MP Board Class 7th Social Science Solutions Chapter 24 The Rise of the Sikh and Maratha Power
MP Board Class 7th Social Science Chapter 24 Text Book Questions
Choose the correct alternatives:
Khalsa group was organised by:
(a) Guru Govind Singh
(b) Guru Teg Bahadur
(c) Banda Bahadur
(d) Gum Hargovind.
(a) Guru Govind Singh
The credit of organisation of Maratha power goes to:
To Supress the power of Shivaji the Sultan of Bijapur sent:
(a) Afzal Khan
(b) Adil Shah
(d) Hasan Khan
(a) Afzal Khan
At the highest position of Shivaji’s Ashta Pradhan was:
Fill in the blanks:
- The title of Sachcha Padshah was conferred on …………
- …………… was fee first Guru of the Sikhs.
- Shivaji adorned fee title of …………. after his coronation.
- ………….. was the source of income of Shivaji’s Kingdom.
- Banda Bahadur
- Guru Nanak
- land revenue
MP Board Class 7th Social Science Chapter 24 Short Answer Type Questions
What efforts was made by Guru Govind Singh to make the Sikhs powerful?
Gum Govind Singh transformed the Sikhs into a separate community and named them Khalsa. He prescribed the five K’s-Kara, Kripan, Kesh, Kachacha, and Kangha for the Sikhs. He transformed the Sikhs into a powerful military organization.
What education did Shivaji receive in his childhood?
Shivaji was taught to be independent. His mother instilled inspiration and determination in him to defend his people and his country.
Why did Shivaji kill Afzal Khan?
Afzal Khan was sent to capture Shivaji. He plotted to kill him. Shivaji came to know about his plan and killed him in order to save his own life.
Write short notes on:
- Ashta Pradhan.
- The military administration of Shivaji.
1. Ashta Pradhan:
Shivaji had appointed a council of eightministers. It was called Ashta Pradhan. Their main function was to advise Shivaji in carrying out the administration of his territories. Each person was the head of his department. However all worked under the chairmanship of Shivaji.
These Ashta Pradhan were –
- Peshwa (Prime Minister)
- Amatya (Finance Minister)
- Sumant (External Affair Minister)
- Sachiv (Secretary)
- Panditrao (Purohit)
- Senapati (army general)
- Nyayadhish (Judge)
2. The military administration of Shivaji:
Shivaji had maintained discipline in his army. His army comprised of cavalry, infantry, artillery and navy. The soldiers were under control. They never tried to break the rules of discipline. Beside other duties, they also protected the holy books and safeguarded the women, children or old people from abuse.
MP Board Class 7th Social Science Chapter 24 Long Answer Type Questions
Clarify the Mughal and the Sikh relations.
The Skihs were the followers of Guru Nanak. By the seventeenth century, Sikhism (new religion) had become the religion of the peasants and artisans in many parts of the the Punjab. After Gum Nanak, there were other nine Sikh Gurus. The earlier Gums concentrated mainly on Sikhism But the later Gums became the military leaders of the Sikhs also. They did so because they had to defend themselves from the atrocities of the Mughals.
The fifth Gum Aijundev was accused by Jahangir for helping his son Khusro in the revolt against him and was killed. The confrontation and martyrdom of the gurus transformed die Sikhs into a military brotherhood. To curb the growing power and strength of the Sikhs, Aurangzeb ordered the execution of Gum Tegh Bahadur in 1675 A.D. This enraged the Sikhs.
As a result, the tenth and last Gum Govind Singh organised the Sikhs as soldiers and prepared them for a long battle against the Mughals. Like Maratha, the Sikhs carried out raids in various places, but unlike Maratha, they could not establish an independent state during the reign of Aurangzeb. Thus we see that the relations between the Mughals and the Sikhs were not friendly. They were always on fighting terms. Enmity was at its height between both the sects.
Shivaji had excellent administrative ability. Explain?
Shivaji was not only a great general but also a good administrator of top order. Shivaji’s administration was of high order which inspired by ideals of public welfare. Though Shivaji was all in all, in all matters, he kept a committee of 8 persons to advise him on the affairs of the state. This committee came to be known as Ashta Pradhan. This was file main feature of Shivaji’s administration.
The main source of income was the tax on the land which amounted to two – fifths of file land produce. Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were also levied on those living outside Maratha kingdom. Chauth was one fourth of the tax which farmers paid such kingdoms by their peasants. Sardeshmukhi was over and above this tax. It was one tenth of the total revenue, from which these taxes were collected, remained free from the Maratha looting’s and attacks.
For the smooth and efficient administration, Shivaji divided his kingdom into a number of provinces known as prants, and each prant into districts and parganas. In this way Shivaji proved himself as an able administrator.