MP Board Class 9th General English Grammar Clauses
जब किसी sentence में एक subject और एक predicate (अर्थात् एक ही verb) हो तो वह simple sentence कहलाता है
Example Subject + Predicate (verb + other words)
Harish is playing football.
Simple sentences जब जुड़कर complex sentences बन जाते हैं तो clauses कहलाते हैं
Complex Sentence-This is the picture which was drawn by me.
Simple sentences को किसी conjunction (योजक शब्द) से जोड़कर Complex sentence बनाया जाता है
Clauses दो प्रकार के होते हैं-
- Principal Clause व
- Subordinate Clause.
I love him because he is my son.
I love him वाक्य अपने आप में पुर्ण है अत: यह Principal clause है because he is my son को अकेले नहीं लिखा जा सकता पुरे अर्थ के लिए यह I love him पर निर्भर है अत : यह subordinate clause है
Subordinate Clause तीन प्रकार के होते हैं
- Noun Clause
- Adverb Clause
- Adjective Clause.
Adverb clauses are clauses that function as an adverb.
Adverb clauses किसी verb, Adverb या की विशेषता बताते हैं adjective की विशेषता बताते हैं।
आपके पाठ्यक्रम में दो प्रकार के रखे Adverb clauses गये हैं
(1) Adverb Clauses of Time.
(2) Adverb Clauses of Condition.
(1) Adverb Clauses of Time (i) We will leave.
We finish our lunch.
As soon as we finish our lunch we will leave.
(ii) We will go out.
The rain stops.
We will go out when the rain stops.
(iii) Don’t shout…
She is studying.
Don’t shout while she is studying.
(iv) Father called me.
I was taking food.
Father called me when I was taking food.
(v) A stone hit me.
I was coming out.
As I was coming out, a stone hit me.
Join the following sentences to make an adverb clause with the help of conjunctions given :
1. The sun rises. (As soon as)
He takes bath.
2. I had been living there. (Since)
He took birth.
3. There is unity in the country. (As long as)
We shall remain strong.
4. We reached the station. (Before)
The train had arrived.
5. She found a coin.
She was cleaning the floor. (While)
6. He came here.
I rushed to see him. (No sooner ….than)
7. The girl won’t go away. You tell her to go. (until)
1. As soon as he takes bath, the sun rises.
2. I had been living there since he took birth.
3. As long as there is unity in the country we shall remain strong.
4. We reached the station before the train arrived.
5. She found a coin while she was cleaning the floor.
6. No sooner did he come here, than I rushed to see him. 7. The girl won’t go away until you tell her to go.
(2) Adverb Clause of Condition
जब एक simple sentence दूसरे simple sentence से इस तरह जुड़े कि जुड़कर वह उस sentence की verb की शर्त
हो तो वह Adverb clause of condition Emin कहलाता है
यह if, in case, unless, if not, suppose, provided इत्यादि से जुड़ते हैं।
(i) Mohan comes.
I shall go.
If Mohan comes, I shall go.
(ii) You are honest..
People will not respect you.
If you are not honest, people will not respect you.
(iii) I like tea.
It is hot.
I like tea provided it is hot.
(iv) We won’t pay.
He sends the bill again.
Unless he sends the bill again, we won’t pay.
(v) I forget.
Please remind it to me.
In case I forget, please remind it to me.
Combine the sentences :
1. Take your teacher’s advice. I am not available. (In case) 2. The judge will not believe. You prove it. (Unless)
3. I will not come. It is too cold.
4. I shall forgive him. He say sorry. (provided)
5. I will go. You accompany me.
1. In case I am not available take your teacher’s advice.
2. Unless you prove it, the judge will not believe.
3. If it is too cold, I will not come.
4. I shall forgive him provided he says sorry.
5. I will go if you accompany me.
जब एक Simple sentence दूसरे में जुड़कर उसके किसी Noun की विशेषता बतलाता है तो वह Adjective या Relative clause कहलाता है ये दो प्रकार के होते हैं-
(1) Defining or Restrictive Relative Clause जब कोई Clause किसी Noun को qualify इस तरह करे कि वह उस Noun को identify करने के लिए अनिवार्य हो जाए तब उसे Restrictive Clause कहेंगे।
As-The man who lives next door has just retired.
(2) Non-Defining or Non-Restrictive Clause – किन्तु जब Adjective Clause उसके Noun को identify करने हेतु आवश्यक न हो, किन्तु एक अतिरिक्त जानकारी के रूप में सम्बद्ध हो तो वह Non-Defining Clause कहलाता है। जैसे
(i) Mr. Sharma, who lives next door, has just retired.
(ii) Suresh, who was wearing red shirt, has disappeared.
(नोट-Non-defining Clause के पूर्व व पश्चात् Commas का प्रयोग किया जाता है।)
Adjective Clauses के साथ Relative Pronouns योजक का कार्य करते हैं।
Who = जो, जिसने
Whom = जिसे, जिसको
Which = जो, जिसने
Whose = जिसका, जिसकी इत्यादि का प्रयोग होता है।
That = जो, जिसने।
Relative adverbs-when, where, why, how. Others-same…..as, such……as etc.
(i) This is the time.
We must act now.
This is the time when we must act.
(ii) The news is not true.
Sohan brought this news.
The news that Mohan brought is not true.
(iii) The place is dirty.
You are sitting there.
The place where you are sitting is dirty.
(iv) The lady is beautiful.
The lady is wearing a red saree.”
The lady, who is wearing a red saree, is beautiful.
Combine the sentences :
1. The book is mine.
The book is lying on the table. (which)
2. The boy was very stupid.
The boy was sitting next to me. (who)
3. The man has just gone out. You want to see the man. (whom)
4. Blessed is the man. His cares are few. (whose)
5. The car came first in the race.
The car was driven by a foreigner. (that)
6. The time is not known.
When does he come here?
1. The book which is lying on the table is mine.
2. The boy who was sitting next to me was very stupid.
3. The man whom you want to see has just gone out.
4. Blessed is the man whose cares are few.
5. The car that was driven by a foreigner came first in the race.
6. The time when he comes here is not known.
वे Clauses जो Noun का कार्य करते हैं, Noun Clause कहलाते हैं ये निम्न कार्य करते हैं-
(1) Subject of a verb.
(2) The object of a transitive verb.
(3) The complement of a verb.
(4) The object of a preposition.
(1) Subject of a Verb
जब कोई Clause किसी verb के subject का कार्य करता है तो Noun Clause कहलाता है जैसे
That he is ill is not true.
(i) What he says.
(ii) That is wrong.
These two sentences can be combined to form a complex sentence. What he says is wrong.
Combine the sentences :
1. This was unfortunate.
We lost the opening match.
2. This is possible.
They might have misunderstood you.
3. This is doubtful.
Will they be able to get good grades?
4. This is not certain.
Will they be able to come with us?
5. This is a mystery.
Why did she go there alone?
6. He is ill.
It is not true.
7. When will he come?
This is uncertain.
1. That we lost the opening match was unfortunate.
2. That they might have misunderstood you is possible.
3. Whether they will be able to get good grades is doubtful. 4. Whether they will be able to come with us is not certain. 5. Why she went there alone is a mystery.
6. That he is ill is not true.
7. When will he come is uncertain.
(2) Object of a Transitive Verb
जब कोई simple sentence दूसरे simple sentence से इस तरह जुड़ता है कि जुड़कर उस sentence की Finite Verb के Object का कार्य करे तो इस तरह Noun का कार्य करने के कारण Noun Clause कहलाता है
Transitive verb में sentence का structure होता है-
Object कोई Noun/Pronoun होता है।
अत: निम्न sentence में
I know …….. he is stupid.
Complex sentence in I know that he is stupid, इसमें I know Main clause व Object के रूप में जुड़ा that he is stupid-Noun clause है।
Combine the following sentences :
1. They asked this.
Did we want to insure our luggage?
2. Do you know this?
When is the next train?
3. Can you tell me this?
Where have they gone?
4. Please remember this.
You have to attend the meeting.
5. We expect this.
The party will get absolute majority.
1. They asked if we wanted to insure our luggage.
2. Do you know when the next train is?
3. Can you tell me where they have gone?
4. Please remember that you have to attend the meeting.
5. We expect that the party will get absolute majority.
(3) Complement of a Verb
जब कोई Clause किसी Verb के Complement का कार्य करता है तब उसे भी Noun Clause कहते हैं।
जब कोई sentence दूसरे simple sentence में इस तरह जुड़ता है कि जुड़कर उसकी incomplete verbs के Noun complement का कार्य करे तो इस तरह जुड़ा वाक्य Noun clause कहलाता है
The problem is this
How can we reach there in time?
The problem is how we can reach there in time.
Combine the sentences making one of them a Noun clause complement of a verb.
1. It seems this.
He is worried.
2. His intention is this.
You should not sell the house.
3. The fact is this.
We cannot afford a holiday this year.
4. My opinion is this.
You have made a mistake.
5. His suggestion is this.
We should go for picnic.
1. It seems that he is worried.
2. His intention is that you should not sell the house.
3. The fact is that we cannot afford a holiday this year.
4. My opinion is that you have made a mistake.
5. His suggestion is that we should go for picnic.
(4) Object of a Preposition :
जब कोई simple sentence दूसरे simple sentence में इस तरह जुड़ता है की जुड़कर उस sentence के किसी Preposition का Object बन जाए तो वह Noun Clause कहलाता है जैसे-
(i) They couldn’t agree about this.
Who should do the work?
They couldn’t agree about who should do the work.
(ii) Have you decided upon this?
Where will you spend the holidays?
Have you decided upon where you will spend the holidays?
(iii) Everything depends on this.
Does the train reach there in time?
Everything depends on whether the train reaches there in time or not.
Combine the following sentences.
1. I do not believe in his words.
He says the words.
2. He was punished for his misdeed.
He had done the misdeed.
3. I had drawn this conclusion from his words.
He said these words.
4. Pay attention to the teacher’s words.
The teacher says the words.
5. Be careful about the things.
You take things in your hands.
1. I do not believe in what he says.
2. He was punished for what he had done.
3. I had drawn the conclusion from what he said.
4. Pay attention to what the teacher says.
5. Be careful about what you take in your hands.