MP Board Class 10th General English Grammar Tenses
परिभाषा- The tense of a verb shows the time of an event or action of a verb.
Verb के tense से किसी घटना या कार्य के समय का ज्ञान होता है।
अंग्रेजी में Tense तीन प्रकार के होते हैं
(i) Present tense,
(ii) Past tense,
(iii) Future tense.
(i) Present Tense (वर्तमान काल)- इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य अब या अभी हुआ है।
I go to school.
(मैं स्कूल जाता हूँ।)
(ii) Past Tense (भूतकाल)-इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य बीते हुए समय में हुआ है।
I went to school.
(मैं स्कूल गया।) .
(iii) Future Tense (भविष्य काल)-इस Tense से यह पता चलता है कि कार्य आने वाले समय में होगा।
I shall go to school.
(मैं स्कूल जाऊँगा।)
प्रत्येक Tense निम्नलिखित चार प्रकार का होता है-
4. Perfect Continuous.
आपके पाठ्यक्रम में Past tense (भूतकाल) है।
Past Tense (भूतकाल)
1. Past Indefinite Tense- इस Tense में Singular तथा Plural दोनों प्रकार के subject के बाद Second Form की Verb आतीहै जैसे-
I ran. (में भागा)
He ran. (वह भागा)
They ran. (वे भागो)
Past Indefinite Tense को Simple Past Tense भी कहते हे
Structure – Subjcet + Verb II + Object etc.
As – I wrote a letter yesterday.
It rained heavily the last night.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verbs given in brackets :
1. You ……… (buy) wool yesterday.
2. The train ……. (arrive) at 6.00 p.m.
3. He ……… (meet) me last Saturday.
4. I ……. (bend) the stick.
5. She ……. (break) the glass.
6. You ……. (get) a prize.
इस Tense में Verb की Emphatic या strong form ‘did + Verb I’ द्वारा बनाई जाती है
I caught the thief.
I did catch the thief.
Negative या Interrogative बनाना
इस Tense के साधारण वख्यों में सहायक क्रिया नहीं होती, अत: Emphatic form की सहायता से Negative तथा Interrogative बनाते हैं
Raja bought a mango. (Affirmative) Raja did not bring a mango. (Negative) He came here yesterday. (Assertive) Did he come here yesterday? (Interrogative)
Change the following sentences into negative :
1. She got a prize.
2. I wish I went there.
3. The cloth shrank.
4. Dinesh learned French.
5. He tore my shirt.
1. She did not get a prize.
2. I wish I did not go there.
3. The cloth did not shrink.
4. Dinesh did not learn French. 5. He did not tear my shirt.
Change the following sentences into interrogative :
1. She ate bananas.
2. His son copied the lesson.
3. The driver did not drive the car fast.
4. The ship sank into the water.
5. The girl did not wear glasses.
1. Did she eat bananas?
2. Did his son copy the lesson?
3. Did the driver not drive the car fast?
4. Did the ship sink into the water?
5. Did the girl not wear glasses?
2. Past Continuous Tense :
इस Tense on Singular subject और ‘I’ के साथ was तथा Plural subject और you के साथ were के बाद verb में ‘ing’ जोड़कर बनाते हैं जैसे-
He was reading.
They were playing.
Structure Subject + was/were + verb: + ing object + other words.
Rewrite the following sentences using correct form of the verb given in the brackets :
1. One of the ministers (lie).
2. She (cut) vegetables.
3. You (manage) the bank well.
4. Prices (increase) repidly.
5. Students (talk), while the teacher (teach) the lesson.
1. One of the ministers was lying.
2. She was cutting vegetables.
3. You were managing the bank well.
4. Prices were increasing rapidly.
5. Students were talking, while the teacher was teaching the lesson.
3. Past Perfect Tense-
इस Tense में had के साथ verb की Third Form का प्रयोग करते हैं जैसे-
I had done my work.
You had told me about it.
Structure-Subject + had + verb III + object.
Fill in the blanks with past perfect form of the verb given in brackets :
1. I ……. (take) bath before the sun rose.
2. The cloth …….. (shrink).
3. The boy …….. (tear) his shirt.
4. When the father reached, the son ……….. (pay) the fees.
5. The thief ran away after he ……….. (see) the police.
1. had taken,
2. had shrunk,
3. had torn,
4. had paid,
5. had seen.
4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense-
इस Tense में had been के साथ verb में ing जोड़ते हैं जैसे-
I had been reading for an hour.
She had been singing since evening.
Structure–had been + verb + ing + object.
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given in brackets :
1. I ………. (read) the Gita for 3 hours.
2. The teacher ………. (sit) here since evening.
3. He ……… (tell) lies since his birth.
4. Boys ……… (fly) kites for a month.
5. The king …….. (smell) the flower since morning.
1. had been reading,
2. had been sitting,
3. had been telling,
4. had been flying,
5. had been smelling.