MP Board Class 12th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 19 The Gita and Swadharma (Vinoba Bhave)
The Gita and Swadharma Textbook Exercises
A. Match the word in column ‘A’ with their meaning in column ‘B’
A – B
1. ambience – a. impossible to imagine or believe
2. resolve – b. to hate
3. nectar – c. find a satisfactory solution to a problem
4. inconceivable – d. that you cannot avoid or prevent
5. abhor – e. a tendency to a particular kind of behaviour
6. inevitable – f. false belief or opinion about yourself or your situation
7. ardour – g. to criticize
8. delusion – h. very strong feelings of enthusiasm or love
9. castigates – i. sweet liquid that is produced by flowers
10. propensity – j. the character and atmosphere of a place
1. (j), 2. (c), 3. (i), 4. (a), 5. (b), 6. (d), 7. (h), 8. (f). 9. (g), 10. (e).
B. Find antonyms of the following words from the lesson:
sweet, relish, win, ever,, plant, foolish.
- sweet — sinful
- relish — abhor
- win — rout
- ever — never
- plant remove
- foolish — authentic
C. Use the following phrases in sentences of your own:
willing to, with a firm resolve, accused of, flee away, all in vain.
- willing to — Mother Teresa was always willing to help the destitute.
- with a firm resolve — If you start a work with a firm resolve, you will definitely get success.
- accused of — The man was accused of theft.
- flee away — The police caught the man while he was trying to flee away the country.
- all In vain — I tried to convince my friend with several arguments but all in vain.
D. Give synonyms of the following wards:
view fear, mediate, examine, dispel.
- view — opinion
- fear — terror, alarm
- mediate — negotiate
- examine — review, analyse
- dispel disperse
A. Answer the following questions in one sentence:
What does Vinoba Bhave say about his heart and mind?
Vinoba Bhave says that Gita and he transcends reason and there is little place for logic in a relationship of loving tenderness.
Where does he soar high and how?
He soars high in the vast expanse of the Gita on the twin wings of faith and experimentation.
What does Vinoba Bhave compare the Gita with?
Vinoba Bhave compares the Gita with the ocean of nectar.
Where has the Gita been set?
The Gita has been set in the middle of great epic Mahabharata.
What does It look like?
It looks like a lighthouse which illuminates the whole of the epic.
B. Answer the following questions in about 40-60 words each:
In the opinion of many people what was the purpose of preaching the Cita?
In the opinion of many people the purpose of preaching the Cita was to restore Arjuna’s manliness and persuade him to fight. In their view the Gita preaches not only Karmayoga (the philosophy of action) but also Yudhayoga (the philosophy of war).
What, In the opinion of Vinoba, is inconceivable?
In the opinion of Vinoba, it is inconceivable to doubt Arjuna’s manliness and valour. The army is not braver than him. It is not out of fear that he is turning away from the battle. He is a great warrior and valour is in every drop of his blood.
Whom had Arjuna single-handedly routed and when?
Arjuna was a great warrior. He had fought hundreds of battles. He had single-handedly routed Bhishma, Drona and Karna when they had invaded Virat’s Kingdom.
Why had war become inevitable?
The war had become inevitable because every attempt to avoid war had failed. The Pandavas had pitched their claims at the minimum. Still the Kauravas didn’t agree. Even Krishna himself had tried to mediate in order to bury the chance of war. But all the attempts proved in vain.
Why did Arjuna ask Krishna to place his chariot between the two armie.?
Arjuna had come to the battlefield to fight war. Krishna was his charioteer. But before starting the war, he asked Krishna to place his chariot between the two armies because he wanted to have a look at the people who had assembled there to fight with him.
What did he see then?
When Krishna placed his chariot between the two armies Arjuna looked around and saw his kith and kin, near and dear ones arrayed on both the sides. He found four generations of his own people intent on fighting to the finish.
What made Arjuna lose his nerve? (M.P. Board 2016)
Arjuna saw his kith and kin., near and dear ones arrayed on both the sides in the battlefield. This made him lose his nerve. He found it difficult to fight with his own people.
What Lord Krishna realize?
Aquna felt attached with his kinsmen This attachment to the kith and kin clouded his sense of duty He began to curse war. Krishna realized that Arjuna was not voicing his own authentic conviction, his words were seemingly wise, but not really so.
What does the Gita nowhere deal with and why?
The Gita nowhere deals with the opinion that Arjuna had really become a votary of non violence. Had he really become so, he would not have been satisfied until his arguments has been convincingly answered.
What is the purpose of the Gita?
The purpose of the Gita is to remove the delusion that stands between us and our swadharma. Arjuna was confused about his dharma. He was gripped by a delusion about his swadharma. When Krishna criticizes him, he himself admits it. The Gita’s main task is to remove that delusion, that attachment which clouds the act of duty.
C. Answer the following questions tn about 75 words each:
What is the second common opinion about the Gita, which, according to Vinoba Bhave, is not right?
The second common opinion is that the Gita is meant to make Aijuna willing to fight by removing his inclination towards non-violence. But Vinoba Bhave rejects this opinion by giving appropriate example. If Arjuna had really become a worshipper of non-violence. he would not have come to the battlefield. But the fact was that he had come to the battlefield with a firm resolve and a sense of duty. He was a kshatriya and fighting was in his blood. He had slain innumerable warriors in many a battle. War was for him his natural and inescapable duty. But he was trying to evade it under the spell of delusion, i. e. attachment to his kinsmen.
What clouded his sense of duty and made him philosophise?
Arjuna had come to the battlefield with a firm resolve and a sense of duty. He was a true fighting was in his blood. But when he looked around the battlefield, he found his kith and kin, near and dear ones arrayed on both the sides. It was not that Arjuna had no idea of what he was going to see. But the actual sight shook him from within the heart. He felt attached to his close friends and relatives. As in front of him were his own kith and kin, it stopped him. Had there been somebody else, he would have never stoped but behedded them. Seeing his family made him philosophise and clouded his sense of duty.
What specious argument did Arjuna put before Lord Krishna?
It was the attachment to his kith and kin, loved ones that blurred his sense of duty. He suddenly began to evade war under the spell of delusion i.e. attachment to his friends and relatives. He philosophised so that war might not occur. He put before Krishna the specious argument that war in itself was sinful and that it would destroy the clan, eclipse dharma and bring total destruction.
What proved that Arjuna had not become a votary of non-violence?
Arjuna had not really become a votary of non-violence. The intrinsic tendency to fight was still very much a part of his nature. War for him was his natural and inescapable duty. He had slain innumerable warriors in many a battle. But he was trying to evade war under the spell of delusion i.e. attachment to his close friends and relatives.
D. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each.
What story of a judge does Vinoba Bhave narrate, and why?
Vinoba Bhave narrates the story of a judge. He had awarded death sentence to hundreds of criminals. But one day his own son accused of murder, was produced before him. The guilt was proved and the time came for the judge to pronounce the sentence. But then he hesitated and started arguing that the death sentence is inhuman. It is not good to inflict such a punishment. It destroys all hopes of reforming the guilty. One commits murder in a fit of passion. The moment of blood thirsty madness then passes off. Still we take him to the gallows and hang him to death.
It is really a blot on humanity. But had his son not been there the judge would have gone sentencing people to death. This makes it clear that the judge’s arguments were born out of attachment to his son. Vinoba Bhave narrates the above story because he finds Arjuna’s condition like that of the judge. Arjuna tried to evade .war because he didn’t want to fight with his own people! Had these in front of him not been his kinsmen he would certainly have felt no qualms in severing their heads and merrily tossing them around. The arguments that he put before Krishna looked inner conviction, like that of the judge. They were all born out of attachment to his own people.
What does Vyasa say at the beginning of the Mahabharata, and does the Gita succeed in achieving that purpose?
Vyasa, at the beginning of the Mahabharata says that he is lighting this lamp of history to dispel delusions from the minds of the people. The Gita succeeds in achieving its purpose which centres around the removal of delusion that stands between us and our swadharma. Arjuna was confused about his dharma.
He was gripped by a delusion about his swadharma. When Krishna criticizes him severely, he himself admits it. The main task of the Gita is to remove that delusion i.e. Arjuna’s attachment to his kith and kin. When Lord Krishna asked Arjuna at the end of the Gita if his delusion had gone then, Arjuna replied in affirmative. He said that the delusion had fled away, and he had realized what his swadharma was.
A. Look at the structure of this sentence from the first paragraph of the lesson:
I am as if were afloat on the surface of this ocean of nectar when I am talking about the Gita and when alone, I dive deep into this ocean and rest there. There are six clauses in the above sentence:
- I am —main clause.
- As if were afloat on the surface of this ocean of nectar — subordinate adverbial clause, denoting manner.
- When I am talking about the Gita — subordinate adverbial clause, denoting time.
- And when alone — subordinate adverbial clause, denoting time.
- I dive deep into this ocean — co-ordinate clause.
- And rest there — co-ordinate clause.
The above sentence is a mixed sentence, comprising three sub-ordinate clauses and two co-ordinate clauses. There are many such sentences in the lesson. Analyse and classify their structure by citing them. For additional help, refer to the workbook.
B. Study the structure of below-mentioned sentences from the lesson:
Rewrite the sentences given below, using passive construction:
1. Somebody cleans the room every day.
2. They cancelled all the flights because of fog.
3. People don’t use this road very often.
4. Somebody accused me of stealing money.
5. How do people learn language?
6. People advised us not to go out alone.
7. They don’t like strangers in this town.
8. They are serving tea to the guests.
9. Did anyone ask any questions about me?
10. They still deny equal rights to women.
- The room is cleaned everyday.
- All the flights were cancelled because of fog.
- This road is not used very often by people.
- I was accused of stealing money.
- How is language learnt by people?
- We were advised not to go out alone by people.
- Strangers are not liked in this town by them.
- Tea is being served by them to the guests.
- Were any questions asked about me?
- Equal rights to women are still denied by them.
C. There are sentences in the direct speech in the lesson. Convert them into indirect speech, referring to the workbook.
1. He asks Krishna with heroic ardour, “Place my chariot between the two armies, so that I can have a look at the people who have assembled here to fight with me.”
2. The Lord asked Arjuna at the end of the Gita, O Arjuna! Has your delusion gone now?
3. Arjuna replied, “Yes, Lord. The delusion has fled away. I have realized what my swadharma is”.
- He asks Krishna with heroic ardour to place his chariot between the two armies, so that he can have a look at the people who have assembled there to fight with him.
- The Lord asked Arjuna at the end of the Gita if his delusion had gone then.
- Arjuna affirms that the delusion had fled a way and he had realized what his swadharma was.
A. Arrange a discussion about Arjuna’s ‘delusion’.
B. Re-collect some incidents of your life in which ‘swardharma’ was in conflict with your wishes, and narrate to your class how you resolved it.
C. Divide the class into two groups. Debate the value of swardharma taught in modern educational system as against the ancient Gurukul system of education
A. Swadharma is following the call of duty, forsaking worldly attachment both material and personal. Arjuna followed it infighting the Mahabharata war. Vinoba followed it in fighting for the poor. Thinking over your role in the present political scenario, write a letter to your friend.
Prepare the letter with the help of the hints given below:
- All around corruption in society.
- It is ruining our life.
- Human values are diminishing.
- Everyone tends to lead a corrupt life.
- We are living behind a fractured society with immoral values.
- It must be stopped.
- I have decided to fight against it and lead a clean life.
- I have made a group of volunteers to mobilise people.
- We are working day and night.
- The system is changing.
- There is a hope for betterment.
B. There are several such instances as that of the vacillating judge, narrated by the author himself. Such circumstances are there in every profession. Suppose you were a doctor. An ailing poor patient wants help from you. How would you react? Frame a dialogue, highlighting your support,
C. Expand the idea Contained in the saying. “Work is worship; duty is God,” in about 150 words.
Life is not a bed of roses. On the contrary, it is full of dangers and difficulties, trials and temptation, and man has to carry on a constant fight against them. Any slackness in this fight will upset the entire thing and bring about untold miseries. So, it is essential that man must work and work patiently and perseveringly. The Hindu philosophy of Karmayoga reiterates the same thing. One can attain one’s goal of life only through Karma or action.
That’s why It is said that work is worship and duty is God. We must concentrate on the work assigned to us. Our involvement in work brings satisfaction and happiness in our life. Even God also helps only those who give priority to their duty There are people who spend too much time in sitting before the idols of Gods and goddesses to seek his/her blessing. They never give much importance to their work or duty. Such people must be aware of the fact that even gods/goddesses cannot help them if they shirk their responsibilities. So, if we wish to make our life highly successful, we should work ceaselessly. Work is key to success.
Think it Over
A. Have you read or heard the mythological story of Satyawadi Harishchandra’ True to his calling, he didn’t spare even his wife in exacting the toll for cremating their dead son, Rohitashwa. There are many such instances in our past as well as present. How does it motivate and insprise you?
Such stories motivate us in various ways. We should be truthful and honest throughout our life. We should be tolerant and remain unaffected by the ups and downs of life.
B. ‘Talks on the Gita is to the Gita, what the Upanishads are to the Vedas. Such texts are called treaties. They elucidate the thoughts of the source texts. Look for the English rendering of saine of the oft-quoted verses (shiokas) of the Gita on the Internet and think over its meaning.
Things to Do
A. We have seen many famous people, such as Mahatma Gandhi, who made a mark in public life, inspired by the philosophy of the Gua. Make a list of such prominent people and prepare a biographical sketch.
A List of such prominent people is given below:
- Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
- Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
- Mother Teresa.
- Swami Vivekananda.
- Jay Prakash Narayan.
- A.P.J Abdul Kalam.
Note: Students are suggested to add names of many more personalities and read about their lives.
B. Vinoba Bhave pioneered ‘Bhoodan movement’ in India. He established his ashram at Pawnar in Wardha district of Maharashtra. Plan a visit to the ashram, and compile the valuable information about his life and times received during that visit.
The Gita and Swadharma by Vinoba Bhave Introduction
This is an excerpt from ‘Talk! on the Gita’ The author Vmoba Bhave explains the purpose for which the Gita was preached. According to him, the Gita seeks to remove the delusion that distracts us from our duty. He perceives Swadharma as action to ail the call of duty, forsaking worldly attachment.
The Gita and Swadharma Summary in English
The Gita has been set in the Mahabharata, a great epic of the time. Its message has been unfolded in the middle of the battlefield with seven divisions of the Pandava army on one side and eleven divisions of the Kaurava army on the other.
It was Lord Krishna who preached the Gita to make Arjuna ready to fight. Arjuna was a Kshatriya and fighting was in his blood. But first he had attempted to avoid war. Even Krishna himself tried to mediate but all in vain, making the war inevitable. And finally Arjuna had come to the battlefield to perform his duty, i.e. to fight war with the Kauravas. He had made Krishna his charioteer.
Many mighty kings had surrounded him. But before starting the fight he gives a look at the people who had gathered in the battlefield and finds his near and dear ones on both the sides. Now it becomes difficult for him to fight with his own relatives. His heart is filled with deep anguish. He feels dejected. Here arises a question. Would Arjuna have felt the same pangs of pain if those standing in front of him had not been his kinsmen? Certainly not.
It means that his attachment to his kith and kin prevents him from fighting. This attachment to the kith and kin clouds his sense of duty. He tells Krishna that one should not indulge in war. War is never good because it destroys the whole clan and brings total destruction.
Arjuna’s arguments are not baseless. But the point is that he is not voicing his own authentic conviction. His words are seemingly wise but not really so. Lord Krishna realises this and proceeds to dispel his delusion by ignoring all his (Arjuna’s) arguments. He knows very well that Arjuna is not the one who believes in non-violence. War is for him his natural and inescapable duty. But he is trying to evade it because he is under the spell of delusion. Once this delusion, is removed, he would be ready to fight with all energy.
Lord Krishna preaches the Gita to remove the delusion that stands between us and our swadharma. Arjuna is confused about his dharma.He is gripped by a delusion about his swadharma. Krishna criticizes him severely so that he may not ignore the call of duty. And at the end of the Gita Arjuna is totally disillusioned. He realizes what his swadharma is. Thus, the removal of delusion is the central message of this chapter.
The Gita and Swadharma Summary in Hindi
गीता का प्रारम्भ महाभारत, जो अपने समय का एक महान महाकाव्य है, में हुआ है। इसमें जो संदेश दिया गया है, उसका खुलासा युद्ध-भूमि के बीच में होता है जहाँ एक तरफ पांडव सेना की सात टुकड़ियाँ हैं और दूसरी ओर कौरव सेना की ग्यारह।
भगवान कृष्ण गीता का उपदेश अर्जुन को देते हैं ताकि वह युद्ध के लिए तैयार हो सके। अर्जुन क्षत्रिय था और युद्ध उसके खून में रचा-बसा था। फिर भी उसका प्रथम प्रयास था, युद्ध को टालना। यहाँ तक कृष्ण ने भी मध्यस्थता की किन्तु सब व्यर्थ साबित हुआ और बुद्ध अवश्यंभावी हो गया। और अंततः अर्जुन युद्धभूमि में आ धमका, अपना कर्त्तव्य निभाने अर्थात् कौरवों से युद्ध करने। उसने कृष्ण को अपना सारथी बनाया था। बहुत से शक्तिशाली राजा उसके इर्द-गिर्द थे। लेकिन युद्ध शुरू करने के पहले वह युद्ध-भूमि में एकत्रित सभी योद्धाओं पर एक नजर डालता है और दोनों तरफ अपने ही सगेसम्बन्धियों को पाता है। अब उसके लिए अपने ही लोगों से युद्ध करना मुश्किल लगने लगता है। उसका हृदय आहत हो जाता है। वह अत्यंत दुःखी हो जाता है।
यहाँ पर एक प्रश्न उठता है। क्या अर्जुन ऐसा ही दर्द तब भी महसूस करता जब उसके सामने खड़े लोग उसके सगे-संबंधी नहीं होते? निश्चित तौर पर नहीं। इसका मतलब यह है कि अपने सगे-संबंधियों के प्रति आसक्ति उसे युद्ध करने से रोकती है। अपने लोगों के प्रति इसी लगाव ने उसके कर्त्तव्य-बोध को धुंधला कर दिया है। वह कृष्ण से कहता है कि किसी को भी युद्ध नहीं करना चाहिए। युद्ध कभी अच्छा हो ही नहीं सकता क्योंकि यह अपने ही कुल का नाश कर देता है और सम्पूर्ण विनाश लाता है।
अर्जुन के तर्क आधारहीन नहीं हैं। लेकिन वह जो भी कह रहा है उसका संबंध उसके विश्वास से नहीं है। उसके शब्द ऊपर-ऊपर तो बुद्धिपरक प्रतीत हो रहे हैं लेकिन वास्तव में ऐसा नहीं है। भगवान कृष्ण इसे समझ जाते हैं और अर्जुन के सारे तर्को को नजरअंदाज करते हुए उसके भ्रम अर्थात् मिथ्या विश्वास को हटाने के लिए आगे बढ़ते हैं। उन्हें अच्छी तरह पता है कि अर्जुन वह कदापि नहीं है जो अहिंसा में विश्वास रखता है। युद्ध उसका स्वभाविक और अपरिहार्य कर्त्तव्य है। लेकिन वह इस कर्त्तव्य से मुख मोड़ने का प्रयास कर रहा है क्योंकि वह मिथ्या विश्वास के साये में है। एक बार उसका भ्रम दूर हो जाए तो वह पूरी ताकत से युद्ध करने को तैयार हो जाएगा।
भगवान कृष्ण इसी भ्रम को हटाने हेतु गीता का उपदेश देते हैं जो हमारे और हमारे स्वधर्म के बीच खड़ा है। अर्जुन अपने धर्म के बारे में दिग्भ्रमित है। वह अपने ही स्वधर्म के जाल में फंसा है। कृष्ण उसकी घोर निन्दा करते हैं ताकि वह कर्त्तव्य बोध से विचलित न हो। और गीता के अंत में अर्जुन का मोहभंग हो ही जाता है। उसे समझ में आ जाता है कि उसका स्वधर्म क्या है। इस प्रकार यह पाठ मिथ्या विश्वास को हटाने का संदेश देता है।
The Gita and Swadharma Word Meaning
The Gita and Swadharma Important Pronunciations
The Gita and Swadharma Passages for Comprehension
Read the following passages taken from the lesson and answer the questions that follow:
It was Arjuna who quailed; not the army. Was then the army braver than Arjuna? It is just inconceivable. It was not out of fear that Arjuna was shying away from the battle. The great warrior had fought hundreds of battles. He had single handedly routed Bhishma, Drona and Karna when they had invaded Virat’s kingdom. He was, in fact, known as one who knew no defeat; a man among men. Valour was in every drop of his blood.
(i) What is inconceivable? Why does the author say so?
(ii) Whom had Arjuna routed single-handedly? Why?
(iii) How was Arjuna known as?
(iv) Find a word from the passage which means the same as ‘frightened’.
(v) Find a word from the passage which means opposite to cowardice.
(i) Thinking army braver than Arjuna is ‘inconceivable’. The author says so because he is well aware of Arjuna’s bravery and manliness. Which he supports by giving examples.
(ii). Arjuna had single-handedly routed Bhishma, Drona and Kama because they had invaded Virat’s kingdom.
(iii) Arjuna was known as one who knew no defeat. He was a man among men. He was a brave warrior.
2. It is not that Aquna had no idea of what he was going to see. But the actual sight, as is always the case, had a devastating impact. Seeing his kinsmen on the battlefield, Arjuna lost his nerve and deep anguish assailed his heart. In the past he had slain innumerable warriors in many a battle, but he had never before felt so dejected, never had his bow Gandiva slipped from his hands, never had he trembled so, never had welled up in his eyes! Then, why was all this happening now? Was he coming to abhor violence like King Ashoka? (Page 147)
(ï) What was the actual sight that had devastating impact on Arjuna?
(ii) What was the past history of Arjuna?
(iii) Arjuna had never before felt so dejected. Why?
(iv) Why does the author compare Arjuna with King Ashoka?
(v) Pick out a word from the above passage which means the same as ‘hate’.
(i) Standing in the battlefield Aquna finds his kith and kin, near and dear ones arrayed on both the sides. This very sight had a devastating impact on him (Arjuna).
(ii) Arjuna’s past history is full of glaring examples of brave deeds. He had slain innumerable warriors in many a battle.
(iii) Arjuna had never before fought wars with his kith and kin. For the first time in his life he had come to the battlefield to fight with his kinsmen. It was therefore he was feeling dejected.
(iv) Like Ashoka, Arjuna too wished to turn away from violence. He displayed all the traits of Ashoka at that time. Therefore, the author makes such a comparison.
3. But attachment to the kith and kin clouded his sense of duty and then he started philosophising. When a man with a sense of duty is caught in delusion, he cannot face his lapse from duty He tries to justify it by citing lofty principles. The same thing happened with Arjuna. He now started putting before Krishna, to convince him, the specious argument that war in itself was sinful that it would destroy the clan, eclipse
dharma and lead to moral anarchy, scarcity and devastation and bring many other disasters on the society, (Page 148)
(i) What clouded Arjuna’s sense of duty?
(ii) Why did Arjuna start philosophising?
(iii) What argument did he put before Krishna about war?
(iv) Why did he display apathy to war?
(y) Pick out a word from the passage which means opposite ‘sufficiency’.
(i) Seeing his close relatives standing in the battlefield Arjuna felt attached to them. He wished to turn away from fighting war. This attachment to the kith and kin clouded his sense of duty
(ii) Arjuna started philosophising because he no more wanted to fight war with his kinsmen.
(iii) He put before Krishna the argument that war in itself was sinful that it would destroy the clan, eclipse dharma and lead to total devastation.