MP Board Class 11th English A Voyage Solutions Chapter 8 Of Studies (Francis Bacon)
Of Studies Textual Exercise
I. Differentiate between the following pairs of words and use them in sentences of your own:
- Disease – an illness – Mr. Sharma is suffering a chronical disease.
Decease – the death of a person – Every one remained shocked at the decease of Mr. Jain.
- Special – not ordinary or usual – There is something special about this place.
Especial – better than usual – It is a matter of especial importance.
- Deep – going or situated far down – The well is too deep to be measured.
Dip – a quick swim – Several sadlius took a holy dip in the river Ganga.
- Moral- concerned with principles of right and wrong behaviour – We should give due importance to our traditional moral values.
Mural – a painting on a wall – Mural paintings can be seen on the outside wall of the ancient buildings.
- Except- not including – .Everyone except Jatin has gone to see a movie.
Accept – say yes – I accept your advice.
- Beat – defeat – I beat my friend at chess.
Beet – a plant with a root used as a vegetable.- Raddish is one of vegetable with a beet.
- Excess – the exceeding of due limits – Excess of anything is bad.
Access – approach – I have an easy access to the Principal.
- Cease- come to an end – the factory had ceased making bicycles .
Seize – take possession of by force or legal right – He seized Mr. Sin as goods for payment of debt.
II. Use the following words as Noun and as Verbs in sentences of your own:
Delight, judge, experience, stone, study, breast, head.
- Delight (Noun) – The students jumped with delight when they saw their favourite teacher standing in the class.
Delight (verb) – The natural beauty of Shimla delighted.
- Judge (Noun) – The judge gave his judgement on the case. Judge (verb) – We should judge ourselves.
- Experience (Noun) – I have no experience in his field.
Experience (verb) – One can easily experience the problems of these days.
- Stone (Noun) – The wall is made of stone.
Stone (verb) – The unruly mob stoned the police.
- Study (Noun) – We should have good study skill.
Study (verb) – I study for 10 to 12 hours a day.
- Breast (Noun) – The lady put her baby to her breast.
Breast (verb) – As I breasted the ridge. I saw the valley.
- Head (Noun) – The king put the crown on his head.
Head (verb) – I headed for the door.
III. Use the following words as noun and as Adjectives in sentences of your own:
common, ready, grave, beat, special
- Common (noun) – I go for a walk on the common every morning.
Common (adjective) – Cancer has become a common disease nowadays.
- Ready (noun) – I had put my camera at ready.
Ready (adjective) – I like ready-made dresses.
- Grave (noun) – I put flowers at my grand father’s grave on his death anniversary.
Grave (adjective) – We have fallen into grave situation.
- Beat (noun) – You can hear loud beats on the drum.
Beat (adjective) – The Beating Retreat was marvellous.
- Special (noun) – There are daily specials in our menu to choose from.
Special (adjective) – Mr. Sharma is the special guest at the function
IV. Use the following phrases in sentences of your own: one by one, give forth, at large, call away, beat over, call up, bound in
- One by one – All the leaves fell from the tree one by one during autumn season.
- Give forth – He gave forth some money to his friend.
- At large – The criminals are still at large.
- Call away – I was called away from the meeting to take an urgent phone call.
- Beat over – Australia beat over the Indian cricket team.
- Call up – He called up the doctor.
- Bound in – The petitioner was bound in an agreement.
V. ‘Choose the word from the alternatives provided which does not mean the same as the main word:
(b) make out
(b) make out
I. Choose the correct alternative from the given options:
‘Which of the following is not the proper use of studies?
Which types of people condemn studies?
Which of the following is the proper use of studies?
(a) challenging the opinion of others
(b) take the written word as a Gospel truth.
(c) find the point for talking
(d) balancing conflicting opinions.
(d) balancing conflicting opinions.
Which types of books can be read through extract?
(a) excellent books
(b) books concerning culture
(c) books concerning important arguments
(d) less important books
(d) less important books
Which sort of books can make a person wise?
(a) books of poetry
(b) books of moral philosophy
(c) books of history
(d) books of natural philosophy
(c) books of history
Who is School men?
(a) teachers of the school
(b) student of the school
(c) administrator of the school
Which sort of exercise is suitable for the ailments of stomach?
II. Answer the following questions in one sentence each:
What are the three chief uses of studies?
The three chief uses of studies delight, ornamentation, and ability.
What is affectation concerning books?
Too much use of studies for ornamentation is affectation.
Which types of people admire books?
Simple men admire books.
Which sort of books can be studied through extracts made by others?
Meaner sorts of books can be studied through extracts made by others.
What makes a man ready?
Conference makes a man ready.
What is the use of moral philosophy?
The books of moral philosophy gives depth.
Which sport is proper for curing the diseases of lungs?
Shooting is proper for curing the diseases of lungs.
What should a person, whose mind wanders, read to cure him of their, wandering?
Such a person should study mathematics.
Why are schoolman called “hair splitters”?
Schoolman are called “hair splitters” because they often discuss very uncommon questions like why fire is hot and water is wet; how plants and animals grow.
What sort of people should study the schoolmen?
The persons whose wit is not apt to distinguish or find differences should study the schoolmen.
III. Answer the following questions in three-four sentences each:
Write about the rules Bacon advocates concerning the rules for study.
Bacon advocates some rules for study. He says not to read to contradict and confute nor to believe and take for granted nor to talk and discourse but to weigh and consider.
How can studies cure mental deficiencies?
Studies cure mental deficiencies. If a man’s wit is wandering, he should read mathematics. If his wit is not apt to distinguish and find differences, he should study the schoolmen. If he is more logical, he should study the lawyer’s cases. These are the proper cure for the mental possession.
Discuss the value of different types of studies?
While talking about the value of studies. Bacon says that they serve for delight, for ornament and for ability. They perfect nature and are perfected by experience. They give forth directions too much at large. They make a full man. Histories make men wise where as poets make them witty. The mathematics subtitle and natural philosophy gives depth and logic and rhetoric make them able to contend.
What does Bacon mean by, “studies pass into and influence manners”?
Bacon with their expression highlights the real character of studies. Studies become a talent and trait of a human being. They give perfection and depth. They change our behaviour and outlook.
IV. Answer the following question in a paragraph.
Write the summary of the essay ‘Of Studies in your own words.
See the summary in English.
V. This essay of Bacon is full of balanced sentences. Balance means equal distribution of weight. In the essays of Bacon we find two or more parts that are grammatically equivalent or coordinate – balanced against each other. Here is one such sentence:
“To spend too much, time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules is the humour of a scholar.”
Search two more examples of such balanced sentences from the essay.
- Crafty men condemn studies, simple men admire them and wise- men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation.
- Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
VII Bacon’s essays have been called aphoristic. An aphorism is a short witty remark, which contains a general truth or wise observation often in a clever way. Sometimes aphorisms rhyme, sometimes they have repeated words or phrases, and sometimes they have two parts that are of the same grammatical structure. Some examples are given here:
“Marry in haste: repent at leisure.” Scottish proverb “Better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” Chinese proverb
Search from the essay “Of Studies” two such aphoristic remarks.
- Some books are to be tasted; others to be swallowed.
- Histories make men wise, poets witty.
VIII. Here are given two statements. Locate the sentences in the essay, which mean the something as these sentences:
(a) It is mere laziness to spend too much time in studies. It is affectation to show off learning. It is only a scholar who is wholly guided by book learning.
(b) Read not to contradict, believe, nor find talk; but to consider.
The similar statements for the above sentences in the essay are
(a) To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation.
(b) Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find talk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.
(See Text book pages 56 – 57)
I. Complete the following sentences, being careful to choose the correct verb forms:
1. Raina will stay in London for three years if……….
2. She will work overtime if……….
3. She will another English Grammar book if………..
4. She will move to a better city if………..
5. She will buy another computer if……….
6. Raina would not get to her class if……….
7. You would not pass the examination if………..
8. You cannot get the right reply from the criminal if………..
9. You would not get any letters if……….
10. Raina would not make good friends if……….
11. Raina will invite Karan if……….
12. Raina will fail in English if……….
13. Raina will go back to America if……….
14. She would lose weight if……….
15 She would need more money than she gets if……….
- ………. she gets admission there.
- ………. she gets good wages.
- ………. it is not sufficient.
- …….. she gets a chance.
- ……… it does not work well.
- ……… she had got late.
- ……… you had not worked hard.
- ……… you inform the police.
- ……… there had been strike.
- ………. she had not behaved well. .
- ………. there is a function.
- ……… she does not get good coaching.
- ……… the weather does not suit her.
- ……… she took proper exercise.
- ………. her father came.
The present essay tells you much about the importance of books in life. Now, on the basis of your own experiences discuss your own views about the importance of books and how you should study these. Express your views in at least five sentences about any aspects’of reading books in the class.
I am very fond of reading books. They gave me delight. I get so much of knowledge. Books enrich our power of knowledge and give us confidence. They open our mind.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
Our ancestors had great difficulty in procuring books. Ours is now what to select. We must be careful, what we read. There are, indeed, books and books and there are books, which, as Lamb said, “are not books at all.” There are many books; to which one may apply, in the sarcastic sense, The ambiguous remark, which Lord Beacons field, made to an unfortunate author, “I will lose no time in reading your book.” Others are more than useless, and poison the mind with the suggestions of evil. Few people realize how much the happiness of life, and the formation of character, depends on a w’ise selection of books we read.
1. What was difficult for our ancestors to do?
2. What difficulty concerning books is felt by us today?
3. On what the happiness of life depends?
4. Give a suitable title to the above passage?
5. Give synonyms of the following words:
Procure, Sarcastic, Ambiguous
6. Give antonyms of the following words:
Difficulty, Useless, Evil
- Procuring books was difficult for our ancestors.
- Selection of books has become difficult for us today.
- Happiness of life depends on a wise selection of books we read.
- Value of books.
- get, witty, vague
- useful, good.
Think it Over
You have been reading and writing essays for a very long time. These can be written on any topic, though the length is usually not very much. Many essayists have written essays about the art of reading books. Try to make list of essays that deal with the art of reading books.
Things To Do
One such essay was written by Montaigne, which was translated from original French into English by john Florio. The title of the Essay is “Of Books.” Try to read the essay of Montaigne. Also read some other essays on this subject.
Of Studies Summary in English
It is an essay about the value of studies. Studies are meant for delight ornamentation and ability. Its real use is recognizable for delight in privateness and refining. It proves its value in discourse, in judgement and in business. Expert persons can execute and judge anything in particular while a general person can only counsel. The expertises only come out of the learned. It is sloth to spend too much time on studies. Its excess use also becomes odd and sticking to everything only through laws becomes ridiculous. Scholars make nature perfect and they themselves are perfected by experiences. Cunning people condemn studies while simple men praise them and wise men use them.
It is because wisdom is the super quality.Talking about reading Bacon says reading is not to create contradiction or confusion, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse but to weigh and consider. These are a lot books around us. But all of them are not useful. Some of them are just to taste, some to be swallowed, some to be chewed and digested. One can read some of them only in past, some in full but without curiosity, and some with attention and diligence. We can read some books only by its cover and reviews made by others. But those are not of much importance.
They are meaner sorts of books. While talking about reading the author says that it makes a man full, conference makes a man ready and writing makes a man perfect. In the same way histories make men wise, poets witty. Mathematics makes men subtitle and books on natural philosophy gives depth of moral value to men whereas the books of logic and rhetoric provide ability to contend. Studies pass into and influence our manners. The essayist further says that there is no defect or hurdle in a wit but there may be distortion in studies as we get diseases in body if we not take proper exercise.
As bowling is good for disease of stone and reins, shooting for lungs and breast, gentle walking for the stomach, riding for the head so the writer says that a man with wondering wit should study mathematics. It will twist his wit. If his wit is not apt to distinguish, he should study the School men because they often ask uncommon questions. But if one is very logical he should study the lawyer’s cases. It is therefore, the author concludes that every defect of the mind may have a special receipt.
Of Studies Summary in Hindi
प्रस्तुत पाठ अध्ययन के महत्व के विषय में एक निबंध है। अध्ययन आनंद, सौंदीकरण और योग्यता के लिए होता है। इसकी सही पहचान अकेले में आनंद और परिष्कार के समय में की जाती है। अध्ययन का महत्व वार्तालाप, न्याय और कारोबार में सिद्ध होता है। कुशल मनुष्य निर्णय लेता है और न्याय करता है जबकि एक सामान्य मनुष्य केवल विचार देता है। दक्षता केवल ज्ञानी लोगों में होती है। अध्ययन पर बहुत अधिक समय देना आलस्य है। इसका बहुत अधिक उपयोग भी मद्यापन है और किसी भी मामले में नियम से दृढ होना भी मजाक का विषय होता है। ज्ञानी लोग अपनी प्रकृति को परिपक्व बनाते हैं और वे स्वयं अनुभव से परिपक्व होते हैं। धूर्त लोग अध्ययन की आलोचना करते हैं जबकि सामान्य लोग इसकी प्रशंसा करते हैं और ज्ञानी लोग इसका उपयोग करते हैं।
ऐसा इसलिए कि ज्ञान सर्वोच्य गुण है। पढ़ाई के बारे में चर्चा करते हुए बेकन कहता है कि पढ़ाई विवाद या संशय (भ्रम) पैदा करने के लिए नहीं होती न ही जेसा है वैसा मानने के लिए न ही सिर्फ बातें करने के लिए बल्कि सही आकलन और विचार करने के लिए होती है। हमारे चारों ओर बहुत-सी किताबें हैं लेकिन उनमें से सभी उपयोगी नहीं है। उनमें से कुछ सिर्फ चखने के लिए है, कुछ निगलने के लिए है और कुछ चबाने और पचाने के लिए है। कोई व्यक्ति उनमें से कुछ का केवल एक अंश पड़ सकता है, कुछ को पूरा पढ़ सकता है लेकिन बिना किसी जिज्ञासा के और कुछ को पढ़ने के लिए एकाग्रता और मेहनत या लगन की जरूरत है। हम कुछ किताबों को केवल उनके आवरण या दूसरे लोगों द्वारा उसके बारे में की गई टिप्पणियों से पढ़ सकते हैं।
लेकिन वे किसी विशेष महत्व के नहीं है। वे घटिया या निम्न स्तर की पुस्तकें हैं। अध्ययन के बारे में बात करते हुए लेखक कहता है कि यह मनुष्य को पूर्ण बनाता है। वाद-विवाद मनुष्य को विचार में तत्पर बनाता है और लेखन मनुष्य को दक्ष बनाता है। इसी तरफ इतिहास मनुष्य को ज्ञानी बनाता हे, कवि उसे तार्किक बनाता है। गणित मनुष्य को ठोस बनाता है और सामान्य दर्शशास्त्र की पुस्तकें मनुष्य को नैतिक मूल्यों की गहराई देती है जबकि तर्कशास्त्र और कविता की पस्तकें उसे सहने की योग्यता देता है। अध्ययन हमारे अंदर प्रवेश करता है और हमारे व्यवहार को प्रभावित करता है।
निबंधकार आगे कहता है कि तर्क के रास्ते में कोई कमी या व्यवधान नहीं है। लेकिन अध्ययन में कोई मटकाव हो सकता है जैसे हमारे शरीर में कोई बीमारी हो जाती है यदि हम सही व्यायाम न करें तो। जैसे गेंदबाजी पत्थर आर रीढ़ की बीमारी के लिए अच्छा, व्यायाम है, निशानेबाजी फेफडे और सीने के लिए, टहलना पेट के लिए और घुडसवारी अच्छा व्यायाम है, वैसे ही लेखक कहता है कि जिस मनुष्य की बुद्धि चंचल है, उसके लिए गणित का अध्ययन लाभकारी है यह उसकी बुद्धि को उलझाए रखता है। यदि उसका तर्क किसी चीज के अंतर को पहचानने योग्य नहीं है तो उसे विद्यालय प्रबंधकों को अध्ययन करना चाहिए क्योंकि वे प्राय: असामान्य प्रश्न पूछते हैं। लेकिन अगर कोई बहुत अधिक तार्किक है तो उसे वकीलों के मुकदमों का अध्ययन करना चाहिए। इस प्रकार लेखक निष्कर्ष निकालता है तो मस्तिष्क के हर गड़बड़ी का एक विशेष लक्षण है।
Of Studies Word Meaning
Of Studies Comprehension
Read the following stanzas carefully and answer the questions that follow:
1. Crafty men condemn studies, simple men admire them, and wise men use them; for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them, and above them, won by observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to find falk and discourse; but to weigh and consider.
(i) What do crafty men do to studies?
(ii) Who admire studies?
(iii) What do the wise men do?
(iv) Why should we read?
(v) Give a word opposite in meaning to ‘admire’.
(i) Crafty men condemn studies.
(ii) Simple men admire studies.
(iii) The wise men use studies.
(iv) We should read to weigh and consider.
2. Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested; that is, some books are to be read only in parts; others to be read, but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them by others; but that would be only in the less important arguments, and the meaner sort of books, else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things.
(i) What type of books does Bacon fond?
(ii) Which type of books can be read by its cover or reviews?
(iii) What does Bacon mean by ‘diligence’ and ‘attention’ in the above lines?
(iv) What does Bacon mean by ‘meaner sorts of books’?
(i) Bacon finds that there are some books which can be tasted, some others which can be swallowed and some few can be chewed and digested.
(ii) Meaner sorts of books can be read by its cover or reviews.
(iii) By ‘diligence’ and ‘attention’ Bacon means concentration and labour that we need while reading some books.
(iv) By ‘meaner sort of books’ Bacon means the books with less important arguments.
3. Reading make the a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write little, he had need have a great memory; if he confer little, he had need have a present wit: and if he read little, he had need have much cunning, to seem to know, that he doth not.
(i) What makes a man full?
(ii) What does conference do to man?
(iii) How can a man be exact?
(iv) What does a man require if he writes little?
(v) Give a word from the passage which is similar in meaning to ‘crafty’.
(i) Reading makes a man full.
(ii) Conference makes a man ready.
(iii) A man can be exact by writing.
(iv) If a man writes little he requires a great memory.