I (not see) the Taj Mahal but I am planning to visit Agra? next week.
11. India and Pakistan (fight) three wars.
12. You cannot go out till you (complete) your homework.
13. I (help) him five times in the past, but he (not improve).
14. He already (write) five letters and is still writing.
15. My uncle just (arrive) from Kolkata.
1. has taken
2. have forgotten
3. have been ringing; has come
4. has visited; has not purchase
5. has been playing
6. have been waiting
7. has been living
8. has just gone
9. have not heard
10. have not seen
11. have fought
12. have completed
13. have helped; but has not improved
14. has already written
15. has just arrived.
Put the verb in brackets into the correct tense (simple present, present continuous, present perfect or present prefect continuous)
1. A liar is a person who habitually (tell) lies.
2. He (play) for two hours and still (not stop).
3. The burglars (try) to get into the house for two hours.
4. You cannot meet him. He (write) a letter.
5. He generally (go) to college in a car, but today he (go) on a cycle.
6. I (smell) something burning.
7. I (not met) the minister so far but I (meet) him tomorrow.
8. There is no use of calling the doctor; the patient already (die).
9. The hungry child (cry) for ten minutes.
10. Mohan (like) to swim in the river.
11. He (wear) that coat for fifteen years and it (wear out) at the elbows.
12. I never (see) such a beautiful garden.
13. Everybody (admire) a smart boy.
14. I hear that Ram Lal (go) to London.
15. I want to go to the theatre; I not (see) a good play for a long time.
2. has been playing; has still not stopped
3. have been trying
4. is writing
5. goes; is going
7. have not met; am meeting
8. has already died
9. has been crying
11. has been wearing; has worn out
12. have never seen
14. has gone
15. have not seen.
I. The Simple Past Tense
(a) Simple past tense में subject के साथ verb की IInd form का प्रयोग होता है;
Mohan went to Agra.
I met Amrish Puri.
He wrote a letter.
(b) Negative (नकारात्मक) वाक्यों में subject के साथ did not + verb की
Ist form का प्रयोग होता है;
Mohan did not go to Agra.
I did not meet Amrish Puri.
He did not write a letter.
(c) Interrogative (प्रश्नवाचक) वाक्यों में did + subject + verb की Ist form का प्रयोग होता है; या Question word + did + subject + verb की Ist Form का प्रयोग होता है,
Did Mohan go to Agra?
Did I meet Amrish Puri?
Did he write a letter? !
When did you see him last time?
Some other examples :
|I sang a song.
Anu sang a song.
They sang a song.
He sang a song.
|I did not sing a song.
Anu did not sing a song.
They did not sing a song.
He did not sing a song.
|Did I sing a song?
Did Anu sing a song?
Did they sing a song?
Did he Sing a song?
(a) To express an action completed in the past at a definite time.
Nehru died in 1964. (die)
I met Shyam yesterday. (meet)
I visited Lucknow four years ago. (visit)
She did not visit us last year. (visit)
इन वाक्यों में भूतकाल का वर्णन करने के लिए yesterday, last, ago और in + year if you can do
(b) To express a past habit.
My grandfather always went for a walk in the morning. (go)
He always carried an umbrella. (carry)
(c) To express an action which took place at a definite time in the past even though the time is not given.
Kamal arrived ten minutes late and his officer rebuked him. ” (arrive)
I bought this suit at Connaught Place. (buy)
(d) To express some historical events.
Shahjahan built the Taj. (build)
Babar founded the Mughal Empire. (found)
Columbus discovered America. (discover)
Gandhiji span on the charkha daily. (spin)
(e) If one part of the sentence is in Past Continuous Tense.
I was taking my lunch when he arrived. (arrive)
I saw that the two boys were fighting. (see)
To express the condition of past.
He would pass if he worked hard. (work)
She would get a job if she applied for it. (apply)
(8) Connectors (neither, and, but, because, as) as Het में Verb की IInd form लगी हो तो दूसरे भाग में भी Verb की IInd form of an and I.
Neither he came nor sent any message. (send)
He failed because he did not work hard. (fail)
He came in and saw everything with his own eyes. (see)
Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past Tense :
1. I was walking along the road when suddenly I __________ (meet) an old lady.
2. The policeman __________ (ask) me where I was going.
3. I __________ (tell) him that I was going to Pindara.
4. The old man was a beggar. He __________ (beg) me to give him something.
5. “I have not eaten anything since morning.” the old man (say).
6. I __________ (take) pity on the old man and gave him five rupees.
7: I __________ (feel) happy for helping an old and hungry man.
8. I returned from Pindara after one hour and __________ (meet) the same old man again.
9. I recognised him but he __________ (not recognise) me.
10. When I came near him, he again __________ (ask) me for money.
11. He again __________ (say) that he had been hungry since morning.
12. I __________ (tell) the old man that I had given him five rupees only one hour before.
13. I __________ (rebuke) him for telling lies.
14. Then the old man recognised me and __________ (turn) pale.
15. He __________ (not stop) there and ran away.
9. did not recognise
15. did not stop.
II. The Past Continuous Tense
Simple Sentences – S + was/were + V1 + ing + O
Negative Sentences – S + was/were + not + V1 + ing + O
Interrogative Sentences – Was/Were + S + V1 + ing + O?
The baby was sleeping in the cradle.
They were making a noise.
I was learning my lesson.
I, he, she, it और singular noun के साथ was का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
He, she, it और plural noun के साथ were का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
(a) This tense is used to express an action which was continuing at some point of time in the past.
नेट- इस Tense वाले वाखों में एक भाग में when के साथ verb की लगी होती है
The fire was burning when we came in.
He was taking lunch when I went to see him.
(b) To express two or more actions happening simultaneously in the past:
While she was writing, he was looking at her beautiful pen.
While the whole family were watching the television, Rajat was studying in his room.
III. The Past Perfect Tense.
(a) इस tense में subject के बाद had + verb की IIIrd form का प्रयोग होता है
I had done his work.
He had written a letter.
She had made a plan.
(b) नकारात्मक (Negative) वाक्यों में had + not + verb की IIIrd form का प्रयोग होता है
I had not done his work.
He had not written a letter.
She had not made a plan.
(c) प्रश्नवाचक (Interrogative) वाक्यों में had + subject + verb की IIIrd form का प्रयोग होता है
Had I done his work?
Had he written a letter?
Had she made a plan?
Some other examples :
|I had sung a song.
She had sung a song.
They had sung a song.
The boys had sung a song.
|I had not sung a song.
She had not sung a song.
They had not sung a song.
The boys had not sung a song.
|Had I sung a song?
Had she sung a song?
Had they sung a song ?
Had the boys singing a song?
(a) To express an action that has completed before the fixed time in past.
The fire had burnt the huts before the fire brigade came. (burn)
The thief had run away before the police came. (run)
The patient had died before the doctor came. (die)
The train had left before we reached the station. (leave)
नोट-इन वाक्यों में कार्य के सम्पन्न होने का वर्णन करने के लिए before, after, already, by, till और until शब्द लगे होते हैं।
(b) To express an action that has completed before the beginning of second action.
I had already done my work by 6 p.m. yesterday. (do)
He had not met me before. (not meet)
She had not reached Agra till yesterday. (not reach)
(c) To express an unfulfilled wish of the past.
He wished that he had accepted the offer. (accept)
If only you had worked hard. (work)
I bought this suit at Connaught Place. (buy)
(d) If in past happens more than one action, for former action :
past perfect is used.
I went home after I had finished the work. (finish)
He returned after he had seen off his wife at the station. (see)
(e) To express an impossible condition of the past.
If he had walked carefully, he would not have fallen. (walk)
If you had worked hard, you would have passed. (work)
You would have caught the train if you had run faster. (run)
Supply the correct Past Tense of the verb given in the brackets:
1. He told the doctor that his son just __________ (break) his leg.
2. The accident __________ (occur) at 6 o’clock this evening.
3. When I reached the house __________ (find) that thieves (break) into it.
4. I found that they __________ (take) away my T.V.
5. The thieves __________ (run) away before I reached the house.
6. The match __________ (begin) before we reached the stadium.
7. The thieves __________ (run) away before the police (arrive).
8. When I reached the cinema hall, the picture already __________ (begin).
9. I wished he __________ (help) me.
10. If he __________ (Walk) carefully, he would not have fallen.
11. When I __________ (reach) the bus stop, the bus (leave).
12. We went home after we __________ (see) the film.
13. He (becomes) happy when he __________ (know) that he (pass).
14. If he __________ (work) hard, he would have won the prize.
15. I __________ (thank) her for what she (do) for me.
1. had just broken
3. found; had broken
4. had taken
5. had run away
6. had begun
7. had run away; arrived
8. had already begun
9. had helped
10. had walked
11. reached; had left
12. had seen
13. became; knew; had passed
14. had worked hard 15. thanked; had done.
IV. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
This tense is formed by using had + been + Ist form of the verb + ing. The negative is formed by putting not between had and been. In interrogative sentences, had is put before the subject.
The fire had been burning for four hours before the fire brigade arrived.
Had it been burning since morning.
No, it had not been burning since morning.
This tense is used to express the continuity of an action at a given point in the past. In other words, the action started before a. given point in the past; it was continuing at that time and probably continued after that also.
यह tense भूतकाल में किसी निश्चित समय से पहले भूतकाल की किसी अवधि’ से कार्य के जारी रहने वाले वाक्यों में प्रयोग किया जाता है। वाक्य में since/for लगा होता है।
नोट-Since या for वाले वाक्यों में एक भाग में when के साथ verb की 2nd form लगी होती है।
He had been waiting for me when I reached there.
The match had been going on for two hours when I reached the stadium.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past tense.
1. At 9 a.m. last night, I (watch) the television.
2. The players (enter) the stage carrying torches.
3. It (rain) when I went out.
4. He (cross) the room and (sit) in the chair.
5. When I was at school. I (take) part in cultural activities.
6. When he came in, we (take) dinner.
7. Last year 1′(attend) a conference at Chennai.
8. An accident (take) place at the crossroads last evening.
9. When Mohan (be) five years old, his father (die).
10. When I was walking along the road, the wind (blow) off my hat.
11. I (think) hard and (find) a solution.
12. After walking for four kilometers I (realise) that I (go) in the wrong direction.
13. I (break) my leg when I was dancing.
14. Hitler (get) a great number of Jews killed.
15. The doctor (examine) the patients when I went to see him.
1. was watching
3. was raining
4. crossed; sat
6. were taking
8. took place
9. was; died
10. blew off
11. thought; found
12. realised; was going
15. was examining.
I. The Simple Future Tense
Simple Sentence – S + will/shall + V1 + O
Negative Sentences. – S + will/shall + not + V1 + O
Interrogative Sentences – Will/shall + S + V1 + O?
I और we के साथ shall का प्रयोग किया जाता है और अन्य noun/pronouns के साथ will का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
I shall go to school tomorrow.
He will visit us next week.
They will not help me.
Will you do it for me?
(a) To show future.
He will go to Mumbai next week.
I shall not to go school tomorrow.
(b) To express the speaker’s opinions or assumptions about the future.
I think he will not come back.
We hope that Aman will get First Division.
(c) Sometimes, the simple future tense is used to express habitual actions or general truths.
He will always tell lies.
A dog’s tail will remain crooked.
(d) Generally, shall is used with first person (I,we) and will is used with 2nd and 3rd persons.
But will can be used with Ist person in order to express intention or promise.
Shall can be used with promise, prohibition, etc.
I will always help you in your need. (promise)
We will fight to the finish. (determination)
You shall not enter my room with muddy feet. (prohibition)
II. The Future Continuous Tense
Simple Sentences – S + will/shall + be + V1 + ing+O
Negative Sentences. – S + will/shall + not + be + V1 + ing+O
Interrogative Sentences – Will/Shall + S + be + V1 + ing+O?
Will you be playing a match tomorrow.
No, I shall not be playing.
I shall be sitting in a train at this time tomorrow.
1. (a) To express an action which is expected to take place in the normal course.
It is less definite than the present continuous.
We are seeing the manager tomorrow. (definite arrangement)
We shall be seeing the manager tomorrow. (less definite)
(b) To express an action that will be in progress at a given point of time in future :
नोट-इस tense के वाक्यों के एक भाग में when के साथ verb की Ist Form लगी होती है
When you reach Shimla, it will be snowing here.
At this time tomorrow, I shall be travelling in a train.
(c) In the Interrogative, the future continuous implies a polite request or query.
Will you be coming with me? .
III. The Future Perfect Tense
Simple Sentences – S + will/shall + be + V1 + O
Negative Sentences – S + will/shall + not + have + V1 + O
Interrogative Sentences – Will/Shall + S + have + V,1 + O ?
He will have done this work.
Will he have started the next work also?
No; he will not have started the next work. He will have gone home.
(a) To express an action which is expected to be completed by a given future time.
नोट-(By the time या before के साथ एक भाग में verb की Ist Form लगी होती है
I shall have solved the sum by that time.
By the time the doctor arrives, the patient will have died.
The bell will have gone before we reach the school.
(b) To express the speaker’s belief or guess about an action.
Mohan will have reached Delhi by now.
You will have read about Alexander the Great.
IV. The Future Perfect Coninuous Tense
Simple Sentences – S+ will/shall + have been + V1 + ing + O
Negative Sentences – S+ will/shall + not + have been + V1 + ing + O
Interrogative Sentences – Will/Shall + S + have been + V1 + ing + O?
Will the gardener have been watering the plants in the evening?
No, he will not have been watering the plants.
He will have been waiting for you for two hours when you reach there.
(a) To show future.
This tense is used to express an action which will begin before a certain time in the future, will be continuing at that certain point of time and will continue even after that. When you reach the ground, the match will have been going on for one an hour.
(The match will begin, one hour before you reach, will still be in progress at the time of your reaching there and will continue even after your arrival.)
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future form :
1. I wonder if I (get) tickets in advance.
2. I (know) the results in a week’s time.
3. If you work hard, you (pass).
4. Perhaps he (arrival) in time for lunch.
5. At this time tomorrow I (travel) in a train.
6. By six p.m. tomorrow, I (do) this work.
7. You (open) the door, please?
8. There is going to be a bus strike. Everyone (look) for taxis and rickshaws next week.
9. I don’t like that man and I (not help) him.
10. Mohan says that he (not lend) me the book, because I never return the books.
1. shall get
2. shall know
3. will pass
4. will arrive
5. shall be traveling
6. shall have done
7. will you open
8. will be looking
9. will not help
10. will not lend.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct future form (future simple, future continuous, future perfect, future perfect continuous):
1. If you walk fast, you (catch) the train.
2. When you reach there, he (read) a book.
3. By evening I (read) half the book.
4. At 7 p.m. he (ring) for two hours.
5. I (return) your book tomorrow.
6. I (help) you in your difficulty.
7. You (know) your result next week.
8. A number of tourists (arrive) Shimla next summer.
9. The train (leave) by the time you reach the station.
10. As you sow, so you (reap).
11. The gardeners (water) the plants before the sun rises.
12. The sun (rise) before we reach the top.
13. I (do) the washing tomorrow morning.
14. If he is clever enough, he (get) his answer.
15. By Monday he (stay) at this hotel for three weeks.
1. will catch
2. will be reading
3. will have read
4. will have been ringing
5. will return
6. will know
7. will know
8. will arrive
9. will have left
10. shall you reap
11. will have watered
12. will have risen
13. will do
14. will get
15. will have been staying.
Mixed Solved Exercise
Use the correct form of the verbs given in brackets :
1. The policeman (catch) the thief red-handed.
2. Students (stay away) from their classes in protest against the principal.
3. The whole day yesterday the boys (listen) to the cricket commentary.
4. A bomb scare (cause) a delay of about 2 hours of the Delhi-Bangalore flight.
5. The Jawahar Lal Nehru Stadium (reverberate) with dance, music and song.
6. Jim Corbett (love) animals but he (kill) many man-eaters.
7. I (learn) Tamil from my friend who is settled in Tamil Nadu.
8. Last year they (build) a high wall around the house.
9. I (read) a number of stories, when I was a child.
10. Last evening some wicked people (smuggle) brown sugar into the town, but they were arrested.
2. stayed away
3. were listening
6. loved; killed
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense in the following sentences :
1. The train (leave) at 6.50 a.m.
2. He (buy) a new house recently.
3. I (buy) a new car last week.
4. If you (go) to the city, bring a toy for me.
5. The patient (die) before the doctor came.
6. She (study) for the last three hours.
7. Go to bed if you (finish) your work.
2. has bought
5. had died
6. has been studying
7. have finished.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given in brackets :
1. When I (go) to the hospital, the doctor already (perform) the operation.
2. After getting into the bus we (discover) that we (board) the wrong one.
3. I (finish) the assignment before the sun (set).
4. Deepak (want) to join the medical college, but he (fail) to get admission.
5. The farmers sowed the seeds after they (plow) their fields.
6. I asked my friend what film he (see).
7. I tore up your letter after I (read) it.
8. He (shell) all the peas before I cut the potatoes.
1. went; had already performed
2. discovered; had boarded
3. had finished; set
4. wanted; failed
5. had plowed
6. had been
7. had read
8. had shelled all the peas.